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Hand washing

Aniko Krumbholz, Martin Schönfelder, Hande Hofmann, Detlef Thieme
BACKGROUND: The endogenous glucocorticosteroid cortisol (F) and its metabolite cortisone (E) are known to be involved in stress adaption and anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects. The ratios of F to E in the matrices serum, hair and saliva are different. The shift of this ratio by the enzyme activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, which inactivates cortisol, was often discussed. The aim of our study was to calculate the contribution of the plasma protein binding (PPB) to this shift...
February 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Jennyfer Wolf, Paul R Hunter, Matthew C Freeman, Oliver Cumming, Thomas Clasen, Jamie Bartram, Julian P T Higgins, Richard Johnston, Kate Medlicott, Sophie Boisson, Annette Prüss-Ustün
OBJECTIVES: Safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene are protective against diarrhoeal disease; a leading cause of child mortality. The main objective was an updated assessment of the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) on childhood diarrhoeal disease. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of articles published between 1970 and February 2016. Study results were combined and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. RESULTS: A total of 135 studies met the inclusion criteria...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Guo Yan-Li, Zou Yong-Gen, Xie Yi-Qing, Chen Hong, He Ming-Zhen, Lü Lai-Fu, Huang Li-Zhong, Jin Xiao-Lin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of major parasitic diseases and related knowledge, attitude and practice among rural residents in Liyang City, so as to provide the evidence for formulating appropriate preventive strategies and measures. METHODS: Three villages were selected from three towns as survey sites, and the residents who were above three years old and had been in the village for over six months were investigated. The Kato-Katz technique was applied to detect intestinal parasite eggs in residents' feces, and the cellophane anal swab was used to detect Enterobius vermicularis eggs among children aged 3-6 years...
September 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Mitsuo Uchida, Minoru Kaneko, Yoshihiko Hidaka, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Takayuki Honda, Shouhei Takeuchi, Masaya Saito, Shigeyuki Kawa
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus transmission may be prevented by infection control measures, including vaccination, wearing a mask, gargling with water, and hand washing. It is unclear, however, whether these measures affect influenza epidemics in school settings. METHODS: A prospective epidemiological survey in all public elementary schools in Matsumoto City, Japan, during the 2014/2015 season evaluated the number of diagnosed patients in each school and calculated the reproduction number of schoolchildren...
March 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Heran Li, Haiting Li, Chen Wei, Jia Ke, Jing Li, Lu Xu, Hongzhuo Liu, Yangyang, Sanming Li, Mingshi Yang
In this study, spherical shaped chiral mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMS) was biomimetic synthesized using histidine derivatives (C16 -L-histidine) as template via the sol-gel reaction and employed as poorly water-soluble drug nimodipine (NMP) carrier. Characteristics of CMS and its application as drug carrier were intensively investigated and compared with MCM41. Then NMP was respectively loaded into CMS and MCM41 with the drug: carrier weight ratio of 2:1. Structural features of NMP before and after drug loading were systemically characterized...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Chang He, Karin English, Christine Baduel, Phong Thai, Paul Jagals, Robert S Ware, Yan Li, Xianyu Wang, Peter D Sly, Jochen F Mueller
In recent years, the production and usage volumes of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) has increased substantially. Certain OPFRs are suspected reproductive toxins, carcinogenic, and neurotoxic. Insufficient information is available on human exposure pathways to these chemicals, particularly in Australia. We aim to assess the association between OPFR concentrations in the urine of children to environmental and behavioural risk factors. Concentrations of eight OPFRs and eleven metabolites were measured in the urine of 51 children, aged 3-29 months, in Southeast Queensland, Australia and compared to their behavioural and environmental risk factor data obtained by an online questionnaire...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Research
Susan Jain, Kate Clezy, Mary-Louise McLaws
BACKGROUND: Routine hand hygiene effectively removes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) from the ungloved hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) who are caring for patients under contact precautions, when exposure to bodily fluids is not expected. METHODS: HCWs' ungloved hands were cultured after hand hygiene with alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) or soap-and-water wash after routine clinical care of patients known to be colonized or infected with MRSA or VRE...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Maria Del Carmen Terrones-Saldivar, Jesus Hernandez-Tinoco, Maria Daniela Enriqueta Munoz-Terrones, Roberto Oswaldo Gallegos-Gonzalez, Luis Francisco Sanchez-Anguiano, Martha Elena Reyes-Robles, Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido
Background: Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy may lead to congenital disease. Very little is known about the seroepidemiology of CMV infection in pregnant women in Mexico. We sought to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of CMV infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Methods: Through a cross-sectional study design, 289 pregnant women were examined for anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Tanja K Carøe, Niels E Ebbehøj, Jens P E Bonde, Esben M Flachs, Tove Agner
BACKGROUND: Wet work is an important risk factor for occupational hand eczema. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of job change in workers with occupational hand eczema caused by wet work, and to evaluate the dose-response relationship between intensity of wet work and eczema. METHOD: The study is based on a subgroup (n = 954) from a descriptive, registry-based study including all participants with occupational hand eczema caused by wet work recognized by the Danish Labour Market Insurance Authority in 2010 and 2011...
March 6, 2018: Contact Dermatitis
Seung-Han Shin, Yong-Suk Lee, Jin-Woo Kang, Wonwoo Kang, Yang-Guk Chung
Pins exposed out of the skin after surgery for mallet fractures keep patients from washing their hands. The authors buried the tips of all pins under the skin while performing extension block pinning for 14 patients with mallet fractures. The patients were allowed to wash their hands 4 to 5 days postoperatively, without any dressing or splinting. The pins were removed at a mean of 8 weeks postoperatively. Solid union was achieved in all 14 fractures. No pull-out or subsidence of the pin was observed. No patient developed infection or other pin-related complications...
