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Hippocampal sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653337/investigation-of-microstructural-abnormalities-in-white-and-gray-matter-around-hippocampus-with-diffusion-tensor-imaging-dti-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-tle
#1
Yixin Bao, Ruqian He, Qingyi Zeng, Pan Zhu, Rongyuan Zheng, Huiqin Xu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to apply diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with and without hippocampal sclerosis (HS). MATERIALS: Totally, 19 patients with TLE with HS and 23 patients with TLE without HS were included. Fiber tracking fibers focused on the parahippocampal cingulum (PHC), cingulate gyrus (CG), and fornix (FORX). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were obtained, and hippocampal volumes were measured...
April 10, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651571/correlation-of-neuropsychological-and-metabolic-changes-after-epilepsy-surgery-in-patients-with-left-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#2
Canan Güvenç, Patrick Dupont, Jan Van den Stock, Laura Seynaeve, Kathleen Porke, Eva Dries, Karen Van Bouwel, Johannes van Loon, Tom Theys, Karolien E Goffin, Wim Van Paesschen
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy surgery often causes changes in cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism. Our aim was to explore relationships between pre- and postoperative cerebral metabolism as measured with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and neuropsychological test scores in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), who were rendered seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included...
April 12, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625365/morphometric-mri-features-and-surgical-outcome-in-patients-with-epilepsy-related-to-hippocampal-sclerosis-and-low-intellectual-quotient
#3
Larissa Botelho Gaça, Maria Teresa Fernandes Castilho Garcia, Gabriel Barbosa Sandim, Idaiane Batista Assumption Leme, Maria Helena Silva Noffs, Henrique Carrete, Ricardo Silva Centeno, João Ricardo Sato, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to verify in a series of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) if those with low intellectual quotient (IQ) levels have more extended areas of atrophy compared with those with higher IQ levels and to analyze whether IQ could be a variable implicated on a surgical outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients (n=106) with refractory MTLE-HS submitted to corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH) (57 left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE); 45 males) were enrolled...
April 3, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623027/preclinical-to-clinical-translation-of-studies-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#4
Gabriela G Regner, Patrícia Pereira, Douglas T Leffa, Carla de Oliveira, Rafael Vercelino, Felipe Fregni, Iraci L S Torres
Epilepsy is a chronic brain syndrome characterized by recurrent seizures resulting from excessive neuronal discharges. Despite the development of various new antiepileptic drugs, many patients are refractory to treatment and report side effects. Non-invasive methods of brain stimulation, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have been tested as alternative approaches to directly modulate the excitability of epileptogenic neural circuits. Although some pilot and initial clinical studies have shown positive results, there is still uncertainty regarding the next steps of investigation in this field...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614661/hippocampal-sclerosis-in-the-oldest-old-a-finnish-population-based-study
#5
Mia Kero, Anna Raunio, Tuomo Polvikoski, Pentti J Tienari, Anders Paetau, Liisa Myllykangas
BACKGROUND: There are only few population-based studies that have systemically investigated the prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in the very old. The frequency of unilateral versus bilateral HS has been rarely studied. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence and laterality of HS and its association with other neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies in a population-based sample of very elderly. Furthermore, the concomitant presence of immunoreactivity for TDP-43, p62, and HPtau was studied...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605745/phenotypic-spectrum-in-families-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-probands
#6
Emilija Cvetkovska, Igor Kuzmanovski, Marija Babunovska, Bojan Boshkovski, Tatjana Cepreganova Cangovska, Gordana Kiteva Trencevska
PURPOSE: The traditional perception of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) as a predominantly acquired disorder is challenged due to emerging evidence of familial aggregation. In this study, we ascertained the extent of familial occurrence of epilepsy in MTLE patients, as well as phenotypic heterogeneity in affected relatives. METHODS: We identified and reevaluated patients with MTLE, treated at Epilepsy Department for a period of two years. All eligible putatively affected relatives were asked to participate in the study...
March 27, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603402/expression-of-crym-in-different-rat-organs-during-development-and-its-decreased-expression-in-degenerating-pyramidal-tracts-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
Reiji Hommyo, Satoshi O Suzuki, Nona Abolhassani, Hideomi Hamasaki, Masahiro Shijo, Norihisa Maeda, Hiroyuki Honda, Yusaku Nakabeppu, Toru Iwaki
The protein μ-crystallin (CRYM) is a novel component of the marsupial lens that has two functions: it is a key regulator of thyroid hormone transportation and a reductase of sulfur-containing cyclic ketimines. In this study, we examined changes of the expression pattern of CRYM in different rat organs during development using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. As CRYM is reportedly expressed in the corticospinal tract, we also investigated CRYM expression in human cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using immunohistochemistry...
