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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043070/opportunities-and-limitations-for-intersection-collision-intervention-a-study-of-real-world-left-turn-across-path-accidents
#1
Ulrich Sander
Turning across the path of oncoming vehicle accidents are frequent and dangerous. To date not many car manufacturers have introduced Automated Emergency Braking (AEB) systems addressing this type of conflict situation, but it is foreseeable that these scenarios will be part of the Euro NCAP 2020 rating. Nine out of ten collisions are caused by the driver of the turning vehicle. An AEB system evaluating the ego and conflict vehicle driver's possibilities to avoid a pending crash by either braking or steering was specified for application in various constellations of vehicle collisions...
December 30, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043069/comparison-of-multivariate-poisson-lognormal-spatial-and-temporal-crash-models-to-identify-hot-spots-of-intersections-based-on-crash-types
#2
Wen Cheng, Gurdiljot Singh Gill, Ravi Dasu, Meiquan Xie, Xudong Jia, Jiao Zhou
Most of the studies are focused on the general crashes or total crash counts with considerably less research dedicated to different crash types. This study employs the Systemic approach for detection of hotspots and comprehensively cross-validates five multivariate models of crash type-based HSID methods which incorporate spatial and temporal random effects. It is anticipated that comparison of the crash estimation results of the five models would identify the impact of varied random effects on the HSID. The data over a ten year time period (2003-2012) were selected for analysis of a total 137 intersections in the City of Corona, California...
December 30, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993391/injury-threshold-of-rectus-capitis-muscles-at-the-atlanto-occipital-joint
#3
Richard C Hallgren
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to collect muscle stiffness data from the 4 rectus capitis (RC) muscles to better understand their role in stabilizing the atlanto-occipital joint. The passive load displacement properties of these muscles have not been previously reported. METHODS: Rectus capitis muscles were removed from 3 unembalmed head and neck specimens. Passive length-force (stiffness) data were collected by using a servo-controlled hydraulic test machine...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898367/effectiveness-of-forward-collision-warning-and-autonomous-emergency-braking-systems-in-reducing-front-to-rear-crash-rates
#4
Jessica B Cicchino
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of forward collision warning (FCW) alone, a low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system operational at speeds up to 19mph that does not warn the driver prior to braking, and FCW with AEB that operates at higher speeds in reducing front-to-rear crashes and injuries. Poisson regression was used to compare rates of police-reported crash involvements per insured vehicle year in 22 U.S. states during 2010-2014 between passenger vehicle models with FCW alone or with AEB and the same models where the optional systems were not purchased, controlling for other factors affecting crash risk...
November 26, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846993/the-interactive-effect-on-injury-severity-of-driver-vehicle-units-in-two-vehicle-crashes
#5
Qiang Zeng, Huiying Wen, Helai Huang
INTRODUCTION: This study sets out to investigate the interactive effect on injury severity of driver-vehicle units in two-vehicle crashes. METHOD: A Bayesian hierarchical ordered logit model is proposed to relate the variation and correlation of injury severity of drivers involved in two-vehicle crashes to the factors of both driver-vehicle units and the crash configurations. A total of 6417 crash records with 12,834 vehicles involved in Florida are used for model calibration...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771691/aspiration-of-rear-end-of-pen-in-children-management-issues
#6
S Kalpana, B Sarath Balaji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754455/study-on-the-fire-damage-characteristics-of-the-new-qidaoliang-highway-tunnel-field-investigation-with-computational-fluid-dynamics-cfd-back-analysis
#7
Hongpeng Lai, Shuyong Wang, Yongli Xie
In the New Qidaoliang Tunnel (China), a rear-end collision of two tanker trunks caused a fire. To understand the damage characteristics of the tunnel lining structure, in situ investigation was performed. The results show that the fire in the tunnel induced spallation of tunnel lining concrete covering 856 m³; the length of road surface damage reached 650 m; the sectional area had a maximum 4% increase, and the mechanical and electrical facilities were severely damaged. The maximum area loss happened at the fire spot with maximum observed concrete spallation up to a thickness of 35...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710775/evaluation-of-the-impacts-of-cooperative-adaptive-cruise-control-on-reducing-rear-end-collision-risks-on-freeways
#8
Ye Li, Hao Wang, Wei Wang, Lu Xing, Shanwen Liu, Xueyan Wei
Although plenty of studies have been conducted recently about the impacts of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) system on traffic efficiency, there are few researches analyzing the safety effects of this advanced driving-assistant system. Thus, the primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of the CACC system on reducing rear-end collision risks on freeways. The CACC model is firstly developed, which is based on the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM). Then, two surrogated safety measures, derived from the time-to-collision (TTC), denoting time exposed time-to-collision (TET) and time integrated time-to-collision (TIT), are introduced for quantifying the collision risks...
