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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810690/validation-of-the-dermal-exposure-model-in-ecetoc-tra
#1
Hans Marquart, Remy Franken, Henk Goede, Wouter Fransman, Jody Schinkel
The ECETOC TRA model (presently version 3.1) is often used to estimate worker inhalation and dermal exposure in regulatory risk assessment. The dermal model in ECETOC TRA has not yet been validated by comparison with independent measured exposure levels. This was the goal of the present study. Measured exposure levels and relevant contextual information were gathered via literature search, websites of relevant occupational health institutes and direct requests for data to industry. Exposure data were clustered in so-called exposure cases, which are sets of data from one data source that are expected to have the same values for input parameters in the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799530/scanning-electron-microscopy-study-of-hair-shaft-changes-related-to-hardness-of-water
#2
Lujain M Alahmmed, Ebtehal A Alibrahim, Abdullah F Alkhars, Mohammed N Almulhim, Sayed Ibrahim Ali, Feroze Kaliyadan
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Brittleness and breakage of hair is a common complaint in the geographical area of Saudi Arabia where we work. This area has a high level of hardness in normal tap water. We aimed to study and compare structural differences and relative deposition of calcium and magnesium salts on the hair shaft surface using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) between hair shaft samples from normal, healthy volunteers treated with hard and soft water. METHODS: Hair samples obtained from 20 healthy volunteers were divided into two groups...
August 9, 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783751/animal-related-factors-associated-with-moderate-to-severe-diarrhea-in-children-younger-than-five-years-in-western-kenya-a-matched-case-control-study
#3
Anne Conan, Ciara E O'Reilly, Eric Ogola, J Benjamin Ochieng, Anna J Blackstock, Richard Omore, Linus Ochieng, Fenny Moke, Michele B Parsons, Lihua Xiao, Dawn Roellig, Tamer H Farag, James P Nataro, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Eric D Mintz, Robert F Breiman, Sarah Cleaveland, Darryn L Knobel
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease remains among the leading causes of global mortality in children younger than 5 years. Exposure to domestic animals may be a risk factor for diarrheal disease. The objectives of this study were to identify animal-related exposures associated with cases of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in children in rural western Kenya, and to identify the major zoonotic enteric pathogens present in domestic animals residing in the homesteads of case and control children...
August 4, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780980/impact-of-the-hajj-on-pneumococcal-carriage-and-the-effect-of-various-pneumococcal-vaccines
#4
REVIEW
Sophie Edouard, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ziad A Memish, Saber Yezli, Philippe Gautret
BACKGROUND: The Islamic Hajj pilgrimage is the largest annual mass gathering in the world. The overcrowding of people promotes the acquisition, spread and transmission of respiratory pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is estimated that about 33% of pilgrims are at risk of invasive pneumococcal disease. METHODS: We conducted a methodological review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and meta-Analysis guidelines. The objective was to summarize the available data regarding the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage among Hajj pilgrims and about carriage acquisition and circulation of S...
August 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779880/investigation-of-a-nosocomial-outbreak-of%C3%A2-fungemia-caused-by-candida-pelliculosa-pichia-anomala-in-a-korean-tertiary-care-center
#5
Jiwon Jung, Young Sook Moon, Jung A Yoo, Ji-Hun Lim, Joseph Jeong, Jae-Bum Jun
BACKGROUND: Candida pelliculosa is a rare pathogen of fungemia. There have been a few nosocomial outbreaks of C. pelliculosa fungemia in nurseries and pediatric intensive care units (ICU), hematologic units, and surgical ICU. We describe an epidemiologic outbreak investigation, including case findings of C. pelliculosa fungemia in South Korea. METHODS: This outbreak investigation conducted in a 940-bed, tertiary referral center, Ulsan, South Korea and included active microbial surveillance and a case-control study...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776194/a-cross-sectional-study-among-polish-hunters-seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-e-and-the-analysis-of-factors-contributing-to-hev-infections
#6
Anna Baumann-Popczyk, Bartłomiej Popczyk, Elżbieta Gołąb, Wioletta Rożej-Bielicka, Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is known as zoonotic agent. The main reservoirs of HEV in Europe are pigs, wild boars, and deer. Hunting activity is considered to be a risk factor for HEV infection. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1021 Polish hunters. To understand socio-demographic characteristics of this population and to gather information on potential exposures, all participants completed a questionnaire. Commercial immunoassays were employed to estimate seroprevalence anti-HEV. Samples with confirmed positive result of anti-HEV IgM were examined for HEV RNA...
