keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Hippocampal sclerosis

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023170/ampa-receptors-and-perampanel-behind-selected-epilepsies-current-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#1
Carlo Di Bonaventura, Angelo Labate, Marta Maschio, Stefano Meletti, Emilio Russo
The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors are the major mediators of glutamate-mediated excitatory neurotransmission, and are critical for synchronization and spread of epileptic activity. Areas covered. AMPA receptor antagonists have been also developed as antiepileptic drugs and perampanel (PER) is the first highly selective, non-competitive AMPA-type glutamate receptor antagonist that is available on the market. It is approved as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization, and for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, in patients aged ≥ 12 years...
October 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990420/synaptic-activity-protects-neurons-against-calcium-mediated-oxidation-and-contraction-of-mitochondria-during-excitotoxicity
#2
Constanze Depp, Carlos Bas-Orth, Lisa Schroeder, Andrea Hellwig, Hilmar Bading
AIMS: Excitotoxicity triggered by extrasynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) has been implicated in many neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke. Mitochondrial calcium overload leading to mitochondrial dysfunction represents an early event in excitotoxicity. Neurons are rendered resistant to excitotoxicity by previous periods of synaptic activity that activates a nuclear calcium-driven neuroprotective gene program...
October 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988523/immunopathology-in-drug-resistant-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-different-types-of-hippocampal-sclerosis
#3
F Irsel Tezer, Aysegul Firat, Erdem Tuzun, Isik Unal, Figen Soylemezoglu, Burcak Bilginer, Figen Kaymaz, Kader K Oguz, Serap Saygi
PURPOSE: There is evidence that autoimmunity has a specific role in temporal lobe seizures of limbic encephalitis patients. Our aim in this study was to investigate any histopathological clues of autoimmune process in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with different pathologically proven hippocampal sclerosis (HS) types. METHODS: 22 patients who had undergone to epilepsy surgery due to mesial TLE-HS were included. The sera of patients are tested for neuronal antibodies to NMDAR, LGI1, CASPR2, AMPAR, GABABR and GAD...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988018/corpus-callosum-diffusion-abnormalities-in-refractory-epilepsy-associated-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#4
Katarina P Lyra, Khallil T Chaim, Claudia C Leite, Eun J Park, Celi S Andrade, Valmir Passarelli, Rosa M F Valério, Carmen L Jorge, Luiz H M Castro, Maria C G Otaduy
OBJECTIVES: To detect by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) the extent of microstructural integrity changes of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and to evaluate possible association with clinical characteristics. METHODS: Fourty-two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and HS and 30 control subjects were studied with DTI. We grouped patients according to lesion side (left or right) HS. Mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) were extracted from five segments in CC midsagittal section obtained by automatic segmentation...
September 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987197/neuropathology-of-cerebrovascular-diseases
#5
Isidro Ferrer, Noemi Vidal
The chapter describes the epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases, anatomy of the cerebral blood vessels, pathophysiology of ischemia, hypoxia, hypoxemia, anemic hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia, carbon monoxide damage, hyperoxid brain damage and decompression sickness, and selective cell and regional vulnerability; diseases of the blood vessels including atherosclerosis, hypertensive angiopathy, small vessel disease, inflammatory vascular diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathies, CADASIL, CARASIL and other diseases that can lead to cerebrovascular occlusion; intracranial and intraspinal aneurysms and vascular malformations; hematologic disorders that can cause cerebral infarct or hemorrhage; brain ischemic damage; and spontaneous intracranial bleeding...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987170/neuropathology-of-epilepsy
#6
Eleonora Aronica, Angelika Mühlebner
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders, affecting about 50 million people worldwide. The disease is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are due to aberrant neuronal networks resulting in synchronous discharges. The term epilepsy encompasses a large spectrum of syndromes and diseases with different etiopathogenesis. The recent development of imaging and epilepsy surgery techniques is now enabling the identification of structural abnormalities that are part of the epileptic network, and the removal of these lesions may result in control of seizures...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965622/chronic-inflammation-in-refractory-hippocampal-sclerosis-related-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Jordan M Gales, Richard A Prayson
Emerging evidence suggests chronic inflammation may play a role in hippocampal sclerosis-associated temporal lobe epilepsy. We sought to systematically evaluate for its presence in a group of 315 patients who underwent surgery for medically-refractory epilepsy and who had hippocampal sclerosis. Upon histologic review of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections, 95 (41%) cases demonstrated the presence of lymphocytes within the perivascular region and diffusely within the brain parenchyma. Those cases with chronic inflammation evident on hematoxylin and eosin staining were significantly more likely to experience a post-operative seizure recurrence than those without it (p=0...
