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Hippocampal sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441824/-clinical-and-neuroimaging-features-of-acute-encephalopathy-after-status-epilepticus-in-dravet-syndrome
#1
X J Tian, Y H Zhang, A J Liu, X L Yang, Q Zeng, Z X Yang, J T Ye, X Y Liu, Y W Jiang, X R Wu
Objective: To investigate the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of acute encephalopathy (AE) after status epilepticus (SE) of patients with Dravet syndrome (DS). Method: The clinical data of DS patients who had AE (coma ≥24 h) after SE were retrospectively collected from February 2005 to August 2016 in Peking University First Hospital and SCN1A gene tests were performed.The clinical and neuroimaging features were summarized. Result: Twenty-two patients (9 males and 13 females) with AE were collected among 412 DS patients during follow-up...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441637/subtle-pathological-changes-in-neocortical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Juan G Ochoa, Diana Hentgarden, Audrey Paulzak, Melissa Ogden, Richard Pryson, Markus Lamle, Walter G Rusyniak
This was a prospective observational study to correlate the clinical symptoms, electrophysiology, imaging, and surgical pathology of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) without hippocampal sclerosis. We selected consecutive patients with TLE and normal MRI undergoing temporal lobe resection between April and September 2015. Clinical features, imaging, and functional data were reviewed. Intracranial monitoring and language mapping were performed when it was required according to our team recommendation...
April 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431291/temporal-pole-abnormalities-detected-by-3-t-mri-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-due-to-hippocampal-sclerosis-no-influence-on-seizure-outcome-after-surgery
#3
Sara Casciato, Angelo Picardi, Alfredo D'Aniello, Marco De Risi, Giovanni Grillea, Pier Paolo Quarato, Addolorata Mascia, Liliana G Grammaldo, Giulio Nicolo' Meldolesi, Roberta Morace, Vincenzo Esposito, Giancarlo Di Gennaro
PURPOSE: To assess the clinical significance of temporal pole abnormalities (temporopolar blurring, TB, and temporopolar atrophy, TA) detected by using 3 Tesla MRI in the preoperative workup in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) who underwent surgery. METHODS: We studied 78 consecutive patients with TLE-HS who underwent surgery and were followed up for at least 2 years. Based on findings of pre-surgical 3 Tesla MRI, patients were subdivided in subgroups according to the presence of TB or TA...
April 12, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427841/localized-shape-abnormalities-in-the-thalamus-and-pallidum-are-associated-with-secondarily-generalized-seizures-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
Linglin Yang, Hong Li, Lujia Zhu, Xinfeng Yu, Bo Jin, Cong Chen, Shan Wang, Meiping Ding, Minming Zhang, Zhong Chen, Shuang Wang
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a common type of drug-resistant epilepsy and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (sGTCS) have devastating consequences for patients' safety and quality of life. To probe the mechanism underlying the genesis of sGTCS, we investigated the structural differences between patients with and without sGTCS in a cohort of mTLE with radiologically defined unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis of cortex and vertex-wise shape analysis of subcortical structures (the basal ganglia and thalamus) on MRI of 39 patients (21 with and 18 without sGTCS)...
April 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427704/comparison-of-brain-and-spinal-cord-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-patients-with-or-without-aquaporin-4-antibody
#5
Moli Fan, Ying Fu, Lei Su, Yi Shen, Kristofer Wood, Li Yang, Yaou Liu, Fu-Dong Shi
BACKGROUND: The spinal cord and brain measurements are rarely investigated in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients with and without antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4), directly compared to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of both brain and spinal cord in NMO patients with and without antibodies to AQP4, compared with MS patients and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: We recruited 55 NMO including 30 AQP4 (+) and 25 AQP4 (-), 25 MS and 25 HC...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405902/mitophagy-in-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#6
Mengqian Wu, Xinyu Liu, Xiaosa Chi, Le Zhang, Weixi Xiong, Siew Mun Vance Chiang, Dong Zhou, Jinmei Li
This study aimed to determine if there is an association between mitophagy and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis. During epilepsy surgery, we collected tissue samples from the hippocampi and temporal lobe cortexes of rTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (as diagnosed by a pathologist). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the ultrastructural features of the tissue. To probe for mitophagy, we used fluorescent immunolabeling to determine if mitochondrial and autophagosomal markers colocalized...
April 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401614/suppression-of-interictal-spikes-during-phasic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-a-quantitative-stereo-electroencephalography-study
#7
C Campana, F Zubler, S Gibbs, F de Carli, P Proserpio, A Rubino, M Cossu, L Tassi, K Schindler, L Nobili
Tonic and phasic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep seem to represent two different brain states exerting different effects on epileptic activity. In particular, interictal spikes are suppressed strongly during phasic REM sleep. The reason for this effect is not understood completely. A different level of synchronization in phasic and tonic REM sleep has been postulated, yet never measured directly. Here we assessed the interictal spike rate across non-REM (NREM) sleep, phasic and tonic REM sleep in nine patients affected by drug resistant focal epilepsy: five with type II focal cortical dysplasia and four with hippocampal sclerosis...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398599/hippocampal-sclerosis-and-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-chorea-acanthocytosis-a-case-with-clinical-pathologic-and-genetic-evaluation
#8
Karin Mente, Sun A Kim, Christopher Grunseich, Marco M Hefti, John F Crary, Adrian Danek, Barbara I Karp, Ruth H Walker
Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease associated with mutations in VPS13A that encodes the protein chorein. ChAc is characterized by progressive chorea, dystonia, and psychiatric symptoms, developing in young adulthood, often with acanthocytosis in peripheral blood. Tongue protrusion, or feeding dystonia, is common, as are seizures and neuropathy [1]. On neuropathology, there is basal ganglia atrophy, neuronal loss, and gliosis, especially in the caudate nucleus [2]...