March 30, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598822/dimethyl-fumarate-attenuates-reactive-microglia-and-long-term-memory-deficits-following-systemic-immune-challenge
#8
Hallel C Paraiso, Ping-Chang Kuo, Eric T Curfman, Haley J Moon, Robert D Sweazey, Jui-Hung Yen, Fen-Lei Chang, I-Chen Yu
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation is associated with increased cognitive decline and risk for Alzheimer's disease. Microglia (MG) activated during systemic inflammation can cause exaggerated neuroinflammatory responses and trigger progressive neurodegeneration. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a FDA-approved therapy for multiple sclerosis. The immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant properties of DMF prompted us to investigate whether DMF has translational potential for the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with systemic inflammation...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596665/measures-of-metabolism-provide-insights-into-hippocampal-sclerosis
#9
Brian A Gordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593628/gray-matter-and-white-matter-abnormalities-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-with-and-without-hippocampal-sclerosis
#10
Iman Beheshti, Daichi Sone, Farnaz Farokhian, Norihide Maikusa, Hiroshi Matsuda
The presentation and distribution of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have been widely studied. Here, we investigated the GM and WM abnormalities in TLE patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in five groups of participants: healthy controls (HCs) ( n  = 28), right TLE patients with HS ( n  = 26), right TLE patients without HS ( n  = 30), left TLE patients with HS ( n  = 25), and left TLE patients without HS ( n  = 27). We performed a flexible factorial statistical test in a whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis to identify significant GM and WM abnormalities and analysis of variance of hippocampal and amygdala regions among the five groups using the FreeSurfer procedure...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580900/deletion-of-the-endogenous-trkb-t1-receptor-isoform-restores-the-number-of-hippocampal-ca1-parvalbumin-positive-neurons-and-rescues-long-term-potentiation-in-pre-symptomatic-msod1-g93a-als-mice
#11
Eros Quarta, Gianluca Fulgenzi, Riccardo Bravi, Erez James Cohen, Sudhirkumar Yanpallewar, Lino Tessarollo, Diego Minciacchi
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes rapidly progressive paralysis and death within 5 years from diagnosis due to degeneration of the motor circuits. However, a significant population of ALS patients also shows cognitive impairments and progressive hippocampal pathology. Likewise, the mutant SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS (mSOD1), in addition to loss of spinal motor neurons, displays altered spatial behavior and hippocampal abnormalities including loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVi) and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP)...
March 23, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579554/clinical-and-electrophysiological-findings-in-patients-with-phenylketonuria-and-epilepsy-reflex-features
#12
Senay Yildiz Celik, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gurses, Betul Baykan, Aysen Gokyigit
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common form of amino acid metabolism disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. The brain damage can be prevented by early diagnosis and a phenylalanine-restricted diet. Untreated or late-treated patients may show mental retardation and other cognitive dysfunctions, as well as motor disability and/or epilepsy. METHODS: Three patients with PKU and epilepsy were recognized to have reflex epileptic features, and there were ten consecutive adult patients with PKU and epilepsy who were evaluated retrospectively...
March 23, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575376/incomplete-hippocampal-inversion-and-its-relationship-to-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-and-aging
#13
Jessica Colenutt, Bryony McCann, Michael J Knight, Elizabeth Coulthard, Risto A Kauppinen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) is an atypical anatomical pattern presented by the hippocampus. It is associated with several neuropathological conditions and is thought to be a factor of susceptibility to hippocampal sclerosis and loss of volume. The volume loss of hippocampus is an inevitable consequence of aging, and when accelerated it is commonly considered an imaging biomarker of Alzheimer's disease dementia. METHODS: We have studied the relationship between IHI and hippocampal subfield volumes in a cohort of 60 healthy participants of 49-87 years of age...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575277/association-study-of-functional-polymorphisms-of-dopaminergic-pathway-in-epilepsy-related-factors-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-brazilian-population
#14
Juliana A Alcantara, Silvia Vincentiisa, Daniel S Kerr, Bernardo Dos Santos, Ruda Alessi, Helio van der Linden, Tiffany Chaim, Maurício H Serpa, Geraldo Busatto, Wagner F Gattaz, Renata Demarque, Kette Dr Valente
BACKGROUND: There is scarce data about the role of neurotransmission modulated by dopamine (DA) in epilepsy, especially temporal lobe epilepsy. This is the first study that aimed to analyze the dopaminergic polymorphisms in an etiologically homogeneous group of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy determined by hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS). Selected polymorphisms were: (i) the most expressed receptors in the limbic system D2-like (DRD2/ANKK1 TAQ-1A, D4_VNTR, and D4_rs1800955); (ii) the dopamine transporter DAT - 3 'untranslated region (3'UTR) and Intron 8; (iii) two degrading enzymes regulating the synaptic activity - the main metabolizer of dopamine Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)...