August 3, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771158/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-practice-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-people-in-arba-minch-town-southern-ethiopia
#7
Desta Haftu, Gebrekiros Gebremichael, Desalegn Ajema, Genet Gedamu, Eskezyiaw Agedew
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected people have substantially greater need for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Many opportunistic infections cause high morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV (PLHIV) than in immune competent populations. The objective of the study was to assess WASH practices and associated factors among PLHIV. A cross-sectional study design was conducted. Bivariate and multivariate logistic model was employed. According to this study, 97 (23.5%) of the households have unimproved water status, 221 (53...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768592/effect-of-hand-lotion-on-the-effectiveness-of-hygienic-hand-antisepsis-implications-for-practicing-hand-hygiene
#8
Helga Paula, Nils-Olaf Hübner, Ojan Assadian, Katja Bransmöller, Romy Baguhl, Harald Löffler, Axel Kramer
BACKGROUND: Skin protection products should be used after washing hands with soap, during breaks, after work, and during leisure time. Aside from their beneficial effects, skin care products may also interact with alcohol-based hand disinfectants by reducing their efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a hand lotion on the effectiveness of hygienic hand antisepsis using an alcohol-based handrub. METHODS: The effect of a protective hand lotion against an isopropyl alcohol-based handrub was investigated in 20 healthy volunteers according to the European standard test procedure EN 1500 in the following combinations: handwashing and application of hand lotion, only application of hand lotion, and no washing and no hand lotion (control), each for 5 minutes or 1 hour before hand antisepsis...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768518/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-infrastructure-and-quality-in-rural-healthcare-facilities-in-rwanda
#9
Alexandra Huttinger, Robert Dreibelbis, Felix Kayigamba, Fidel Ngabo, Leodomir Mfura, Brittney Merryweather, Amelie Cardon, Christine Moe
BACKGROUND: WHO and UNICEF have proposed an action plan to achieve universal water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) coverage in healthcare facilities (HCFs) by 2030. The WASH targets and indicators for HCFs include: an improved water source on the premises accessible to all users, basic sanitation facilities, a hand washing facility with soap and water at all sanitation facilities and patient care areas. To establish viable targets for WASH in HCFs, investigation beyond 'access' is needed to address the state of WASH infrastructure and service provision...
August 3, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764758/does-depression-moderate-handwashing-in-children
#10
Jurgita Slekiene, Hans-Joachim Mosler
BACKGROUND: Although diarrheal diseases are preventable and treatable, they are the leading cause of child mortality and morbidity as a consequence of poor hygiene and contaminated water. Handwashing with soap is an effective method for preventing and decreasing the incidence of diarrhea. However, mental disorders such as depression can substantially moderate an individual's ability to cope with daily life and can exert a negative influence on daily hygiene activities such as handwashing with soap, especially in children...
August 1, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759207/prolonged-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-from-single-dermal-contact-events
#11
Jiaying Liu, Jonathan W Martin
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor frequently detected in human biofluids. Dermal absorption of BPA from thermal paper receipts occurs but BPA pharmacokinetics following dermal exposure is not understood. To compare the pharmacokinetics of dermal and dietary BPA exposure, six male participants handled simulated receipts containing relevant levels of BPA (isotope-labeled BPA-d16) for 5 min, followed by hand-washing 2 hrs later. Urine (0-48 hrs) and serum (0-7.5 hrs) were monitored for free and total BPA-d16...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746262/effect-evaluation-of-a-randomized-trial-to-reduce-infectious-illness-and-illness-related-absenteeism-among-schoolchildren-the-hi-five-study
#12
Anne Maj Denbæk, Anette Andersen, Camilla Thørring Bonnesen, Bjarne Laursen, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Pernille Due, Anette Johansen
BACKGROUND: Previous school-based hand hygiene interventions have reported to successfully reduce infectious illness among schoolchildren. But few studies have tested the effect in large populations with adequate statistical power and analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a school-based multi-component intervention to improve hand washing among schoolchildren, the Hi Five study, succeeded in reducing infectious illness and illness-related absenteeism in schools. METHODS: The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 43 randomly selected Danish schools; two intervention arms involving 14 schools each, and 15 control schools...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742382/occurrence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-listeria-species-and-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cattle-slaughterhouses-of-kerala-south-india
#13
Tanuja K G M Gowda, Latha C, Sunil B, Inge Van Damme
A total of 765 samples were collected from beef carcasses, knives, cutting table surfaces, beef, hands, air, and water from four cattle slaughterhouses of Kerala, South India, to determine the occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria species and Staphylococcus aureus. Listeria spp. were isolated from beef carcasses (2.0%), knives (3.7%), cutting table surfaces (1.9%), beef (0.7%), and water (1.3%). The identified species were Listeria monocytogenes (0.1%), Listeria innocua (0.9%), and Listeria ivanovii (0...