January 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690834/whiplash-injury-or-concussion-a-possible-biomechanical-explanation-for-concussion-symptoms-in-some-individuals-following-a-rear-end-collision
#9
Benjamin S Elkin, James M Elliott, Gunter P Siegmund
Study Design Finite element modeling of experimental data. Background The clinical presentations of whiplash injury and concussion have considerable overlap. Both diagnoses are generally based on presenting signs and symptoms, and a history of neck or head trauma. With incomplete knowledge of the trauma, differentiating between whiplash injury and concussion can be clinically challenging. Objectives To estimate the brain strains that develop during rear-end car crashes, evaluate how these strains vary with different head kinematic parameters, and compare these strains to those generated during potentially concussive football helmet impacts...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636191/upper-cervical-spine-loading-simulating-a-dynamic-low-speed-collision-significantly-increases-the-risk-of-pain-compared-to-quasistatic-loading-with-equivalent-neck-kinematics
#10
Timothy P Holsgrove, Nicolas V Jaumard, Nina Zhu, Nicholas S Stiansen, William C Welch, Beth A Winkelstein
Dynamic cervical spine loading can produce facet capsule injury. Despite a large proportion of neck pain being attributable to the C2/C3 facet capsule, potential mechanisms are not understood. This study replicated low-speed frontal and rear-end traffic collisions in Occiput-C3 human cadaveric cervical spine specimens, and used kinematic and full-field strain analyses to assess injury. Specimens were loaded quasistatically in flexion and extension before and after dynamic rotation of C3 at 100°/sec. Global kinematics in the sagittal plane were tracked at 1kHz and C2/C3 facet capsule full-field strains were measured...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594660/pharmacological-and-interventional-management-of-pain-after-whiplash-injury
#11
Michele Curatolo
Synopsis Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) is a group of symptoms and clinical manifestations resulting from rear-end or side impact. Despite the wide use of medications in WAD, the published research does not allow recommendations based on high evidence level. It may be meaningful to use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the acute posttraumatic phase. In chronic WAD, the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is more concerning due to potential gastrointestinal and renal complications with prolonged use and lack of evidence for long-term benefits...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586102/comparison-of-crash-rates-and-rear-end-striking-crashes-among-novice-teens-and-experienced-adults-using-the-shrp2-naturalistic-driving-study
#12
Thomas Seacrist, Aditya Belwadi, Abhiti Prabahar, Samuel Chamberlain, James Megariotis, Helen Loeb
OBJECTIVE: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens. Previous teen and adult crash rates have been based upon fatal crashes, police-reported crashes, and estimated miles driven. Large-scale naturalistic driving studies offer the opportunity to compute crash rates using a reliable methodology to capture crashes and driving exposure. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study contains extensive real-world data on teen and adult driving...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586101/evaluation-of-the-crash-mitigation-effect-of-low-speed-automated-emergency-braking-systems-based-on-insurance-claims-data
#13
Irene Isaksson-Hellman, Magdalena Lindman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the crash mitigation performance of low-speed automated emergency braking collision avoidance technologies by examining crash rates, car damage, and personal injuries. METHOD: Insurance claims data were used to identify rear-end frontal collisions, the specific situations where the low-speed automated emergency braking system intervenes. We compared cars of the same model (Volvo V70) with and without the low-speed automated emergency braking system (AEB and no AEB, respectively)...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576139/effects-of-whole-spine-alignment-patterns-on-neck-responses-in-rear-end-impact
#14
Fusako Sato, Mamiko Odani, Yusuke Miyazaki, Kunio Yamazaki, Jonas Östh, Mats Svensson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the whole spine alignment in automotive seated postures for both genders and the effects of the spinal alignment patterns on cervical vertebral motion in rear impact using a human finite element (FE) model. METHODS: Image data for 8 female and 7 male subjects in a seated posture acquired by an upright open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system were utilized. Spinal alignment was determined from the centers of the vertebrae and average spinal alignment patterns for both genders were estimated by multidimensional scaling (MDS)...
