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Hand washing

Kelly R Moran, Sara Y Del Valle
Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions...
2016: PloS One
Seung-Hyun Yoon, Doo-Hyung Lee, Myung-Chul Jung, Young Uk Park, Seong-Yeon Lim
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of rotator cuff (RC) muscles during activities of daily living. DESIGN: Motion analysis was conducted with 14 volunteers. Activation of RC (subscapularis, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus) was assessed using electromyography (EMG). Walking was performed with or without a shoulder immobilizer. Eating was conducted with or without the support of the elbow with the contralateral hand. Washing the hair was simulated while standing or leaning forward; washing the body was simulated while standing or holding the elbow; and washing the face was simulated using both hands while leaning forward...
November 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Airek R Mathews, Shane S Que Hee
The aim was to develop a whole glove permeation method for cyclohexanol to generate permeation parameter data for a non-moving dextrous robot hand (normalized breakthrough time tb, standardized breakthrough time ts, steady state permeation rate Ps, and diffusion coefficient D). Four types of disposable powderless, unsupported and unlined nitrile gloves from the same producer were investigated: Safeskin Blue, and Kimtech Science Blue, Purple, and Sterling. The whole glove method developed involved a peristaltic pump for water circulation through chemically resistant Viton tubing to continually wash the inner surface of the test glove via holes in the tubing, a dextrous robot hand operated by a microprocessor, a chemically protective nitrile glove to protect the robot hand, an incubator to maintain 35°C temperature, and a hot plate to maintain 35°C at the sampling point of the circulating water...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Puja Dudeja, Apoorva Sindhu, Pooja Shankar, Tukaram Gadekar
INTRODUCTION: Reproductive health of adolescent girls is crucial as it determines the health of future generations. School girls when experiencing menarche find themselves in a setting without water, toilets or a supportive female teacher to explain the changes happening in their body. An important concern for adolescent girls is to have adequate, correct knowledge along with facilities and the cultural environment to manage menstruation hygienically and with dignity. Hence, the present study was done to assess knowledge and practices about menstruation in adolescent school girls of an urban slum...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Yi-Ru Lai, Pei-Yu Lin, Chao-Ying Chen, Chien-Jui Huang
Dithiocarbamate fungicides such as maneb and mancozeb are widely used nonsystemic protectant fungicides to control various plant fungal diseases. Dithiocarbamate fungicides should be frequently applied to achieve optimal efficacy of disease control and avoid either decline in effectiveness or wash-off from leaf surface. Dithiocarbamates are of low resistance risk but have the potential to cause human neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a strategy to effectively control plant disease with reduced use of dithiocarbamtes...
October 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Giuseppe Battistella, Giuliana Berto, Stefania Bazzo
OBJECTIVES: To explore perceptions and unconscious psychological processes underlying handwashing behaviours of intensive care nurses, to implement organisational innovations for improving hand hygiene in clinical practice. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: An action-research intervention was performed in 2012 and 2013 in the intensive care unit of a public hospital in Italy, consisting of: structured interviews, semantic analysis, development and validation of a questionnaire, team discussion, project design and implementation...
October 5, 2016: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Debra Singh, Joel Negin, Christopher Garimoi Orach, Robert Cumming
BACKGROUND: Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) can be effective in improving pregnancy and newborn outcomes through community education. Inadequate supervision of CHVs, whether due to poor planning, irregular visits, or ineffective supervisory methods, is, however, recognized as a weakness in many programs. There has been little research on best practice supervisory or accompaniment models. METHODS: From March 2014 to February 2015 a proof of concept study was conducted to compare training alone versus training and supportive supervision by paid CHWs (n = 4) on the effectiveness of CHVs (n = 82) to deliver education about pregnancy, newborn care, family planning and hygiene...
October 3, 2016: Reproductive Health
Ana Lúcia de Medeiros, Sérgio Ribeiro Dos Santos, Rômulo Wanderley de Lima Cabral, Juliana Paiva Góes Silva, Neyce de Matos Nascimento
Objective: To evaluate the use of nursing diagnoses and interventions proposed for women in labour and high-risk pregnancies. Method: This is a descriptive, retrospective study with documentary analysis of 1000 medical records and a checklist conducted from July to September 2014, at a maternity hospital in Paraiba, Brazil. It consisted of analysing descriptive measures and comparing the relationship between nursing diagnoses and interventions using NANDA - International and the Nursing Interventions Classification...
September 29, 2016: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Manuel António Campos, Ana Cristina Sousa, Paulo Varela, Armando Baptista
Introduction: It is well known that adequate hygiene is important for health. Even though this topic has drawn the attention of the media, little or no scientific investigation has been done. Methods: We performed a comparative questionnaire-based cross-sectional study in three groups: patients attending a dermatology outpatient clinic, patients attending an internal medicine consultation, and community members. Results: We analyzed a total of 446 questionnaires (249 from dermatology patients, 98 from internal medicine patients, and 99 from the community group)...