July 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727890/surfactant-concentration-and-type-affects-the-removal-of-escherichia-coli-from-pig-skin-during-a-simulated-handwash
#14
Dane A Jensen, Michael A Rogers, Donald W Schaffner
The effect of surfactant type and concentration on a bland soap formulations ability to remove bacteria from hands remains largely unstudied. Several combinations of surfactants and water were combined to test bacterial removal efficacy using a handwashing device (two pieces of pig skin and a mechanical motor) to simulate a handwash. A nalidixic acid resistant, non-pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) was used. Two anionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium stearoyl lactylate, and two nonionic surfactants, poloxamer 407 and sorbitan monostearate, each in concentrations of 2%, 5%, and 10% were studied...
July 20, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722122/wet-work-exposure-and-hand-eczema-among-healthcare-workers-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
N Hamnerius, C Svedman, O Bergendorff, J Björk, M Bruze, A Pontén
BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is more common in healthcare workers compared to the general population. The hands are subject to changing occupational exposures due to mandatory hygiene regulations for health care workers. OBJECTIVES: To describe the exposure due to hygiene procedures and investigate the associations between occupational hand washing, use of non-sterile gloves, and hand disinfectant and self-reported hand eczema. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with an electronic questionnaire distributed to 28 762 hospital employees in southern Sweden...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719642/infections-with-schistosoma-mansoni-and-geohelminths-among-school-children-dwelling-along-the-shore-of-the-lake-hawassa-southern-ethiopia
#16
Bamlaku Tadege, Techalew Shimelis
BACKGROUND: Infections with Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminthes (STHs) are major public health problems in Ethiopia. However, information was scarce on the current status of these infections to guide an intervention in the study area. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the prevalence of infections with S. mansoni and STHs and associated factors among school children in southern Ethiopia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated children who were attending the Finchawa and Tullo junior elementary schools and were residing along the shore of the lake Hawassa in January and February, 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715656/the-prevalence-of-malnutrition-and-its-associated-risk-factors-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-ziway-dugda-district-arsi-zone-oromia-regional-state-ethiopia
#17
Abebe Ferede, Firaol Lemessa, Mesfin Tafa, Solomon Sisay
OBJECTIVES: Adequate nutrition is an important factor to determine the health and well-being of women, children and society as a whole. Although various nutritional policies were formulated and aimed at reducing malnutrition at the global level, the magnitude of malnutrition (body mass index [BMI] <18.5 kg/m(2)) among women remained between 10% and 40% in most low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to identify the associated risk factors among women of reproductive age...
July 14, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715297/cross-contamination-are-hospital-gloves-reservoirs-for-nosocomial-infections
#18
Vicki Moran, Rita Heuertz
Use of disposable nonsterile gloves in the hospital setting is second only to proper hand washing in reducing contamination during patient contact. Because proper handwashing is not consistently practiced, added emphasis on glove use is warranted. There is a growing body of evidence that glove boxes and dispensers available to healthcare workers are contaminated by daily exposure to environmental organisms. This finding, in conjunction with new and emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria, poses a threat to patients and healthcare workers alike...
July 17, 2017: Hospital Topics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712156/-unfit-for-human-consumption-a-study-of-the-contamination-of-formula-milk-fed-to-young-children-in-east-java-indonesia
#19
Sarah Gibson, Daniel Sahanggamu, Dewi Fatmaningrum, Val Curtis, Sian White
OBJECTIVES: To examine levels of bacterial contamination in formula feeding bottles in Sidoarjo, East Java, and to assess the preparation practices that may have been responsible. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 92 randomly selected households with children under the age of two who were bottle-fed formula. In each household, we carried out video observation of mothers/caregivers preparing bottles, and examined samples of formula for coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E...
July 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705260/identifying-behavioural-determinants-for-interventions-to-increase-handwashing-practices-among-primary-school-children-in-rural-burundi-and-urban-zimbabwe
#20
Elisabeth Seimetz, Jurgita Slekiene, Max N D Friedrich, Hans-Joachim Mosler
BACKGROUND: This article presents the development of a school handwashing programme in two different sub-Saharan countries that applies the RANAS (risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation) systematic approach to behaviour change. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 669 children enrolled in 20 primary schools in Burundi and 524 children in 20 primary schools in Zimbabwe. Regression analyses were used to assess the influence of the RANAS behavioural determinants on reported handwashing frequencies...
July 14, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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