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Hippocampal sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244218/person-specific-contribution-of-neuropathologies-to-cognitive-loss-in-old-age
#1
Patricia A Boyle, Lei Yu, Robert S Wilson, Sue E Leurgans, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Mixed neuropathologies are the most common cause of dementia at the population level, but how different neuropathologies contribute to cognitive decline at the individual level remains unknown. We quantified the contribution of nine neuropathologies to cognitive loss at an individual level. METHODS: Participants (n=1,079) came from 2 longitudinal clinical-pathologic studies of aging. All completed 2+ cognitive evaluations (maximum = 22), died and underwent neuropathologic examinations to identify Alzheimer's disease (AD), other neurodegenerative diseases, and vascular pathologies...
December 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238960/is-inpatient-ictal-video-electroencephalographic-monitoring-mandatory-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-unilateral-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-prospective-study
#2
Marina K M Alvim, Marcia E Morita, Clarissa L Yasuda, Benito P Damasceno, Tátila M Lopes, Ana Carolina Coan, Enrico Ghizoni, Helder Tedeschi, Fernando Cendes
OBJECTIVE: To compare surgical outcome in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) who had or did not have preoperative video-electroencephalographic monitoring (VEEG). METHODS: A prospective study was undertaken with 166 consecutive pharmacoresistant unilateral MTLE-HS patients. All patients were investigated with detailed seizure semiology, serial routine outpatient EEG, magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological evaluation, and if necessary, other examinations...
December 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229342/parahippocampectomy-as-a-new-surgical-approach-to-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-due-to-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-pilot-randomized-comparative-clinical-trial
#3
Mario Arturo Alonso-Vanegas, Iván D Freire Carlier, Daniel San-Juan, Alma Rosa Martínez NPsych, Carlos Trenado
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) plays an important role in the epileptogenic pathways of mTLE-HS, it´s resection could be preventing epileptic seizures with less complications. Evaluate the initial efficacy and safety of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), selective amygdalo-hipppocampectomy (SAH) and parahippocampectomy (PHC) surgical approaches in mTLE-HS. METHODS: This was a randomized comparative pilot clinical trial (2008-2011) that included patients with mTLE-HS who underwent: ATL, trans-T3 SAH, and trans-T3 PHC...
December 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216908/clinical-and-neuropathological-features-of-als-ftd-with-tia1-mutations
#4
Veronica Hirsch-Reinshagen, Cyril Pottier, Alexandra M Nicholson, Matt Baker, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, Charles Krieger, Pheth Sengdy, Kevin B Boylan, Dennis W Dickson, Marsel Mesulam, Sandra Weintraub, Eileen Bigio, Lorne Zinman, Julia Keith, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Sasha A Zivkovic, David Lacomis, J Paul Taylor, Rosa Rademakers, Ian R A Mackenzie
Mutations in the stress granule protein T-cell restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) were recently shown to cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with or without frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we provide detailed clinical and neuropathological descriptions of nine cases with TIA1 mutations, together with comparisons to sporadic ALS (sALS) and ALS due to repeat expansions in C9orf72 (C9orf72+). All nine patients with confirmed mutations in TIA1 were female. The clinical phenotype was heterogeneous with a range in the age at onset from late twenties to the eighth decade (mean = 60 years) and disease duration from one to 6 years (mean = 3 years)...
December 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213032/-staging-of-neuroplasticity-alterations-during-epileptogenesis-temporal-lobe-epileply-as-an-example
#5
N V Gulyaeva
Using temporal lobe epilepsy as an example, staging of long term plasticity in the hippocampus is considered. Major stages demonstrating opposite alterations in neuroplasticity are active epileptogenesis and the period of established temporal lobe epilepsy. During the epileptogenesis, multiple events resulting in forming of epileptic neuronal nets occur: changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, increase of aberrant neurogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendrite remodeling, particularly, supported by an excessive enhancement of the BDNF system in specific hippocampal regions...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209169/amyloid-%C3%AE-homeostasis-bridges-inflammation-synaptic-plasticity-deficits-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Sara Garofalo, Girolama A Marfia, Luana Gilio, Ilaria Simonelli, Annamaria Finardi, Roberto Furlan, Giulia M Sancesario, Jonny Di Giandomenico, Marianna Storto, Francesco Mori, Diego Centonze, Ennio Iezzi
Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), mainly involving processing speed and episodic memory. Both demyelination and gray matter atrophy can contribute to cognitive deficits in MS. In recent years, neuroinflammation is emerging as a new factor influencing clinical course in MS. Inflammatory cytokines induce synaptic dysfunction in MS. Synaptic plasticity occurring within hippocampal structures is considered as one of the basic physiological mechanisms of learning and memory. In experimental models of MS, hippocampal plasticity is profoundly altered by proinflammatory cytokines...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194293/multiple-pathological-mechanisms-contribute-to-hippocampal-damage-in-the-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Elizabeth L Kyran, Christine Robinson, Pece Kocovski, Zhenjiang Li, Phuc T Dang, Matthew W Hale, Jacqueline M Orian
Emotional and cognitive deficits and associated hippocampal damage observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) are now recognized as primary disease manifestations. However, the pathological substrate of these dysfunctions is unclear. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) MS model, impaired hippocampal-dependent functions are concomitant with severe microglial reactivity and neurodegeneration, but reports vary with respect to evidence of lymphocytic infiltration, raising questions as to the nature of the underlying neurodegenerative mechanisms...
