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Hippocampal sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822872/different-mossy-fiber-sprouting-patterns-in-ilae-hippocampal-sclerosis-types
#1
Barbara Schmeiser, Jinmei Li, Armin Brandt, Josef Zentner, Soroush Doostkam, Thomas M Freiman
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most prevalent pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) characterized by segmental neuronal cell loss in the cornu ammonis (CA) 1-4. In addition, migration of granule cells and reorganization of their axons is observed, known as granule cell dispersion (GCD) and mossy fiber sprouting (MFS). The loss of mossy fibers` (MF) target cells in CA4 and CA3 was considered to be causative for MFS. The ILAE HS (International League Against Epilepsy) classification identifies three subtypes with different cell loss patterns in CA1-4...
August 8, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821749/dna-methylation-in-demyelinated-multiple-sclerosis-hippocampus
#2
Anthony M Chomyk, Christina Volsko, Ajai Tripathi, Sadie A Deckard, Bruce D Trapp, Robert J Fox, Ranjan Dutta
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system (CNS). Memory impairments and hippocampal demyelination are common features in MS patients. Our previous data have shown that demyelination alters neuronal gene expression in the hippocampus. DNA methylation is a common epigenetic modifier of gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether DNA methylation is altered in MS hippocampus following demyelination. Our results show that mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferase were increased in demyelinated MS hippocampus, while de-methylation enzymes were decreased...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815576/microrna-and-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-whole-mirnome-profiling-of-human-hippocampus
#3
Petra Bencurova, Jiri Baloun, Katerina Musilova, Lenka Radova, Boris Tichy, Martin Pail, Martin Zeman, Eva Brichtova, Marketa Hermanova, Sarka Pospisilova, Marek Mraz, Milan Brazdil
OBJECTIVE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a severe neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. mTLE is frequently accompanied by neurodegeneration in the hippocampus resulting in hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common morphological correlate of drug resistance in mTLE patients. Incomplete knowledge of pathological changes in mTLE+HS complicates its therapy. The pathological mechanism underlying mTLE+HS may involve abnormal gene expression regulation, including posttranscriptional networks involving microRNAs (miRNAs)...
August 16, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808237/coding-and-small-non-coding-transcriptional-landscape-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-cortical-tubers-implications-for-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#4
James D Mills, Anand M Iyer, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Anika Bongaarts, Jasper J Anink, Bart Janssen, Till S Zimmer, Wim G Spliet, Peter C van Rijen, Floor E Jansen, Martha Feucht, Johannes A Hainfellner, Pavel Krsek, Josef Zamecnik, Katarzyna Kotulska, Sergiusz Jozwiak, Anna Jansen, Lieven Lagae, Paolo Curatolo, David J Kwiatkowski, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Lars von Oerthel, Marco F Hoekman, Jan A Gorter, Peter B Crino, Angelika Mühlebner, Brendon P Scicluna, Eleonora Aronica
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disorder that results from a mutation in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes leading to constitutive activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). TSC is associated with autism, intellectual disability and severe epilepsy. Cortical tubers are believed to represent the neuropathological substrates of these disabling manifestations in TSC. In the presented study we used high-throughput RNA sequencing in combination with systems-based computational approaches to investigate the complexity of the TSC molecular network...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795432/subcellular-reorganization-and-altered-phosphorylation-of-the-astrocytic-gap-junction-protein-connexin43-in-human-and-experimental-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#5
Tushar Deshpande, Tingsong Li, Michel K Herde, Albert Becker, Hartmut Vatter, Martin K Schwarz, Christian Henneberger, Christian Steinhäuser, Peter Bedner
Dysfunctional astrocytes are increasingly recognized as key players in the development and progression of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). One of the dramatic changes astrocytes undergo in MTLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is loss of gap junction coupling. To further elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying this alteration, we assessed expression, cellular localization and phosphorylation status of astrocytic gap junction proteins in human and experimental MTLE-HS. In addition to conventional confocal analysis of immunohistochemical staining we employed expansion microscopy, which allowed visualization of blood-brain-barrier (BBB) associated cellular elements at a sub-µm scale...
August 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793370/prevalence-of-tdp-43-proteinopathy-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Camila Nascimento, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo Alho, Caroline Bazan Conceição Amaral, Renata Elane Paraizo Leite, Ricardo Nitrini, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci, Suvi Rosa Kastehelmi Hokkanen, Sally Hunter, Hannah Keage, Gabor G Kovacs, Lea Tenenholz Grinberg, Claudia Kimie Suemoto
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy in cognitively normal older adults. METHODS: We systematically reviewed and performed a meta-analysis on the prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy in older adults with normal cognition, evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination or the Clinical Dementia Rating. We estimated the overall prevalence of TDP-43 using random-effect models, and stratified by age, sex, sample size, study quality, antibody used to assess TDP-43 aggregates, analyzed brain regions, Braak stage, CERAD score, hippocampal sclerosis, and geographic location...