April 11, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395287/interleukin-1%C3%AE-plays-a-pivotal-role-via-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-the-chronicity-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Zhaohua Xiao, Jing Peng, Na Gan, Ahmed Arafat, Fei Yin
OBJECTIVE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common type of refractory epilepsy. It is often associated with hippocampal sclerosis, which is histopathologically characterized by selective neuron loss, mossy fiber sprouting, and synapse reconstruction, and is the primary cause of refractory epilepsy. Its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Substantial evidence now supports that inflammatory pathways are activated in epilepsy foci. We have confirmed that the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) level is involved in the epileptogenesis of MTLE, and we further investigated how it works in its chronicity in this study...
April 11, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395090/immune-cell-infiltrates-in-hippocampal-sclerosis-correlation-with-neuronal-loss
#10
Jian-Qiang Lu, Trevor A Steve, Matt Wheatley, Donald W Gross
Immune mechanisms have been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), but infiltration of cytotoxic T-cells and its pathological significance in patients with HS has not been explored. We examined 30 cases of surgically resected hippocampi, including 16 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) type 1, 9 ILAE type 2, 1 ILAE type 3 HS, and 4 ILAE No-HS, as well as 6 autopsy No-HS hippocampi. The HS hippocampi showed sparse to scattered CD8-positive T-cells, rare CD4-positive T-cells, and a modest increase in CD68-positive microglia/macrophages, which were significantly more numerous than those in the No-HS controls...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389411/complications-after-surgery-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-associated-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#11
Bertrand Mathon, Vincent Navarro, Franck Bielle, Vi-Huong Nguyen-Michel, Alexandre Carpentier, Michel Baulac, Philippe Cornu, Claude Adam, Sophie Dupont, Stéphane Clemenceau
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. This study aimed to analyze morbidities related to surgery of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis and to identify possible risk factors for complications. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of postoperative complications was made for 389 operations performed between 1990 and 2015 on patients aged 15 to 67 years (mean 36...
April 4, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384161/microrna-hsa-mir-134-is-a-circulating-biomarker-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Simoni H Avansini, Beatriz Pereira de Sousa Lima, Rodrigo Secolin, Marilza L Santos, Ana Carolina Coan, André S Vieira, Fábio R Torres, Benilton S Carvalho, Marina K M Alvim, Márcia E Morita, Clarissa L Yasuda, Luciana R Pimentel-Silva, Danyella B Dogini, Fabio Rogerio, Fernando Cendes, Iscia Lopes-Cendes
Epilepsy is misdiagnosed in up to 25% of patients, leading to serious and long-lasting consequences. Recently, circulating microRNAs have emerged as potential biomarkers in a number of clinical scenarios. The purpose of this study was to identify and to validate circulating microRNAs that could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure plasma levels of three candidate microRNAs in two phases of study: an initial discovery phase with 14 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), 13 with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and 16 controls; and a validation cohort constituted of an independent cohort of 65 patients with MTLE and 83 controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382749/feline-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-review-of-the-experimental-literature
#13
REVIEW
S Kitz, J G Thalhammer, U Glantschnigg, M Wrzosek, A Klang, P Halasz, M N Shouse, A Pakozdy
Accumulating evidence suggests that epileptic seizures originating from the temporal lobe (TL) occur in cats. Typically, affected animals have clinically focal seizures with orofacial automatisms including salivation, facial twitching, lip smacking, chewing, licking, and swallowing. Motor arrest and autonomic and behavioral signs also may occur. Many affected cats have magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes within the hippocampus or histopathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis or necrosis. From the 1950s to the 1980s, cats frequently were used as animal models for neurophysiological experiments and electrophysiological studies, from which important basic knowledge about epilepsy originated, but which has been rarely cited in clinical veterinary studies...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380661/characterising-subtypes-of-hippocampal-sclerosis-and-reorganization-correlation-with-pre-and-postoperative-memory-deficit
#14
Anaclara Prada Jardim, Joan Liu, Jack Baber, Zuzanna Michalak, Cheryl Reeves, Matthew Ellis, Jan Novy, Jane de Tisi, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Elza Marcia Targas Yacubian, Sanjay Sisodiya, Pamela Thompson, Maria Thom
Neuropathological subtypes of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in temporal lobe epilepsy (The 2013 International League Against Epilepsy classification) are based on the qualitative assessment of patterns of neuronal loss with NeuN. In practice, some cases appear indeterminate between type 1 (CA1 and CA4 loss) and type 2 HS (CA1 loss) and we predicted that MAP2 would enable a more stringent classification. HS subtypes, as well as the accompanying alteration of axonal networks, regenerative capacity and neurodegeneration have been previously correlated with outcome and memory deficits and may provide prognostic clinical information...
