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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658863/swallow-syncope-after-whiplash-neck-injury
#1
Luka Lipar, Pia Vovk, Tereza Weiss, Jus Ksela
Swallow syncope is a rare dysautonomic syndrome characterized by temporary loss of consciousness upon swallowing solid foods or liquids, displaying primarily in individuals with an underlying structural or functional esophageal or cardiac pathology. However, the evidence also suggests that isolated vagal dysfunction or abnormal reactions of esophageal mechanoreceptors after mechanical irritation, demyelination, or trauma can potentially evoke  a cardioinhibitory response or vasodepression upon swallowing. We present a case of a 49-year-old otherwise healthy female patient who developed swallow syncope two weeks after whiplash neck injury acquired in a rear-end collision...
March 5, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655389/dendrorchis-pampae-sp-n-digenea-gorgoderidae-from-cynopoecilus-melanotaenia-cyprinodontiformes-cynolebiidae-a-killifish-from-southern-brazil-with-an-emended-diagnosis-of-dendrorchis
#2
C M Monteiro, E W Wendt, Y D Zebral
A new species of Dendrorchis is described and compared with others in the genus. The parasites were found in the swim bladder of the annual killifish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia. Hosts were collected from a seasonal wetland in southern Brazil. The main characteristics of D. pampae are: genital pore in the intestinal bifurcation region elongate and lobed vitellaria uterine loops limited to the acetabular region and to the rear end of the body; and wide intestinal caeca. An emended diagnosis of the genus Dendrorchis includes the characteristics of the new species...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584473/analysis-of-near-crashes-among-teen-young-adult-and-experienced-adult-drivers-using-the-shrp2-naturalistic-driving-study
#3
Thomas Seacrist, Ethan C Douglas, Elaine Huang, James Megariotis, Abhiti Prabahar, Abyaad Kashem, Ayya Elzarka, Leora Haber, Taryn MacKinney, Helen Loeb
OBJECTIVE: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among young drivers. Though previous research has focused on crash events, near crashes offer additional data to help identify driver errors that could potentially lead to crashes as well as evasive maneuvers used to avoid them. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) contains extensive data on real-world driving and offers a reliable methodology to quantify and study near crashes...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580101/application-of-energy-derivative-method-to-determine-the-structural-components-contribution-on-the-deceleration-in-crashes
#4
Kei Nagasaka, Koji Mizuno, Robert Thomson
OBJECTIVE: For occupant protection, it is important to understand how a car's deceleration-time history in crashes can be designed using efficient of energy absorption by a car body's structure. In a previous paper, the authors proposed an energy derivative method to determine each structural component's contribution on the longitudinal deceleration of a car passenger compartment in crashes. In this study, this method was extended to two dimensions in order to analyze various crash test conditions...
March 26, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502853/assessing-rear-end-crash-potential-in-urban-locations-based-on-vehicle-by-vehicle-interactions-geometric-characteristics-and-operational-conditions
#5
Loukas Dimitriou, Katerina Stylianou, Mohamed A Abdel-Aty
Rear-end crashes are one of the most frequently occurring crash types, especially in urban networks. An understanding of the contributing factors and their significant association with rear-end crashes is of practical importance and will help in the development of effective countermeasures. The objective of this study is to assess rear-end crash potential at a microscopic level in an urban environment, by investigating vehicle-by-vehicle interactions. To do so, several traffic parameters at the individual vehicle level have been taken into consideration, for capturing car-following characteristics and vehicle interactions, and to investigate their effect on potential rear-end crashes...
March 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489567/a-comprehensive-review-of-low-speed-rear-impact-volunteer-studies-and-a-comparison-to-real-world-outcomes
#6
Joseph Cormier, Lisa Gwin, Lars Reinhart, Rawson Wood, Charles Bain
STUDY DESIGN: This study combined all prior research involving human volunteers in low-speed rear-end impacts and performed a comparative analysis of real-world crashes using the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the rates of neck pain between volunteer and real-world collisions as well as the likelihood of an injury beyond symptoms as a function of impact severity and occupant characteristics in real-world collisions...
