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Hippocampal sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542864/circadian-clustering-of-spontaneous-epileptic-seizures-emerges-after-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#1
Julika Pitsch, Albert J Becker, Susanne Schoch, Johannes Alexander Müller, Marco de Curtis, Vadym Gnatkovsky
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis are thought to develop with various latency intervals after an initial transient brain insult. To study seizure dynamics after an initial transient precipitating insult in a systematic fashion, we utilized continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring after the induction of status epilepticus (SE) in a mouse MTLE model. METHODS: Continuous 24/7 video/telemetric hippocampal EEG recordings in the systemic pilocarpine MTLE mouse model...
May 24, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538339/seven-tesla-mri-of-hippocampal-sclerosis-an-in-vivo-feasibility-study-with-histological-correlations
#2
Harald Stefanits, Elisabeth Springer, Ekaterina Pataraia, Christoph Baumgartner, Johannes A Hainfellner, Daniela Prayer, Christian Weisstanner, Thomas Czech, Siegfried Trattnig
INTRODUCTION: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent form of focal epilepsy in adults. Because approximately half of these patients develop drug resistance, epilepsy surgery designed to remove the epileptogenic zone is an excellent option in selected patients. Histopathological analyses of hippocampal specimens in TLE patients revealed 4 types of Ammon's horn sclerosis, which are correlated with long-term epileptological outcome. The aim of this study was the correlation of noninvasive, high-resolution, morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at an ultra-high-field (7 T) of the hippocampus in TLE patients with histopathological findings...
May 23, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499012/resistance-to-alzheimer-disease-neuropathologic-changes-and-apparent-cognitive-resilience-in-the-nun-and-honolulu-asia-aging-studies
#3
Caitlin S Latimer, C Dirk Keene, Margaret E Flanagan, Laura S Hemmy, Kelvin O Lim, Lon R White, Kathleen S Montine, Thomas J Montine
Two population-based studies key to advancing knowledge of brain aging are the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) and the Nun Study. Harmonization of their neuropathologic data allows cross comparison, with findings common to both studies likely generalizable, while distinct observations may point to aging brain changes that are dependent on sex, ethnicity, environment, or lifestyle factors. Here, we expanded the neuropathologic evaluation of these 2 studies using revised NIA-Alzheimer's Association guidelines and compared directly the neuropathologic features of resistance and apparent cognitive resilience...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488154/impact-of-multiple-pathologies-on-the-threshold-for-clinically-overt-dementia
#4
REVIEW
Alifiya Kapasi, Charles DeCarli, Julie A Schneider
Longitudinal clinical-pathological studies have increasingly recognized the importance of mixed pathologies (the coexistence of one or more neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular disease pathologies) as important factors in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia. Older persons with AD pathology, often have concomitant cerebrovascular disease pathologies (macroinfarcts, microinfarcts, atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, cerebral amyloid angiopathy) as well as other concomitant neurodegenerative disease pathologies (Lewy bodies, TDP-43, hippocampal sclerosis)...