August 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565040/a-rear-end-collision-risk-assessment-model-based-on-drivers-collision-avoidance-process-under-influences-of-cell-phone-use-and-gender-a-driving-simulator-based-study
#15
Xiaomeng Li, Xuedong Yan, Jiawei Wu, Essam Radwan, Yuting Zhang
Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration...
December 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543897/identify-sequence-of-events-likely-to-result-in-severe-crash-outcomes
#16
Kun-Feng Wu, Craig P Thor, Muhammad Nashir Ardiansyah
The current practice of crash characterization in highway engineering reduces multiple dimensions of crash contributing factors and their relative sequential connections, crash sequences, into broad definitions, resulting in crash categories such as head-on, sideswipe, rear-end, angle, and fixed-object. As a result, crashes that are classified in the same category may contain many different crash sequences. This makes it difficult to develop effective countermeasures because these crash categorizations are based on the outcomes rather than the preceding events...
November 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450793/a-farewell-to-brake-reaction-times-kinematics-dependent-brake-response-in-naturalistic-rear-end-emergencies
#17
Gustav Markkula, Johan Engström, Johan Lodin, Jonas Bärgman, Trent Victor
Driver braking behavior was analyzed using time-series recordings from naturalistic rear-end conflicts (116 crashes and 241 near-crashes), including events with and without visual distraction among drivers of cars, heavy trucks, and buses. A simple piecewise linear model could be successfully fitted, per event, to the observed driver decelerations, allowing a detailed elucidation of when drivers initiated braking and how they controlled it. Most notably, it was found that, across vehicle types, driver braking behavior was strongly dependent on the urgency of the given rear-end scenario's kinematics, quantified in terms of visual looming of the lead vehicle on the driver's retina...
October 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442594/does-assisted-driving-behavior-lead-to-safety-critical-encounters-with-unequipped-vehicles-drivers
#18
Katharina Preuk, Eric Stemmler, Caroline Schießl, Meike Jipp
With Intelligent Transport Systems (e.g., traffic light assistance systems) assisted drivers are able to show driving behavior in anticipation of upcoming traffic situations. In the years to come, the penetration rate of such systems will be low. Therefore, the majority of vehicles will not be equipped with these systems. Unequipped vehicles' drivers may not expect the driving behavior of assisted drivers. However, drivers' predictions and expectations can play a significant role in their reaction times. Thus, safety issues could arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter driving behavior of assisted drivers...
October 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439113/differences-in-factors-affecting-various-crash-types-with-high-numbers-of-fatalities-and-injuries-in-china
#19
Yikai Chen, Kai Wang, Mark King, Jie He, Jianxun Ding, Qin Shi, Changjun Wang, Pingfan Li
OBJECTIVES: Road traffic crashes that involve very high numbers of fatalities and injuries arouse public concern wherever they occur. In China, there are two categories of such crashes: a crash that results in 10-30 fatalities, 50-100 serious injuries or a total cost of 50-100 million RMB ($US8-16m) is a "serious road traffic crash" (SRTC), while a crash that is even more severe or costly is a "particularly serious road traffic crash" (PSRTC). The aim of this study is to identify the main factors affecting different types of these crashes (single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact) with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348043/safety-effectiveness-and-crash-cost-benefit-of-red-light-cameras-in-missouri
#20
Boris Claros, Carlos Sun, Praveen Edara
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objective Red light cameras (RLC) have generated heated discussions over issues of safety effectiveness, revenue generation, and procedural due process. This study focuses on the safety evaluation of RLC in Missouri, including the economic valuation of safety benefits. The publication of the national Highway Safety Manual (HSM) in 2010 produced statistical safety models for intersections and spurred the calibration of these models to local conditions. Methods This study adds to existing knowledge by applying the latest statistical methodology presented in the HSM and more current data...
June 27, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
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