April 5, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376388/voxel-based-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Patrícia Sanches, Elaine Keiko Fujisao, Aline M S Braga, Nathalia Raquel Cristaldo, Roberto Dos Reis, Seizo Yamashita, Luiz Eduardo Betting
PURPOSE: Quantitative techniques of diffusion analysis allow for an in-vivo investigation of the physiopathology of epilepsies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of the main diffusion parameters and explore differences between two methodologies of voxel-wise analysis comparing a group of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with controls. METHODS: 24 patients with a diagnosis of MTLE were selected. All patients and a control group of 36 individuals were submitted to 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
March 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373803/evaluation-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibody-levels-in-patients-with-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-and-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#16
Ayten Ceyhan Dirican, Sevilay Elibirlik, Ayhan Köksal, Musa Öztürk, Yavuz Altunkaynak, Sevim Baybaş, Ahmet Dirican
INTRODUCTION: Several clinical studies have been conducted to investigate the role of autoantibodies and immunological mechanisms in the etiology of treatment-resistant epilepsy in recent years. Some immunological treatments have been suggested as a result of these studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of autoimmunity in partial and idiopathic generalized epilepsy and determine the relationship between drug resistance and autoimmune antibodies. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (24 treatment-responsive and 4 treatment-resistant) with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), 26 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLEHS) resistant to antiepileptic drug treatment, and 26 age-matched healthy control subjects were included in a two-year cross sectional study...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373795/comparison-of-cognitive-parameters-between-bilateral-and-unilateral-hippocampal-sclerosis
#17
Ebru Nur Vanli Yavuz, Başar Bilgiç, Zeliha Matur, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Ayşen Gökyiğit, Öget Öktem, Betül Baykan
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies showed that hippocampal sclerosis (HS) patients with unilateral involvement had more diffuse cognitive impairment than expected. Therefore, we aimed to compare the cognitive profiles of bilateral HS (BHS) patients with unilateral HS (UHS) patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients, diagnosed with epilepsy, who fulfilled two major magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria (T1 atrophy and T2-FLAIR hyperintensity) for HS were included. Standard neuro-psychological test (NPT) battery consisted of the Turkish version of 15-word verbal memory processes test, Wechsler memory scale visual reproduction subtest, forward and backward digit span, phonemic and semantic fluency, and Stroop test were applied; and the groups with right HS, left HS, and bilateral HS were compared statistically...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360810/brain-infiltration-of-immune-cells-in-caspr2-antibody-associated-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#18
Gökçen Ünverengil, Ebru Nur Vanli Yavuz, Erdem Tüzün, Ece Erdağ, Sevil Kabadayi, Bilge Bilgiç, Betül Baykan
INTRODUCTION: Antibodies directed against neuronal surface antigens have recently been identified in patients with focal temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) of unknown cause and mesial TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), thereby emphasizing the role of autoimmunity in TLE. Antibodies to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) are prevalent in MTLE-HS patients. We aimed to find out whether anti-neuronal autoimmunity might be involved in CASPR2 antibody-related MTLE-HS. METHODS: Surgically resected medial temporal lobe specimens of seropositive and seronegative MTLE-HS patients were examined with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining using specific immune cell markers...
December 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353003/coexistence-of-meningoencephalocele-and-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-new-type-of-dual-pathology
#19
Matteo Martinoni, Gianluca Marucci, Gabriele Gagliardini, Paolo Tinuper, Roberto Michelucci, Marco Giulioni
Both temporal lobe meningoencephalocele (TE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) are causes of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Spontaneous TE constitutes a rare but well-known and increasingly recognised cause of refractory epilepsy. It is well known that HS may be associated with another neocortical lesion (dual pathology). Here we report for the first time a new type of dual pathology; namely, the coexistence of temporal pole meningoencephalocele and HS.
May 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350821/neuropathological-diagnoses-and-clinical-correlates-in-older-adults-in-brazil-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Claudia K Suemoto, Renata E L Ferretti-Rebustini, Roberta D Rodriguez, Renata E P Leite, Luciana Soterio, Sonia M D Brucki, Raphael R Spera, Tarcila M Cippiciani, Jose M Farfel, Alexandre Chiavegatto Filho, Michel Satya Naslavsky, Mayana Zatz, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Ricardo Nitrini, Lea T Grinberg
BACKGROUND: Clinicopathological studies are important in determining the brain lesions underlying dementia. Although almost 60% of individuals with dementia live in developing countries, few clinicopathological studies focus on these individuals. We investigated the frequency of neurodegenerative and vascular-related neuropathological lesions in 1,092 Brazilian admixed older adults, their correlation with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the accuracy of dementia subtype diagnosis...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
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