May 9, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487515/auditory-target-and-novelty-processing-in-patients-with-unilateral-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-current-source-density-study
#5
Adrià Vilà-Balló, Clément François, David Cucurell, Júlia Miró, Mercè Falip, Montserrat Juncadella, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
The capacity to respond to novel events is crucial for adapting to the constantly changing environment. Here, we recorded 29-channel Event Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) during an active auditory novelty oddball paradigm and used for the first time Current Source Density-transformed Event Related Brain Potentials and associated time-frequency spectra to study target and novelty processing in a group of epileptic patients with unilateral damage of the hippocampus (N = 18) and in healthy matched control participants (N = 18)...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469040/mutations-in-the-vesicular-trafficking-protein-annexin-a11-are-associated-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Bradley N Smith, Simon D Topp, Claudia Fallini, Hideki Shibata, Han-Jou Chen, Claire Troakes, Andrew King, Nicola Ticozzi, Kevin P Kenna, Athina Soragia-Gkazi, Jack W Miller, Akane Sato, Diana Marques Dias, Maryangel Jeon, Caroline Vance, Chun Hao Wong, Martina de Majo, Wejdan Kattuah, Jacqueline C Mitchell, Emma L Scotter, Nicholas W Parkin, Peter C Sapp, Matthew Nolan, Peter J Nestor, Michael Simpson, Michael Weale, Monkel Lek, Frank Baas, J M Vianney de Jong, Anneloor L M A Ten Asbroek, Alberto Garcia Redondo, Jesús Esteban-Pérez, Cinzia Tiloca, Federico Verde, Stefano Duga, Nigel Leigh, Hardev Pall, Karen E Morrison, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Pamela J Shaw, Janine Kirby, Martin R Turner, Kevin Talbot, Orla Hardiman, Jonathan D Glass, Jacqueline De Belleroche, Masatoshi Maki, Stephen E Moss, Christopher Miller, Cinzia Gellera, Antonia Ratti, Safa Al-Sarraj, Robert H Brown, Vincenzo Silani, John E Landers, Christopher E Shaw
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. We screened 751 familial ALS patient whole-exome sequences and identified six mutations including p.D40G in the ANXA11 gene in 13 individuals. The p.D40G mutation was absent from 70,000 control whole-exome sequences. This mutation segregated with disease in two kindreds and was present in another two unrelated cases (P = 0.0102), and all mutation carriers shared a common founder haplotype. Annexin A11-positive protein aggregates were abundant in spinal cord motor neurons and hippocampal neuronal axons in an ALS patient carrying the p...
May 3, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467211/hippocampal-sclerosis-in-older-patients-practical-examples-and-guidance-with-a-focus-on-cerebral-age-related-tdp-43-with-sclerosis
#7
Matthew D Cykowski, Suzanne Z Powell, Paul E Schulz, Hidehiro Takei, Andreana L Rivera, Robert E Jackson, Gustavo Roman, Gregory A Jicha, Peter T Nelson
CONTEXT: - Autopsy studies of the older population (≥65 years of age), and particularly of the "oldest-old" (≥85 years of age), have identified a significant proportion (∼20%) of cognitively impaired patients in which hippocampal sclerosis is the major substrate of an amnestic syndrome. Hippocampal sclerosis may also be comorbid with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer disease, and Lewy body disease. Until recently, the terms hippocampal sclerosis of aging or hippocampal sclerosis dementia were applied in this context...
May 3, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462844/understanding-the-association-of-neurocysticercosis-and-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-its-impact-on-the-surgical-treatment-of-patients-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#8
REVIEW
Marino Muxfeldt Bianchin, Tonicarlo Rodrigues Velasco, Lauro Wichert-Ana, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Américo Ceiki Sakamoto
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is one of the most common types of focal epilepsies. This is an epileptic syndrome commonly associated with treatment-resistant seizures, being also the most prevalent form of drug-resistant epilepsy which is treated surgically in most epilepsy surgery centers. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common parasitic infections of the central nervous system, and one of the most common etiological agents of focal epilepsy, affecting millions of patients worldwide...
April 24, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452087/cytotoxic-cd8-t-cells-ablation-enhances-the-capacity-of-regulatory-t-cells-to-delay-viral-elimination-in-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis
#9
Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Vanessa Herder, Muhammad Akram Khan, Ann-Kathrin Uhde, René Teich, Stephan Floess, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Jochen Huehn, Andreas Beineke
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) of susceptible mouse strains is a commonly used infectious animal model for multiple sclerosis. The study aim was to test the hypothesis whether cytotoxic T cell responses account for the limited impact of regulatory T cells on antiviral immunity in TME virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) resistant C57BL/6 mice. TME virus-infected C57BL/6 mice were treated with (i) interleukin-2/-anti-interleukin-2-antibody-complexes to expand regulatory T cells ('Treg-expansion'), (ii) anti-CD8-antibodies to deplete cytotoxic T cells ('CD8-depletion') or (iii) with a combination of Treg-expansion and CD8-depletion ('combined treatment') prior to infection...