March 1, 2018: Orthopedics
Taklu Marama, Hinsermu Bayu, Mulualem Merga, Wakgari Binu
Background: To improve the quality of services, satisfying patients is the primary goal of the Ethiopian reform programme. Objectives: To assess patient satisfaction and associated factors among clients admitted to obstetrics and gynecology wards of public hospitals in Mekelle town. Method : Institution-based cross-sectional study design was conducted on 413 participants using systematic sampling methods. Data were collected from March 9 to May 8, 2016, using structured questionnaires...
2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Orianne Dumas, Raphäelle Varraso, Krislyn M Boggs, Alexis Descatha, Paul K Henneberger, Catherine Quinot, Frank E Speizer, Jan-Paul Zock, Nicole Le Moual, Carlos A Camargo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between occupational exposure to disinfectants/antiseptics used for hand hygiene and asthma control in nurses. METHODS: In 2014, we invited female nurses with asthma drawn from the Nurses' Health Study II to complete two supplemental questionnaires on their occupation and asthma (cross-sectional study, response rate: 80%). Among 4055 nurses (mean age: 59 years) with physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use in the past year, we examined asthma control, as defined by the Asthma Control Test (ACT)...
February 23, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Sarah D Bennett, Sara A Lowther, Felix Chingoli, Benson Chilima, Storn Kabuluzi, Tracy L Ayers, Thomas A Warne, Eric Mintz
On May 2, 2009 an outbreak of typhoid fever began in rural villages along the Malawi-Mozambique border resulting in 748 illnesses and 44 deaths by September 2010. Despite numerous interventions, including distribution of WaterGuard (WG) for in-home water treatment and education on its use, cases of typhoid fever continued. To inform response activities during the ongoing Typhoid outbreak information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding typhoid fever, safe water, and hygiene were necessary to plan future outbreak interventions...
2018: PloS One
Amy M Lando, Michael C Bazaco, Yi Chen
Smartphones, tablets, and other personal electronic devices have become ubiquitous in Americans' daily lives. These devices are used by people throughout the day, including while preparing food. For example, a device may be used to look at recipes and therefore be touched multiple times during food preparation. Previous research has indicated that cell phones can harbor bacteria, including opportunistic human pathogens such as Staphylococcus and Klebsiella spp. This investigation was conducted with data from the 2016 Food Safety Survey (FSS) and from subsequent focus groups to determine the frequency with which consumers use personal electronic devices in the kitchen while preparing food, the types of devices used, and hand washing behaviors after handling these devices...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
B Zack, V Arrandale, D L Holness
Background: Contact dermatitis is a common and preventable work-related disease. Skin-specific training may be effective for preventing occupational contact dermatitis, but little information is available regarding actual workplace training and its effectiveness. Aims: To describe workplace skin-specific training among workers with suspected contact dermatitis. Methods: Patch test patients being assessed for suspected contact dermatitis at an occupational health clinic in Toronto, Canada, completed a questionnaire on training experiences, workplace characteristics, exposures and skin protection practices...
February 17, 2018: Occupational Medicine
A J Delgado, S P Amaya-Pajares, Y Su, L Behar-Horenstein, T E Donovan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the gelation and polymerization time of three polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) putty materials and to determine if those times were affected by nitrile gloves under different conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten specimens (n=10) were obtained for each PVS putty material (Express STD, 3M ESPE; Extrude Xtra, Kerr and Exafast, GC) and tested under different conditions (gloves washed, gloves unwashed and hands contaminated)...
February 20, 2018: Community Dental Health
Wu Ya, Song Ren-Hao
OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and its risk factors among healthy blood donation population in Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, so as to provide the evidence for developing effective prevention and control measures. METHODS: A total of 1 630 cases of blood donors in Shijiazhuang City were chosen as respondents, and all the respondents were qualified to the standard of blood donation. The antibodies to T. gondii were detected by using ELISA...
March 2, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Zhou Qi, Liu Ya-Peng, Li Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of foodborne parasitic diseases among middle school students in Xuzhou City, so as to provide a reference to the health education. METHODS: A total of four middle schools were selected and their students were investigated with the basic information questionnaire and questions of foodborne parasitic diseases. RESULTS: The awareness rates of parasitic diseases, hazards and transmission were 56...
December 26, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Lucas Gosdin, Reynaldo Martorell, Rosario M Bartolini, Rukshan Mehta, Sridhar Srikantiah, Melissa F Young
Anaemia and stunting are prevalent nutritional problems among children of low-income countries that have profound effects on development, morbidity, and mortality. Many use a single conceptual framework to identify the basic determinants of these and other forms of malnutrition. One would expect that problems with matching underlying determinants should co-occur in affected individuals to a greater degree than by chance. In 2 populations of children-ages 6-18 months in Bihar, India, (n = 5,664) and 6-36 months in Lambayeque, Peru (n = 688)-we measured the frequency of the co-occurrence of anaemia and stunting...
February 22, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
S U Arinze-Onyia, A C Ndu, E N Aguwa, I Modebe, U N Nwamoh
Background: Standard precautions (SPs) are crucial in protecting both health-care workers (HCWs) and patients from nosocomial infections. This study assessed the knowledge and practices of SP among HCWs in tertiary health-care facilities. Methods: This descriptive study was done in October 2014 among 629 HCWs at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu State. A pretested questionnaire was used and analysis done using SPSS version 13. Results: The HCWs studied were 629, mostly females (64...
February 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
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