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Hippocampal sclerosis

Roisin Bartlam, Rajiv Mohanraj
BACKGROUND: Seizures can lead to cardiac arrhythmias by a number of mechanisms including activation/inhibition of cortical autonomic centers, increase in vagal tone through activation of brainstem reflex centers, and respiratory failure. Ictal asystole (IA) is a potential mechanism underlying sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We analyzed the clinical features of 5 patients who developed IA requiring pacemaker implantation. METHODS: Patients with ictal arrhythmias were identified from the video-telemetry and ambulatory EEG database at Greater Manchester Neurosciences Centre, as well as an independent epilepsy residential care facility...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Gerardo Salvato, Pina Scarpa, Stefano Francione, Roberto Mai, Laura Tassi, Elisa Scarano, Giorgio Lo Russo, Gabriella Bottini
It is largely recognized that the mesial temporal lobe and its substructure support declarative long-term memory (LTM). So far, different theories have been suggested, and the organization of declarative verbal LTM in the brain is still a matter of debate. In the current study, we retrospectively selected 151 right-handed patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis, with a homogeneous (seizure-free) clinical outcome. We analyzed verbal memory performance within a normalized scores context, by means of prose recall and word paired-associate learning tasks...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Mohammad Charehsaz, Karin Sørig Hougaard, Hande Sipahi, Asiye Işın Doğan Ekici, Çiğdem Kaspar, Mustafa Culha, Ülkü Ündeğer Bucurgat, Ahmet Aydin
BACKGROUND: Evaluations of silver in both nanoparticle (Ag-NPs) and ionic forms indicate some adverse effects on living organisms, but little is known about their potential for developmental toxicity. In this study, developmental toxicity of Ag-NPs (from 0.2 to 20 mg/kg/day) and ionic Ag (AgNO3, 20 mg Ag/kg/day) were investigated in rats. METHODS: Animals were dosed by gavage from gestation day 7 - 20. The day after parturition, dams and pups were sacrificed and Ag level assessed in several maternal and pup organs...
October 6, 2016: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Kentaro Hayashi, Yoko Mochizuki, Ryoko Takeuchi, Toshio Shimizu, Masahiro Nagao, Kazuhiko Watabe, Nobutaka Arai, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi, Osamu Onodera, Masaharu Hayashi, Hitoshi Takahashi, Akiyoshi Kakita, Eiji Isozaki
In the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that had progressed to result in a totally locked-in state (communication Stage V), in which all voluntary movements are lost and communication is impossible. In 11 patients, six had phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (pTDP-43)-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI), two had fused in sarcoma (FUS)-ir NCI, and three had copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-ir NCI...
September 30, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Maria A Rocca, Laura Vacchi, Mariaemma Rodegher, Alessandro Meani, Vittorio Martinelli, Francesca Possa, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi
Using fMRI during a face encoding (FE) task, we investigated the behavioral and fMRI correlates of FE in patients with relapse-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) at different stages of the disease and their relation with attentive-executive performance and structural MRI measures of disease-related damage. A fMRI FE task was administered to 75 MS patients (11 clinically isolated syndromes - CIS, 40 relapsing-remitting - RRMS - and 24 secondary progressive - SPMS) and 22 healthy controls (HC). fMRI activity during the face encoding condition was correlated with behavioral, clinical, neuropsychological and structural MRI variables...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Daniel Radzicki, Erdong Liu, Han-Xiang Deng, Teepu Siddique, Marco Martina
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are believed to represent the different outcomes of a common pathogenic mechanism. However, while researchers have intensely studied the involvement of motor neurons in the ALS/FTD syndrome, very little is known about the function of hippocampal neurons, although this area is critical for memory and other cognitive functions. We investigated the electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal cells in slices from 1 month-old UBQLN2(P497H) mice, a recently generated model of ALS/FTD that shows heavy depositions of ubiquilin2-positive aggregates in this brain region...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
David N Vaughan, Genevieve Rayner, Chris Tailby, Graeme D Jackson
OBJECTIVE: To define the functional network changes that characterize MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS-TLE). METHODS: We studied 36 patients with medically refractory unilateral TLE, having either a normal clinical MRI (n = 18) or unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (n = 18). Patients were compared to healthy controls of equivalent age and sex (n = 27). Functional connectivity in 10 minutes of task-free functional MRI was assessed using a voxel-resolution graph theoretic analysis, using the metrics of degree, clustering coefficient, eigenvector, and betweenness centrality...