August 9, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782512/quantitative-expression-and-localization-of-gabab-receptor-protein-subunits-in-hippocampi-from-patients-with-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Mariam A Sheilabi, Dev Battacharyya, Laura Caetano, Maria Thom, Markus Reuber, John S Duncan, Alessandra P Princivalle
This study investigates GABAB protein expression and mRNA levels in three types of specimens. Two types of specimens from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), secondary to hippocampal sclerosis, sclerotic hippocampal samples (TLE-HS), and tissue from the structurally preserved non-spiking ipsilateral superior temporal gyrus (TLE-STG) removed from the same patient during epilepsy surgery; and third specimen is hippocampal tissue from individuals with no history of epilepsy (post-mortem controls, PMC)...
August 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753112/impact-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-type-iiia-on-seizure-outcome-following-anterior-mesial-temporal-lobe-resection-for-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#8
Lasse Dührsen, Thomas Sauvigny, Patrick M House, Stefan Stodieck, Brigitte Holst, Jakob Matschke, Gerhard Schön, Manfred Westphal, Tobias Martens
OBJECTIVE Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy, for which anterior mesial temporal lobe resection (AMTLR) is a treatment option. Focal cortical dysplasia Type IIIa (FCD IIIa), a developmental lesion resulting from defects in neuronal formation and migration into the temporal pole (FCD I) combined with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), can be a neuropathological finding. In this study, the authors investigate the impact of FCD IIIa on seizure outcome in patients with TLE who underwent AMTLR...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750305/progressive-hippocampal-sclerosis-after-viral-encephalitis-potential-role-of-nmda-receptor-antibodies
#9
Stoyan Popkirov, Fatme Seval Ismail, Wenke Grönheit, Monika Kapauer, Jörg Wellmer, Christian G Bien
PURPOSE: Survivors of viral encephalitis can develop refractory epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. Both the initial infectious insult and the secondary effects of recurrent seizures have been implicated in chronic disease progression. Recently, post-infectious autoimmunity, involved in acute relapses, has also been proposed as a pathomechanism for chronic disease progression. Our case series suggests a potential role of antibodies against the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in chronic inflammatory disease beyond acute manifestations...
July 19, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746029/early-tissue-damage-and-microstructural-reorganization-predict-disease-severity-in-experimental-epilepsy
#10
Philipp Janz, Niels Schwaderlapp, Katharina Heining, Ute Häussler, Jan G Korvink, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Jürgen Hennig, Ulrich Egert, Pierre LeVan, Carola A Haas
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is the most common focal epilepsy in adults and is often refractory to medication. So far, resection of the epileptogenic focus represents the only curative therapy. It is unknown whether pathological processes preceding epilepsy onset are indicators of later disease severity. Using longitudinal multi-modal MRI, we monitored hippocampal injury and tissue reorganization during epileptogenesis in a mouse mTLE model. The prognostic value of MRI biomarkers was assessed by retrospective correlations with pathological hallmarks Here, we show for the first time that the extent of early hippocampal neurodegeneration and progressive microstructural changes in the dentate gyrus translate to the severity of hippocampal sclerosis and seizure burden in chronic epilepsy...
July 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744855/seizure-outcome-after-hippocampal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-patients-with-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-prospective-controlled-randomized-double-blind-study
#11
Arthur Cukiert, Cristine Mella Cukiert, Jose Augusto Burattini, Pedro Paulo Mariani, Daniela Fontes Bezerra
OBJECTIVE: We designed a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy of hippocampal deep brain stimulation (Hip-DBS) in patients with refractory temporary lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Sixteen adult patients with refractory TLE were studied. Patient's workup included medical history, interictal and ictal electroencephalography (EEG), and high-resolution 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients were randomized on a 1:1 proportion to an active (stimulation on) or to a control (no stimulation) arm...
July 26, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734998/oxidative-stress-with-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-memory-impaired-1-2-diacetylbenzene-treated-mice
#12
Sin-Woo Kang, Sung Jin Kim, Min-Sun Kim
Long-term exposure to organic solvent may be related to the incidence of neuronal diseases, such as, Alzheimer's disease, depression, multiple sclerosis, dementia, Parkinson's disease. Previously, the authors reported 1,2-diacetylbenzene (DAB; a neurotoxic metabolite of 1,2-diethylbenzene) causes central and peripheral neuropathies that lead to motor neuronal deficits. Furthermore, it is known DAB increases oxidative stress and protein adduct levels and impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. The authors examined the relevance of oxidative stress and tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus...