January 3, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186501/the-amygdala-as-a-locus-of-pathologic-misfolding-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
Peter T Nelson, Erin L Abner, Ela Patel, Sonya Anderson, Donna M Wilcock, Richard J Kryscio, Linda J Van Eldik, Gregory A Jicha, Zsombor Gal, Ruth S Nelson, Bela G Nelson, Jozsef Gal, Md Tofial Azam, David W Fardo, Matthew D Cykowski
Over the course of most common neurodegenerative diseases the amygdala accumulates pathologically misfolded proteins. Misfolding of 1 protein in aged brains often is accompanied by the misfolding of other proteins, suggesting synergistic mechanisms. The multiplicity of pathogenic processes in human amygdalae has potentially important implications for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body diseases, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, primary age-related tauopathy, and hippocampal sclerosis, and for the biomarkers used to diagnose those diseases...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175574/surgical-management-and-long-term-seizure-outcome-after-surgery-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-associated-with-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#9
Peng-Fan Yang, Jia-Sheng Pei, Yan-Zeng Jia, Qiao Lin, Hui Xiao, Ting-Ting Zhang, Zhong-Hui Zhong
OBJECTIVE: Operative strategies for cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM)-associated temporal lobe epilepsy and timing of surgical intervention have continued under debate. This study aimed to establish an algorithm to evaluate efficacy of surgical intervention strategies, which maximizes positive surgical outcomes and minimizes post-surgical neurological deficits. METHODS: 47 subjects having undergone operation for CCM-associated temporal lobe epilepsy were retrospectively reviewed...
November 22, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163352/parahippocampal-involvement-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-proof-of-concept-from-memory-guided-saccades
#10
Silvia Colnaghi, Giorgio Beltrami, Guy Poloni, Anna Pichiecchio, Stefano Bastianello, Carlo Andrea Galimberti, Maurizio Versino
Objective: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) may involve extrahippocampal areas of structural damage and dysfunction. The accuracy of medium-term spatial memory can be tested by memory-guided saccades (MGS) to evaluate a functional impairment of the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), while voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis can be used to detect a structural damage of the latter region. Methods: MGS with 3- and 30-s memorization delays were compared between 7 patients affected by right MTLE-HS (r-MTLE-HS), 6 patients affected by left MTLE-HS, and 13 healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163013/motor-areas-show-altered-dendritic-structure-in-an-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-mouse-model
#11
Matthew J Fogarty, Erica W H Mu, Nickolas A Lavidis, Peter G Noakes, Mark C Bellingham
Objective: Motor neurons (MNs) die in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. In human or rodent studies, MN loss is preceded by increased excitability. As increased neuronal excitability correlates with structural changes in dendritic arbors and spines, we have examined longitudinal changes in dendritic structure in vulnerable neuron populations in a mouse model of familial ALS. Methods: We used a modified Golgi-Cox staining method to determine the progressive changes in dendritic structure of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, striatal medium spiny neurons, and resistant (trochlear, IV) or susceptible (hypoglossal, XII; lumbar) MNs from brainstem and spinal cord of mice over-expressing the human SOD1(G93A) (SOD1) mutation, in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, at four postnatal (P) ages of 8-15, 28-35, 65-75, and 120 days...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162878/comparative-analysis-of-cytokine-chemokine-regulatory-networks-in-patients-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-hs-and-focal-cortical-dysplasia-fcd
#12
Arpna Srivastava, Aparna Banerjee Dixit, Debasmita Paul, Manjari Tripathi, Chitra Sarkar, P Sarat Chandra, Jyotirmoy Banerjee
Experimental and clinical evidence have demonstrated aberrant expression of cytokines/chemokines and their receptors in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). However, there is limited information regarding the modulation of cytokine/chemokine-regulatory networks, suggesting contribution of miRNAs and downstream transcription factors/receptors in these pathologies. Hence, we studied the levels of multiple inflammatory mediators (IL1β, IL1Ra, IL6, IL10, CCL3, CCL4, TNFα and VEGF) along with transcriptional changes of nine related miRNAs and mRNA levels of downstream effectors of significantly altered cytokines/chemokines in brain tissues obtained from patients with HS (n = 26) and FCD (n = 26)...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153613/brain-expression-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#13
Bárbara Leal, João Chaves, Cláudia Carvalho, Rui Rangel, Agostinho Santos, Andreia Bettencourt, João Lopes, João Ramalheira, Berta M Silva, António Martins da Silva, Paulo P Costa
Neuroinflammation may be central in epileptogenesis. In this study we analysed inflammatory reaction markers in brain tissue of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis (MTLE-HS) patients. TLR4, IL-1β and IL-10 gene expression as well as the presence of activated HLA-DR+ microglia was evaluated in 23 patients and 10 cadaveric controls. Inflammation characterized by the presence of HLA-DR(+) microglia and TLR4, IL-1β overexpression was evident in hippocampus and anterior temporal cortex of MTLE-HS patients...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150274/neuroprotective-potential-of-high-dose-biotin