April 27, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441824/-clinical-and-neuroimaging-features-of-acute-encephalopathy-after-status-epilepticus-in-dravet-syndrome
#10
X J Tian, Y H Zhang, A J Liu, X L Yang, Q Zeng, Z X Yang, J T Ye, X Y Liu, Y W Jiang, X R Wu
Objective: To investigate the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of acute encephalopathy (AE) after status epilepticus (SE) of patients with Dravet syndrome (DS). Method: The clinical data of DS patients who had AE (coma ≥24 h) after SE were retrospectively collected from February 2005 to August 2016 in Peking University First Hospital and SCN1A gene tests were performed.The clinical and neuroimaging features were summarized. Result: Twenty-two patients (9 males and 13 females) with AE were collected among 412 DS patients during follow-up...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441637/subtle-pathological-changes-in-neocortical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Juan G Ochoa, Diana Hentgarden, Audrey Paulzak, Melissa Ogden, Richard Pryson, Markus Lamle, Walter G Rusyniak
This was a prospective observational study to correlate the clinical symptoms, electrophysiology, imaging, and surgical pathology of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) without hippocampal sclerosis. We selected consecutive patients with TLE and normal MRI undergoing temporal lobe resection between April and September 2015. Clinical features, imaging, and functional data were reviewed. Intracranial monitoring and language mapping were performed when it was required according to our team recommendation...
April 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431291/temporal-pole-abnormalities-detected-by-3-t-mri-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-due-to-hippocampal-sclerosis-no-influence-on-seizure-outcome-after-surgery
#12
Sara Casciato, Angelo Picardi, Alfredo D'Aniello, Marco De Risi, Giovanni Grillea, Pier Paolo Quarato, Addolorata Mascia, Liliana G Grammaldo, Giulio Nicolo' Meldolesi, Roberta Morace, Vincenzo Esposito, Giancarlo Di Gennaro
PURPOSE: To assess the clinical significance of temporal pole abnormalities (temporopolar blurring, TB, and temporopolar atrophy, TA) detected by using 3 Tesla MRI in the preoperative workup in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) who underwent surgery. METHODS: We studied 78 consecutive patients with TLE-HS who underwent surgery and were followed up for at least 2 years. Based on findings of pre-surgical 3 Tesla MRI, patients were subdivided in subgroups according to the presence of TB or TA...
April 12, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427841/localized-shape-abnormalities-in-the-thalamus-and-pallidum-are-associated-with-secondarily-generalized-seizures-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Linglin Yang, Hong Li, Lujia Zhu, Xinfeng Yu, Bo Jin, Cong Chen, Shan Wang, Meiping Ding, Minming Zhang, Zhong Chen, Shuang Wang
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a common type of drug-resistant epilepsy and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (sGTCS) have devastating consequences for patients' safety and quality of life. To probe the mechanism underlying the genesis of sGTCS, we investigated the structural differences between patients with and without sGTCS in a cohort of mTLE with radiologically defined unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis of cortex and vertex-wise shape analysis of subcortical structures (the basal ganglia and thalamus) on MRI of 39 patients (21 with and 18 without sGTCS)...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427704/comparison-of-brain-and-spinal-cord-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-patients-with-or-without-aquaporin-4-antibody
#14
Moli Fan, Ying Fu, Lei Su, Yi Shen, Kristofer Wood, Li Yang, Yaou Liu, Fu-Dong Shi
BACKGROUND: The spinal cord and brain measurements are rarely investigated in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients with and without antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4), directly compared to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of both brain and spinal cord in NMO patients with and without antibodies to AQP4, compared with MS patients and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: We recruited 55 NMO including 30 AQP4 (+) and 25 AQP4 (-), 25 MS and 25 HC...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405902/mitophagy-in-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#15
Mengqian Wu, Xinyu Liu, Xiaosa Chi, Le Zhang, Weixi Xiong, Siew Mun Vance Chiang, Dong Zhou, Jinmei Li
This study aimed to determine if there is an association between mitophagy and refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis. During epilepsy surgery, we collected tissue samples from the hippocampi and temporal lobe cortexes of rTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (as diagnosed by a pathologist). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the ultrastructural features of the tissue. To probe for mitophagy, we used fluorescent immunolabeling to determine if mitochondrial and autophagosomal markers colocalized...