July 20, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732510/protective-and-therapeutic-role-of-2-carba-cyclic-phosphatidic-acid-in-demyelinating-disease
#13
Shinji Yamamoto, Kota Yamashina, Masaki Ishikawa, Mari Gotoh, Sosuke Yagishita, Kensuke Iwasa, Kei Maruyama, Kimiko Murakami-Murofushi, Keisuke Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a neuroinflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent and progressive demyelination/remyelination cycles, neuroinflammation, oligodendrocyte loss, demyelination, and axonal degeneration. Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a natural phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring structure at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of the glycerol backbone. We reported earlier that cPA elicits a neurotrophin-like action and protects hippocampal neurons from ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729700/sphingomimetic-multiple-sclerosis-drug-fty720-activates-vesicular-synaptobrevin-and-augments-neuroendocrine-secretion
#14
Frederic D Darios, Jernej Jorgacevski, Ajda Flašker, Robert Zorec, Virginia García-Martinez, José Villanueva, Luis M Gutiérrez, Charlotte Leese, Manjot Bal, Elena Nosyreva, Ege T Kavalali, Bazbek Davletov
Neurotransmission and secretion of hormones involve a sequence of protein/lipid interactions with lipid turnover impacting on vesicle trafficking and ultimately fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane. We previously demonstrated that sphingosine, a sphingolipid metabolite, promotes formation of the SNARE complex required for membrane fusion and also increases the rate of exocytosis in isolated nerve terminals, neuromuscular junctions, neuroendocrine cells and in hippocampal neurons. Recently a fungi-derived sphingosine homologue, FTY720, has been approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699215/automated-t2-relaxometry-of-the-hippocampus-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Gavin P Winston, Sjoerd B Vos, Jane L Burdett, M Jorge Cardoso, Sebastien Ourselin, John S Duncan
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common cause of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, is associated with hippocampal volume loss and increased T2 signal. These can be identified on quantitative imaging with hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry. Although hippocampal segmentation for volumetry has been automated, T2 relaxometry currently involves subjective and time-consuming manual delineation of regions of interest. In this work, we develop and validate an automated technique for hippocampal T2 relaxometry...
July 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699085/laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Eric Prince, Shahin Hakimian, Andrew L Ko, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Michelle S Kim, John W Miller
MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MgLiTT) uses a narrow diameter cannula to stereotactically target and heat deeper cerebral structures. This technique produces a precise lesion in the brain with great reliability because the localized tissue temperature change is monitored in real time. Because MgLiTT minimizes injury to surrounding brain, it appears to have a lower risk of affecting normal neurological function, and because it is done through a burr hole, there is less operative risk, less discomfort, and shorter hospitalizations...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681616/depression-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Scott B Patten, Ruth Ann Marrie, Mauro G Carta
Depressive disorders occur in up to 50% of people living with multiple sclerosis (MS). Prevalence estimates are generally 2-3-times higher than those of the general population. Myriad aetiologic factors may contribute to the aetiology of depression in MS including biological mechanisms (e.g. hippocampal microglial activation, lesion burden, regional atrophy), as well as the stressors, threats, and losses that accompany living with an unpredictable and often disabling disease. Some prominent risk factors for depression such as (younger) age, (female) sex, and family history of depression are less consistently associated with depression in MS than they are in the general population...
July 6, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681459/familial-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-the-borderland-of-d%C3%A3-j%C3%A3-vu
#18
Piero Perucca, Douglas E Crompton, Susannah T Bellows, Anne M McIntosh, Tomas Kalincik, Mark R Newton, Frank J E Vajda, Ingrid E Scheffer, Patrick Kwan, Terence J O'Brien, K Meng Tan, Samuel F Berkovic
OBJECTIVE: The cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is often unknown. We ascertained to what extent newly diagnosed nonlesional MTLE actually represents familial MTLE (FMTLE). METHODS: We identified all consecutive patients presenting to the Austin Health First Seizure Clinic with MTLE and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or MRI evidence of hippocampal sclerosis over a 10-year period. Patients' first-degree relatives and pairwise age- and sex-matched controls underwent a comprehensive epilepsy interview...
July 6, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675562/innate-and-adaptive-immunity-in-human-epilepsies
#19
REVIEW
Jan Bauer, Albert J Becker, Wassim Elyaman, Jukka Peltola, Stephan Rüegg, Maarten J Titulaer, James A Varley, Ettore Beghi
Inflammatory mechanisms have been increasingly implicated in the origin of seizures and epilepsy. These mechanisms are involved in the genesis of encephalitides in which seizures are a common complaint. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests different inflammatory responses in the brains of patients with epilepsy depending on the etiology. In general, activation of both innate and adaptive immunity plays a role in refractory forms of epilepsy. Epilepsies in which seizures develop after infiltration of cells of the adaptive immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) include a broad range of epileptic disorders with different (known or unknown) etiologies...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675059/immunogenetic-predisposing-factors-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#20
Bárbara Leal, João Chaves, Cláudia Carvalho, Andreia Bettencourt, Cláudia Brito, Daniela Boleixa, Joel Freitas, Sandra Brás, João Lopes, João Ramalheira, Paulo P Costa, Berta Martins da Silva, António Martins da Silva
PURPOSE: Neuroinflammation appears as an important epileptogenic mechanism. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated an upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α, in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis (MTLE-HS). Expression of these cytokines can be modulated by polymorphisms such as rs16944 and rs1800629, respectively, both of which have been associated with Febrile Seizures (FS) and MTLE-HS development. The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) system has also been implicated in diverse epileptic entities suggesting a variable role of this system in epilepsy...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
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