September 30, 2016: Neurology
Bryan D James, Robert S Wilson, Patricia A Boyle, John Q Trojanowski, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
Hyperphosphorylated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) proteinopathy has recently been described in ageing and in association with cognitive impairment, especially in the context of Alzheimer's disease pathology. To explore the role of mixed Alzheimer's disease and TDP-43 pathologies in clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia, we performed a comprehensive investigation of TDP-43, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older subjects...
September 30, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Daniel San-Juan, Dulce Anabel Espinoza López, Rafael Vázquez Gregorio, Carlos Trenado, Maricarmen Fernández-González Aragón, León Morales-Quezada, Axel Hernandez Ruiz, Flavio Hernandez-González, Alejandro Alcaraz-Guzmán, David J Anschel, Felipe Fregni
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been evaluated in medication refractory epilepsy patients. The results have been inconclusive and protocols have varied between studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of two protocols of tDCS in adult patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). METHODS: This is a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial, with 3 arms, 3 sessions, 5 sessions and placebo stimulation...
August 31, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Jaderson C DaCosta, Mirna W Portuguez, Daniel R Marinowic, Lucas P Schilling, Carolina M Torres, Danielle I DaCosta, Maria Júlia M Carrion, Eduardo F Raupp, Denise C Machado, Ricardo B Soder, Silvia L Lardi, Bernardo Garicochea
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a highly prevalent syndrome among people with epilepsy, and is usually refractory to drug treatment. Structural and physiological changes, such as hippocampal sclerosis, are often present in TLE patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of intra-arterial infusion of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) in adults with medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). We enrolled 20 patients that had been diagnosed with MTLE-HS and refractory to medical treatment...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
D Damjanovic, P Valsasina, M A Rocca, M L Stromillo, A Gallo, C Enzinger, H E Hulst, A Rovira, N Muhlert, N De Stefano, A Bisecco, F Fazekas, M J Arévalo, T A Yousry, M Filippi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The structural MR imaging correlates of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis are still debated. This study assessed lesional and atrophy measures of white matter and gray matter involvement in patients with MS acquired in 7 European sites to identify the MR imaging variables most closely associated with cognitive dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain dual-echo, 3D T1-weighted, and double inversion recovery scans were acquired at 3T from 62 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 65 controls...
September 29, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Marina Hodolic, Raffi Topakian, Robert Pichler
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by epileptic seizures as a result of excessive neuronal activity in the brain. Approximately 65 million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy; 20-40% of them are refractory to medication therapy. Early detection of disease is crucial in the management of patients with epilepsy. Correct localization of the ictal onset zone is associated with a better surgical outcome. The modern non-invasive techniques used for structural-functional localization of the seizure focus includes electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)...
September 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
Bénédicte Danis, Marijke van Rikxoort, Anita Kretschmann, Jiong Zhang, Patrice Godard, Lidija Andonovic, Franziska Siegel, Pitt Niehusmann, Etienne Hanon, Daniel Delev, Marec von Lehe, Rafal M Kaminski, Alexander Pfeifer, Patrik Foerch
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders characterized by recurrent seizures due to neuronal hyperexcitability. Here we compared miRNA expression patterns in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE + HS and mTLE -HS) to investigate the regulatory mechanisms differentiating both patient groups. Whole genome miRNA sequencing in surgically resected hippocampi did not reveal obvious differences in expression profiles between the two groups of patients. However, one microRNA (miR-184) was significantly dysregulated, which was confirmed by qPCR...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate, Pierangelo Cifelli, Gabriele Ruffolo, Laura Mumoli, Eleonora Aronica, Eleonora Palma
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis (Hs), possibly caused by a primary brain injury that occurs a long time before the appearance of neurological symptoms. MTLE-Hs is, however, a heterogeneous condition that evolves with time, involving both environmental and genetic components. Recent experimental studies emphasize that drugs or drug combinations that target modulation and circuitry reorganization of the epileptogenic networks favorably modify the complex molecular and cellular alterations underlying MTLE...