September 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
Marie von Lilienfeld-Toal, Annemarie Berger, Maximilian Christopeit, Marcus Hentrich, Claus Peter Heussel, Jana Kalkreuth, Michael Klein, Matthias Kochanek, Olaf Penack, Elke Hauf, Christina Rieger, Gerda Silling, Maria Vehreschild, Thomas Weber, Hans-Heinrich Wolf, Nicola Lehners, Enrico Schalk, Karin Mayer
BACKGROUND: Community acquired viruses (CRVs) may cause severe disease in cancer patients. Thus, efforts should be made to diagnose CRV rapidly and manage CRV infections accordingly. METHODS: A panel of 18 clinicians from the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society for Haematology and Medical Oncology have convened to assess the available literature and provide recommendations on the management of CRV infections including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus and adenovirus...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Eilif Dahl
A previously healthy 65-year-old female passenger presented on the 3rd day of her voyage with a small facial laceration after she fell and hit her forehead, following sudden blurred vision and dizziness. When the ship's doctor noticed that one pupil was much bigger than the other, he feared intracranial bleeding and considered helicopter evacuation. Her symptoms had started shortly after she had removed a transdermal scopolamine patch from behind her ear. Getting scopolamine from her hands in direct contact with the eye surface caused mydriasis...
2016: International Maritime Health
Petrona Lee, Craig W Hedberg
Restaurants are important settings for foodborne disease outbreaks and consumers are increasingly using restaurant inspection results to guide decisions about where to eat. Although public posting of inspection results may lead to improved sanitary practices in the restaurant, the relationship between inspection results and risk of foodborne illness appears to be pathogen specific. To further examine the relationship between inspection results and the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks, we evaluated results of routine inspections conducted in multiple restaurants in a chain (Chain A) that was associated with a large Salmonella outbreak in Illinois...
October 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Max N D Friedrich, Timothy R Julian, Andreas Kappler, Tamuka Nhiwatiwa, Hans-Joachim Mosler
BACKGROUND: Consistent domestic hand hygiene can reduce diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality and the spread of other communicable diseases. However, it remains uncertain which technique of handwashing is most effective and practicable during everyday life. The goal of this study is to determine how the handwashing technique, as performed in the daily life by the participants of this case study in Harare, Zimbabwe, influences microbial handwashing effectiveness. METHODS: Handwashing technique of 173 primary caregivers was observed in their homes and hand rinse samples were collected before and after handwashing...
September 23, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
G Kampf
Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is an antimicrobial agent used for different types of applications in hand hygiene, skin antisepsis, oral care, and patient washing. Increasing use raises concern regarding development of acquired bacterial resistance. Published data from clinical isolates with CHG minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reviewed and compared to epidemiological cut-off values to determine resistance. CHG resistance is rarely found in Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Lisa Macintyre, Hazel Stewart, Michelle Rae
BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis is a major global health issue, responsible for thousands of deaths each year. While thrombi can form under a variety of circumstances, lack of mobility significantly increases risk and therefore non-ambulant patients are frequently fitted with anti-embolism stockings on admission to hospital, to aid blood flow, prevent pooling and thus clotting. Anti-embolism stockings are the most widely used non-invasive medical device on the market and are believed to reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis by 40%...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
L M Horng, L Unicomb, M-U Alam, A K Halder, A K Shoab, P K Ghosh, A Opel, M K Islam, S P Luby
BACKGROUND: Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. AIM: To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. METHODS: The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Rosalie H Wang, Aishwarya Sudhama, Momotaz Begum, Rajibul Huq, Alex Mihailidis
BACKGROUND: Robots have the potential to both enable older adults with dementia to perform daily activities with greater independence, and provide support to caregivers. This study explored perspectives of older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers on robots that provide stepwise prompting to complete activities in the home. METHODS: Ten dyads participated: Older adults with mild-to-moderate AD and difficulty completing activity steps, and their family caregivers...
September 23, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Jie Dai, Yong-Ping Zhang, Wen-Min Wang, Xu-Ming Luo, Wen-Jie Zhuo, Wei-Jiang Yang, Ling-Zhi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This paper was to assess the risk for cross infection caused by blood-contaminated tampon after dental extraction and whether this risk was reduced after relevant education towards both dentists and patients. METHODS: From December 2014 to April 2015, a survey was conducted in dentists and patients randomly before and after relevant education. The questionnaire is being revised for this survey based on learning from Chatzoudi and Franklin' survey. This survey was approved by the institutional review board, and all participants were voluntary and all responses were anonymous...
2016: SpringerPlus
Aliya Hisam, Mariam Nadeem Rana, Mahmood-Ur-Rahman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD) among medical students of Rawalpindi. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in a medical college of Rawalpindi from September 2014-November 2014. About 400 students were inducted with 77% (n=308) response rate. After taking informed verbal consent from students and administration, a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was circulated among students of third, fourth and final year MBBS as well as third and fourth year BDS...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Paul A Hansen, Mark W Beatty
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Whether using tap water to rinse off debris will make a clinical difference to the surface detail of a gypsum cast is unknown. In addition, how best to remove debris from the cast is unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficiency of different methods of cleaning a gypsum cast after trimming and the effect of short-term exposure to tap water on the surface quality of the cast. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A die fitting American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association specification 25 (International Standards Organization specification 6873) for dental gypsum products was embedded in a Dentoform with the machined lines positioned at the same level as the occlusal surface of the posterior teeth...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
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