October 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951616/prolonged-seizure-activity-causes-caspase-dependent-cleavage-and-dysfunction-of-g-protein-activated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channels
#8
Brian C Baculis, Amanda C Weiss, Weilun Pang, Han Gil Jeong, Jun Hee Lee, Dai-Chi Liu, Nien-Pei Tsai, Hee Jung Chung
Recurrent high-frequency epileptic seizures cause progressive hippocampal sclerosis, which is associated with caspase-3 activation and NMDA receptor-dependent excitotoxicity. However, the identity of caspase-3 substrates that contribute to seizure-induced hippocampal atrophy remains largely unknown. Here, we show that prolonged high-frequency epileptiform discharges in cultured hippocampal neurons leads to caspase-dependent cleavage of GIRK1 and GIRK2, the major subunits of neuronal G protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels that mediate membrane hyperpolarization and synaptic inhibition in the brain...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941835/pharmacoresistance-with-newer-anti-epileptic-drugs-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#9
Michael S Pohlen, Jingxiao Jin, Ronnie S Tobias, Atul Maheshwari
This study aims to evaluate the overall prognosis, prognostic factors, and efficacy of treatment in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) who have access to third generation anti-epileptic drugs but not to epilepsy surgery. Eighty-five MTLE-HS patients were retrospectively placed into a seizure-free (seizure-free for >1year) or drug-resistant group, and the two groups were compared on the basis of age, sex, age at onset of seizures, duration of epilepsy, side of lesion, handedness, EEG findings, history of CNS infection, history of febrile convulsions, history of head trauma, history of cognitive impairment, family history of seizures, number of current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), total number of AED trials, and presence of individual AEDs...
September 19, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941760/bilateral-cingulum-fiber-reductions-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-unilateral-hippocampal-sclerosis
#10
H Urbach, K Egger, K Rutkowski, J M Nakagawa, B Schmeiser, M Reisert, A Brandt, B J Steinhoff, A Schulze-Bonhage, T Hammen
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether white matter tracts within the Papez circuit are altered in patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). METHODS: Twenty patients with histologically proven unilateral HS and 20 age-matched controls were studied with a 3T Epilepsy-dedicated MRI protocol including a MPRAGE sequence for hippocampus volumetry and a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence (61 diffusion-encoding directions, 2×2×2mm(3) voxels) for diffusion tensor tractography (DTT)...
September 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940767/human-mesenchymal-factors-induce-rat-hippocampal-and-human-neural-stem-cell-dependent-oligodendrogenesis
#11
Janusz J Jadasz, Lena Tepe, Felix Beyer, Iria Samper Agrelo, Rainer Akkermann, Lucas-Sebastian Spitzhorn, Maria Elena Silva, Richard O C Oreffo, Hans-Peter Hartung, Alessandro Prigione, Francisco J Rivera, James Adjaye, Patrick Küry
The generation of new oligodendrocytes is essential for adult brain repair in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. We previously identified the multifunctional p57kip2 protein as a negative regulator of myelinating glial cell differentiation and as an intrinsic switch of glial fate decision in adult neural stem cells (aNSCs). In oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs), p57kip2 protein nuclear exclusion was recently found to be rate limiting for differentiation to proceed. Furthermore, stimulation with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived factors enhanced oligodendrogenesis by yet unknown mechanisms...
September 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934025/tamec-a-new-analogue-of-cyclomyrsinol-diterpenes-decreases-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Abdul Majid Ayatollahi, Mostafa Haji Molla Hoseini, Syed Mustafa Ghanadian, Morteza Kosari-Nasab, Fatemeh Mami, Zeinab Yazdiniapoure, Behzad Zolfaghari, Ali-Akbar Salari
Objectives There is a significant prevalence of affective disorders including depression and anxiety in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), resulting in reduced quality of life. Since the current treatments are not generally effective, further studies are needed to find appropriate drugs to alleviate anxiety and depression symptoms in these patients. Methods The effects of a new analog of cyclomyrsinol diterpenes (TAMEC) isolated from Euphorbia sogdiana on the anxiety (open field and elevated plus maze test) and depressive-like behaviors (sucrose preference test and forced swim test) in EAE-induced C57BL/6 mice (EAE; a mouse model of MS) were investigated...
September 21, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912503/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-mirnas-in-experimental-and-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
A Korotkov, J D Mills, J A Gorter, E A van Vliet, E Aronica
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common chronic neurological disease in humans. A number of studies have demonstrated differential expression of miRNAs in the hippocampus of humans with TLE and in animal models of experimental epilepsy. However, the dissimilarities in experimental design have led to largely discordant results across these studies. Thus, a comprehensive comparison is required in order to better characterize miRNA profiles obtained in various post-status epilepticus (SE) models. We therefore created a database and performed a meta-analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs across 3 post-SE models of epileptogenesis (electrical stimulation, pilocarpine and kainic acid) and human TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS)...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906030/pathological-and-immunoblot-analysis-of-phosphorylated-tdp-43-in-sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-with-pallido-nigro-luysian-degeneration
#14
Akiko Uchino, Mieko Ogino, Junko Takahashi-Fujigasaki, Saori Oonuma, Naomi Kanazawa, Sabine Kajita, Masaaki Ichinoe, Masato Hasegawa, Kazutoshi Nishiyama, Shigeo Murayama
Transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a key protein of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and phosphorylated form of TDP-43 (p-TDP-43) is a major pathological protein that accumulates in sporadic ALS. p-TDP-43 is found not only in primary motor neurons, but often propagates to non-motor systems as well. However, pallido-nigro-luysian (PNL) degeneration (PNLD) is rarely associated with ALS. We describe here a 68-year-old ALS patient presenting severe PNLD. He had difficulty walking due to poor movement of his right leg, and was diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease because of akinesia...