September 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Paul K Crane, Rod L Walker, Joshua Sonnen, Laura E Gibbons, Rebecca Melrose, Jason Hassenstab, C Dirk Keene, Nadia Postupna, Thomas J Montine, Eric B Larson
We evaluated associations between glucose and dementia-related neuropathologic findings among people without diabetes treatment history to elucidate mechanisms of glucose's potential effect on dementia. We used glucose and hemoglobin A1c values to characterize glucose exposures over 5 years before death (primary) and age bands from 55-59 through 80-84 (secondary). Autopsy evaluations included Braak stage for neurofibrillary tangles, Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease grade for neuritic plaques, macroscopic infarcts including lacunar infarcts, Lewy bodies, cerebral microinfarcts, and hippocampal sclerosis...
August 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Daichi Sone, Miho Ota, Norihide Maikusa, Yukio Kimura, Kaoru Sumida, Kota Yokoyama, Etsuko Imabayashi, Masako Watanabe, Yutaka Watanabe, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
PURPOSE: Cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with ipsilateral amygdala enlargement (AE) have increasingly been reported. However, the white matter (WM) abnormalities of TLE patients with AE remain poorly investigated. Here we explored macrostructural and microstructural WM abnormalities in TLE patients with AE compared to normal controls and TLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected 17 patients with unilateral TLE with AE (TLE-AE) based on automated amygdala volumetry using FreeSurfer software, and 34 healthy controls and 35 patients with unilateral TLE with HS (TLE-HS) were also recruited...
September 11, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Richard A Prayson
OBJECTIVES: Hyaline protoplasmic astrocytopathy is a rare condition marked by the accumulation of various proteins in the cytoplasm of protoplasmic astrocytes. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviews the clinicopathologic features of 14 patients (nine females; mean age, 9.1 years) with hyaline protoplasmic astrocytopathy. RESULTS: Patients had chronic seizures (mean duration, 101.1 months); mean age at seizure onset was 6.9 months. Three patients had Aicardi syndrome, and one patient had tuberous sclerosis...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Mervyn J Eadie
Increasing interest into the relationship between Ammon's horn sclerosis (hippocampal sclerosis) and epilepsy seems to have developed after 1880 when Sommer's paper appeared. Bouchet and Cazauvieilh had published the original description of the hippocampal anatomical abnormality in 1825 while attempting to locate the cerebral sites of origin of epilepsy and insanity. However, they offered no interpretation of the significance of the structural change. What has sometimes not been noticed in the subsequent literature is that, after a further investigation, in 1853, Bouchet described the change in 18 of 43 additional brains from persons with epilepsy...
September 7, 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Lei Yu, Robert J Dawe, Aron S Buchman, Patricia A Boyle, Julie A Schneider, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett
Alterations of the transverse relaxation rate, R2, measured using MRI, are observed in older persons with Alzheimer's (AD) dementia. However, the spatial pattern of these alterations and the degree to which they reflect the accumulation of common age-related neuropathologies are unknown. In this study, we characterized the profile of R2 alterations in post-mortem brains of persons with clinical diagnosis of AD dementia and investigated how the profile differs after accounting for neuropathologic indices of AD, cerebral infarcts, Lewy body disease, hippocampal sclerosis and transactive response DNA-binding protein 43...
September 2, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Agnes van Sonderen, Roland D Thijs, Elias C Coenders, Lize C Jiskoot, Esther Sanchez, Marienke A A M de Bruijn, Marleen H van Coevorden-Hameete, Paul W Wirtz, Marco W J Schreurs, Peter A E Sillevis Smitt, Maarten J Titulaer
OBJECTIVE: This nationwide study gives a detailed description of the clinical features and long-term outcome of anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis. METHODS: We collected patients prospectively from October 2013, and retrospectively from samples sent to our laboratory from January 2007. LGI1 antibodies were confirmed with both cell-based assay and immunohistochemistry. Clinical information was obtained in interviews with patients and their relatives and from medical records...
October 4, 2016: Neurology
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