April 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401614/suppression-of-interictal-spikes-during-phasic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-a-quantitative-stereo-electroencephalography-study
#16
C Campana, F Zubler, S Gibbs, F de Carli, P Proserpio, A Rubino, M Cossu, L Tassi, K Schindler, L Nobili
Tonic and phasic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep seem to represent two different brain states exerting different effects on epileptic activity. In particular, interictal spikes are suppressed strongly during phasic REM sleep. The reason for this effect is not understood completely. A different level of synchronization in phasic and tonic REM sleep has been postulated, yet never measured directly. Here we assessed the interictal spike rate across non-REM (NREM) sleep, phasic and tonic REM sleep in nine patients affected by drug resistant focal epilepsy: five with type II focal cortical dysplasia and four with hippocampal sclerosis...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398599/hippocampal-sclerosis-and-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-chorea-acanthocytosis-a-case-with-clinical-pathologic-and-genetic-evaluation
#17
Karin Mente, Sun A Kim, Christopher Grunseich, Marco M Hefti, John F Crary, Adrian Danek, Barbara I Karp, Ruth H Walker
Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease associated with mutations in VPS13A that encodes the protein chorein. ChAc is characterized by progressive chorea, dystonia, and psychiatric symptoms, developing in young adulthood, often with acanthocytosis in peripheral blood. Tongue protrusion, or feeding dystonia, is common, as are seizures and neuropathy [1]. On neuropathology, there is basal ganglia atrophy, neuronal loss, and gliosis, especially in the caudate nucleus [2]...
April 11, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395287/interleukin-1%C3%AE-plays-a-pivotal-role-via-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-the-chronicity-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#18
Zhaohua Xiao, Jing Peng, Na Gan, Ahmed Arafat, Fei Yin
OBJECTIVE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common type of refractory epilepsy. It is often associated with hippocampal sclerosis, which is histopathologically characterized by selective neuron loss, mossy fiber sprouting, and synapse reconstruction, and is the primary cause of refractory epilepsy. Its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Substantial evidence now supports that inflammatory pathways are activated in epilepsy foci. We have confirmed that the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) level is involved in the epileptogenesis of MTLE, and we further investigated how it works in its chronicity in this study...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395090/immune-cell-infiltrates-in-hippocampal-sclerosis-correlation-with-neuronal-loss
#19
Jian-Qiang Lu, Trevor A Steve, Matt Wheatley, Donald W Gross
Immune mechanisms have been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), but infiltration of cytotoxic T-cells and its pathological significance in patients with HS has not been explored. We examined 30 cases of surgically resected hippocampi, including 16 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) type 1, 9 ILAE type 2, 1 ILAE type 3 HS, and 4 ILAE No-HS, as well as 6 autopsy No-HS hippocampi. The HS hippocampi showed sparse to scattered CD8-positive T-cells, rare CD4-positive T-cells, and a modest increase in CD68-positive microglia/macrophages, which were significantly more numerous than those in the No-HS controls...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389411/complications-after-surgery-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-associated-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#20
Bertrand Mathon, Vincent Navarro, Franck Bielle, Vi-Huong Nguyen-Michel, Alexandre Carpentier, Michel Baulac, Philippe Cornu, Claude Adam, Sophie Dupont, Stéphane Clemenceau
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. This study aimed to analyze morbidities related to surgery of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis and to identify possible risk factors for complications. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of postoperative complications was made for 389 operations performed between 1990 and 2015 on patients aged 15 to 67 years (mean 36...
April 4, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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