September 14, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899220/diagnosis-of-mesial-temporal-sclerosis-sensitivity-specificity-and-predictive-values-of-the-quantitative-analysis-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Ana María Granados Sánchez, Juan Felipe Orejuela Zapata
In the diagnosis of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of qualitative assessment using conventional magnetic resonance imaging are low, mainly in mild or bilateral atrophy. Quantitative analysis may improve this performance. We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of quantitative analysis using the hippocampal volumetric index (HVI) and hippocampal asymmetry index (HAI) compared with qualitative assessment in the MTS diagnosis...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888331/hamartia-in-hippocampal-sclerosis-associated-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
K L Gawelek, J M Gales, R A Prayson
Hamartia are small collections of rounded glioneuronal cells that are thought to be due to aberrant cell migration. Their presence has been recognized in association with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy; their prevalence among cases of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and any potential association with patient demographics and outcomes is unknown. This study examines hamartia in a series of 292 patients with pathologically confirmed HS. Medical records were reviewed for pertinent patient clinical information (follow-up mean 5years)...
September 6, 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882721/clinical-presentation-of-neurocysticercosis-related-epilepsy
#17
REVIEW
Kevin R Duque, Jorge G Burneo
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system and a major risk factor for seizures and epilepsy. Seizure types in NCC vary largely across studies and seizure semiology is poorly understood. We discuss here the studies regarding seizure types and seizure semiology in NCC, and examine the clinical presentation in patients with NCC and drug-resistant epilepsy. We also provide evidence of the role of MRI and EEG in the diagnosis of NCC-related epilepsy. Focal seizures are reported in 60-90% of patients with NCC-related epilepsy, and around 90% of all seizures registered prospectively are focal not evolving to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures...
September 4, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873362/impact-of-hippocampal-subfield-histopathology-in-episodic-memory-impairment-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-hippocampal-sclerosis
#18
Sandra Mara Comper, Anaclara Prada Jardim, Jeana Torres Corso, Larissa Botelho Gaça, Maria Helena Silva Noffs, Carmen Lúcia Penteado Lancellotti, Esper Abrão Cavalheiro, Ricardo Silva Centeno, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to analyze preoperative visual and verbal episodic memories in a homogeneous series of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) submitted to corticoamygdalohippocampectomy and its association with neuronal cell density of each hippocampal subfield. METHODS: The hippocampi of 72 right-handed patients were collected and prepared for histopathological examination. Hippocampal sclerosis patterns were determined, and neuronal cell density was calculated...
September 2, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870986/factors-affecting-seizure-outcome-after-epilepsy-surgery-an-observational-series
#19
Gail S Bell, Jane de Tisi, Juan Carlos Gonzalez-Fraile, Janet L Peacock, Andrew W McEvoy, William F J Harkness, Jacqueline Foong, Rebecca A Pope, Beate Diehl, Josemir W Sander, John S Duncan
IMPORTANCE: Surgical treatment can bring seizure remission in people with focal epilepsy but requires careful selection of candidates. OBJECTIVES: To determine which preoperative factors are associated with postoperative seizure outcome. DESIGN: We audited seizure outcome of 693 adults who had resective epilepsy surgery between 1990 and 2010 and used survival analysis to detect preoperatively identifiable risk factors of poor seizure outcome...
November 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866129/inhibition-of-gaba-a-receptor-improved-special-memory-impairment-in-the-local-model-of-demyelination-in-rat-hippocampus
#20
Alireza Mousavi Majd, Forough Ebrahim Tabar, Arghavan Afghani, Sahand Ashrafpour, Samaneh Dehghan, Mohammad Gol, Manouchehr Ashrafpour, Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein
Cognitive impairment and memory deficit are common features in multiple Sclerosis patients. The mechanism of memory impairment in MS is unknown, but neuroimaging studies suggest that hippocampal demyelination is involved. Here, we investigate the role of GABA A receptor on spatial memory in the local model of hippocampal demyelination. Demyelination was induced in male Wistar rats by bilaterally injection of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 1% into the CA1 region of the hippocampus. The treatment groups were received daily intraventricular injection of bicuculline (0...
January 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
keyword
keyword
62552
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"