#14
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
A recent controlled trial has established that high-dose biotin supplementation - 100 mg, three times daily - has a stabilizing effect on progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although this effect has been attributed to an optimization of biotin's essential cofactor role in the brain, a case can be made that direct stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by pharmacological concentrations of biotin plays a key role in this regard. The utility of high-dose biotin in MS might reflect an anti-inflammatory effect of cGMP on the cerebral microvasculature, as well on oligodendrocyte differentiation and on Schwann cell production of neurotrophic factors thought to have potential for managing MS...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147777/how-i-do-it-selective-amygdalohippocampectomy-via-a-navigated-temporobasal-approach-when-veins-forbid-elevation-of-the-temporal-lobe
#15
Daniel Delev, Johannes Schramm, Hans Clusmann
BACKGROUND: Selective amygdalohippocampectomy is an effective treatment option for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis. METHODS: To describe and emphasize potential pitfalls during selective amygdalohippocampectomy via a modified navigated temporobasal approach, in cases, where temporal basal veins hinder the required elevation of the temporal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via navigated temporobasal approach is a safe procedure that can reduce the rate of visual field deficits by avoiding damage of optic radiation...
November 16, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142232/tdp-43-misexpression-causes-defects-in-dendritic-growth
#16
Josiah J Herzog, Mugdha Deshpande, Leah Shapiro, Avital A Rodal, Suzanne Paradis
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) share overlapping genetic causes and disease symptoms, and are linked neuropathologically by the RNA binding protein TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein-43 kDa). TDP-43 regulates RNA metabolism, trafficking, and localization of thousands of target genes. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which dysfunction of TDP-43 contributes to disease pathogenesis and progression remain unclear. Severe changes in the structure of neuronal dendritic arbors disrupt proper circuit connectivity, which in turn could contribute to neurodegenerative disease...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130506/animal-models-of-acquired-epilepsy-insights-into-mechanisms-of-human-epileptogenesis
#17
Albert J Becker
In many patients who suffer from epilepsies, recurrent epileptic seizures do not start at birth but develop later in life. This holds particularly true for epilepsies with a focal seizure origin including focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). TLE most frequently has its seizure onset in the hippocampal formation. Hippocampal biopsies of pharmacoresistant TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery for seizure control most frequently reveal the damage pattern of hippocampal sclerosis, i...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117924/red-flags-in-epilepsy-surgery-identifying-the-patients-who-pay-a-high-cognitive-price-for-an-unsuccessful-surgical-outcome
#18
Sallie Baxendale, Pamela Thompson
Preoperative estimates of cognitive and seizure outcome must be as accurate as possible if the candidate is to make an informed decision about epilepsy surgery. Significant declines in memory function are reported in approximately 30% of temporal lobe surgery patients. The percentage varies according to the ways in which a postoperative deterioration is defined but since the majority of outcome studies do not take into account the patient's capacity to deteriorate if they are functioning at or close to the floor of a memory test prior to surgery, the published percentages may be an underrepresentation of the true extent of memory decline following epilepsy surgery...
November 5, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107200/the-association-of-psychosocial-variables-with-adherence-to-antiepileptic-drugs-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Shan Wang, Cong Chen, Bo Jin, Linglin Yang, Yao Ding, Yi Guo, Yi Chen, Shuang Wang, Meiping Ding
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the association between psychosocial factors and adherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 123 individuals with TLE, admitted to our epilepsy center from December 2015 to May 2017. The participants completed standardized self-report questionnaires measuring medication adherence, anxiety, depression, and family and social support...
December 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100172/earlier-seizure-onset-and-longer-epilepsy-duration-correlate-with-the-degree-of-temporal-hypometabolism-in-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-sclerosis
#20
Carlos Leiva-Salinas, Mark Quigg, W Jeffrey Elias, James T Patrie, Lucia Flors, Nathan B Fountain, Patrice K Rehm
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship of glucose metabolism and volume of the temporal lobes with age at epilepsy onset, epilepsy duration, and seizure frequency in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). METHODS: We evaluated the pre-surgical 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 18 patients with epilepsy and MRI findings of MTS, who were seizure-free for at least 2-years after temporal lobectomy...
December 2017: Epilepsy Research
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