February 27, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433071/applying-crash-data-to-injury-claims-an-investigation-of-determinant-factors-in-severe-motor-vehicle-accidents
#7
Darren Shannon, Finbarr Murphy, Martin Mullins, Julian Eggert
An extensive number of research studies have attempted to capture the factors that influence the severity of vehicle impacts. The high number of risks facing all traffic participants has led to a gradual increase in sophisticated data collection schemes linking crash characteristics to subsequent severity measures. This study serves as a departure from previous research by relating injuries suffered in road traffic accidents to expected trauma compensation payouts and deriving a quantitative cost function. Data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Crash Injury Research (CIREN) database for the years 2005-2014 is combined with the Book of Quantum, an Irish governmental document that offers guidelines on the appropriate compensation to be awarded for injuries sustained in accidents...
February 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432451/microexon-gene-transcriptional-profiles-and-evolution-provide-insights-into-blood-processing-by-the-schistosoma-japonicum-esophagus
#8
Xiao-Hong Li, Ricardo DeMarco, Leandro X Neves, Sally R James, Katherine Newling, Peter D Ashton, Jian-Ping Cao, R Alan Wilson, William Castro-Borges
BACKGROUND: Adult schistosomes have a well-developed alimentary tract comprising an oral sucker around the mouth, a short esophagus and a blind ending gut. The esophagus is not simply a muscular tube for conducting blood from the mouth to gut but is divided into compartments, surrounded by anterior and posterior glands, where processing of ingested blood is initiated. Self-cure of rhesus macaques from a Schistosoma japonicum infection appears to operate by blocking the secretory functions of these glands so that the worms cease feeding and slowly starve to death...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411677/factors-contributing-to-motorcycle-fatal-crashes-on-national-highways-in-india
#9
Hasan Mehdi Naqvi, Geetam Tiwari
This study analyses fatal crash patterns, and identifies the risk factors contributing to motorcycle versus non-motorcycle fatal crashes using binomial logistic regression on two-, four- and six-lane National Highways (NHs) in India utilizing police fatal crash data. The distribution of victims' mode by striking vehicles shows that percentage share of striking vehicles (truck) against the victims' vehicles (motorcycle) is 44%, 52% and 37% on two-lane NH-8, four-lane NH-24 and six-lane NH-1, respectively. Nine explanatory variables pertaining to fatal crash, victim, roadway and environment are considered for the model (using combined data of cited three NHs)...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407662/assessing-rear-end-collision-risk-of-cars-and-heavy-vehicles-on-freeways-using-a-surrogate-safety-measure
#10
Peibo Zhao, Chris Lee
This study analyzes rear-end collision risk of cars and heavy vehicles on freeways using a surrogate safety measure. The crash potential index (CPI) was modified to reflect driver's reaction time and estimated by types of lead and following vehicles (car or heavy vehicle). CPIs were estimated using the individual vehicle trajectory data from a segment of the US-101 freeway in Los Angeles, U.S.A. It was found that the CPI was generally higher for the following heavy vehicle than the following car due to heavy vehicle's lower braking capability...
February 2, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404847/human-brain-modeling-with-its-anatomical-structure-and-realistic-material-properties-for-brain-injury-prediction
#11
Noritoshi Atsumi, Yuko Nakahira, Eiichi Tanaka, Masami Iwamoto
Impairments of executive brain function after traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head impacts in traffic accidents need to be obviated. Finite element (FE) analyses with a human brain model facilitate understanding of the TBI mechanisms. However, conventional brain FE models do not suitably describe the anatomical structure in the deep brain, which is a critical region for executive brain function, and the material properties of brain parenchyma. In this study, for better TBI prediction, a novel brain FE model with anatomical structure in the deep brain was developed...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323934/safe-speed-limits-for-a-safe-system-the-relationship-between-speed-limit-and-fatal-crash-rate-for-different-crash-types
#12
Sam D Doecke, Craig N Kloeden, Jeffrey K Dutschke, Matthew R J Baldock
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to provide empirical evidence for safe speed limits that will meet the objectives of the Safe System by examining the relationship between speed limit and injury severity for different crash types, using police-reported crash data. METHOD: Police-reported crashes from 2 Australian jurisdictions were used to calculate a fatal crash rate by speed limit and crash type. Example safe speed limits were defined using threshold risk levels...