March 25, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573759/executive-dysfunction-and-depression-in-pediatric-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-the-contribution-of-hippocampal-sclerosis-and-psychosocial-factors
#15
William A Schraegle, Nancy L Nussbaum, Jeffrey B Titus
OBJECTIVES: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has been identified as a risk factor for increased depression features in children and adolescents; however, less is known regarding specific neurocognitive predictors of depression in this population above and beyond seizure-specific and sociodemographic factors. METHODS: The study included 62 patients with TLE (64% male) aged 8 to 16 years (M=12.62; SD=2.26) who underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. RESULTS: Correlation analyses revealed significant association between patient depression and WCST Total Perseverations, BRIEF Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI) and family stress...
March 25, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572865/hippocampal-subfield-segmentation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-relation-to-outcomes
#16
B A K Kreilkamp, B Weber, S B Elkommos, M P Richardson, S S Keller
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and surgical outcome correlates of preoperative hippocampal subfield volumes in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) multisequence segmentation technique. METHODS: We recruited 106 patients with TLE and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent conventional T1-weighted and T2 short TI inversion recovery MRI. An automated hippocampal segmentation algorithm was used to identify twelve subfields in each hippocampus...
March 23, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555850/electrophysiological-evidence-for-the-development-of-a-self-sustained-large-scale-epileptic-network-in-the-kainate-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Laurent Sheybani, Gwenaël Birot, Alessandro Contestabile, Margitta Seeck, Jozsef Zoltan Kiss, Karl Schaller, Christoph M Michel, Charles Quairiaux
Most research on focal epilepsy focuses on mechanisms of seizure generation in the primary epileptic focus (EF). However, neurological deficits that are not directly linked to seizure activity and that may persist after focus removal are frequent. The recruitment of remote brain regions of an epileptic network (EN) is recognized as a possible cause, but a profound lack of experimental evidence exists concerning their recruitment and the type of pathological activities they exhibit.We studied the development of epileptic activities at the large-scale in male mice of the kainate model of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using high-density surface EEG and multiple-site intracortical recordings...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549794/corpus-callosum-atrophy-and-post-surgical-seizures-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-associated-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#18
Reinaldo Uribe-San-Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Roberta Di Giacomo, Macarena Vásquez, Claudia Cárcamo, Jaime Godoy, Giorgio Lo Russo, Laura Tassi
OBJECTIVE: Our aim in this retrospective study was to explore whether corpus callosum atrophy could predict the post-surgical seizure control in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis (HS). METHODS: We used the Corpus Callosum Index (CCI) obtained from best mid-sagittal T2/FLAIR or T1-weighted MRI at two time-points, more than one year apart. CCI has been mainly used in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but not in epilepsy, so we tested the validity of our results performing a proof of concept cohort, incorporating MS patients with and without epilepsy...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547770/an-on-demand-macaque-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-seizures-induced-by-unilateral-intra-hippocampal-injection-of-penicillin
#19
Ariana Sherdil, Stéphan Chabardès, Isabelle Guillemain, Sandrine Michallat, Shivadatta Prabhu, Karine Pernet-Gallay, Olivier David, Brigitte Piallat
PURPOSE: Our objective was to propose a new on demand non-human primate model of mesial temporal lobe seizures suitable for pre-clinical innovative therapeutic research. METHODS: Five macaques were stereotaxically implanted unilaterally with a deep recording electrode in the hippocampus. For each experiment, penicillin was injected into the hippocampus and animals were monitored during five consecutive hours. A total of 12-27 experiments with a mean cumulative dose of 162644 ± 70190 UI of penicillin have been performed per animal Injections were repeated at least once a week over a period of 98-276 days...
March 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538658/fdg-pet-in-tau-negative-amnestic-dementia-resembles-that-of-autopsy-proven-hippocampal-sclerosis
#20
Hugo Botha, William G Mantyh, Melissa E Murray, David S Knopman, Scott A Przybelski, Heather J Wiste, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Keith A Josephs, Christopher G Schwarz, Walter K Kremers, Bradley F Boeve, Ronald C Petersen, Mary M Machulda, Joseph E Parisi, Dennis W Dickson, Val Lowe, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
Predicting underlying pathology based on clinical presentation has historically proven difficult, especially in older cohorts. Age-related hippocampal sclerosis may account for a significant proportion of elderly participants with amnestic dementia. Advances in molecular neuroimaging have allowed for detailed biomarker-based phenotyping, but in the absence of antemortem markers of hippocampal sclerosis, cases of mixed pathology remain problematic. We evaluated the utility of 18F-FDG-PET to differentiate flortaucipir tau PET negative from flortaucipir positive amnestic mild cognitive impairment and dementia and used an autopsy confirmed cohort to test the hypothesis that hippocampal sclerosis might account for the observed pattern...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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