January 11, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275900/longitudinal-safety-evaluation-of-connected-vehicles-platooning-on-expressways
#13
Md Sharikur Rahman, Mohamed Abdel-Aty
Connected vehicles (CV) technology has recently drawn an increasing attention from governments, vehicle manufacturers, and researchers. One of the biggest issues facing CVs popularization associates it with the market penetration rate (MPR). The full market penetration of CVs might not be accomplished recently. Therefore, traffic flow will likely be composed of a mixture of conventional vehicles and CVs. In this context, the study of CV MPR is worthwhile in the CV transition period. The overarching goal of this study was to evaluate longitudinal safety of CV platoons by comparing the implementation of managed-lane CV platoons and all lanes CV platoons (with same MPR) over non-CV scenario...
December 21, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227692/autonomous-emergency-braking-systems-adapted-to-snowy-road-conditions-improve-drivers-perceived-safety-and-trust
#14
Ioana Koglbauer, Jürgen Holzinger, Arno Eichberger, Cornelia Lex
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated drivers' evaluation of a conventional autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system on high and reduced tire-road friction and compared these results to those of an AEB system adaptive to the reduced tire-road friction by earlier braking. Current automated systems such as the AEB do not adapt the vehicle control strategy to the road friction; for example, on snowy roads. Because winter precipitation is associated with a 19% increase in traffic crashes and a 13% increase in injuries compared to dry conditions, the potential of conventional AEB to prevent collisions could be significantly improved by including friction in the control algorithm...
December 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214988/anthropometric-characteristics-and-traffic-accident-circumstances-of-patients-with-isolated-whiplash-injury-in-university-clinical-hospital-mostar
#15
Pejana Rastović, Marija Definis Gojanović, Ines Perić, Marko Pavlović, Josip Lesko, Gordan Galić, Marko Ostojić
Aim To investigate anthropometric characteristics and traffic accident circumstances of subjects with isolated whiplash injury. Methods This cross sectional study involved 75 subjects from traffic accidents with isolated whiplash injury classified by Quebec Task Force (QTF). Anthropometric data were collected as well as claims about circumstances of traffic accidents. Results Distribution of 1st (28; 37.3%), 2nd (25; 33.3%) and 3rd (22; 29.3%) grade of whiplash injury was almost equal. Females had smaller anthropometric measurements than males; neck circumference was the most significant difference between males and females in the context of whiplash injury...
February 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203024/rage-against-the-machine-google-s-self-driving-cars-versus-human-drivers
#16
Eric R Teoh, David G Kidd
INTRODUCTION: Automated driving represents both challenges and opportunities in highway safety. Google has been developing self-driving cars and testing them under employee supervision on public roads since 2009. These vehicles have been involved in several crashes, and it is of interest how this testing program compares to human drivers in terms of safety. METHODS: Google car crashes were coded by type and severity based on narratives released by Google. Crash rates per million vehicle miles traveled (VMT) were computed for crashes deemed severe enough to be reportable to police...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203019/using-naturalistic-driving-study-data-to-investigate-the-impact-of-driver-distraction-on-driver-s-brake-reaction-time-in-freeway-rear-end-events-in-car-following-situation
#17
Jingru Gao, Gary A Davis
INTRODUCTION: The rear-end crash is one of the most common freeway crash types, and driver distraction is often cited as a leading cause of rear-end crashes. Previous research indicates that driver distraction could have negative effects on driving performance, but the specific association between driver distraction and crash risk is still not fully revealed. This study sought to understand the mechanism by which driver distraction, defined as secondary task distraction, could influence crash risk, as indicated by a driver's reaction time, in freeway car-following situations...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149879/risk-management-of-emergency-service-vehicle-crashes-in-the-united-states-fire-service-process-outputs-and-recommendations
#18
David P Bui, Keshia Pollack Porter, Stephanie Griffin, Dustin D French, Alesia M Jung, Stephen Crothers, Jefferey L Burgess
BACKGROUND: Emergency service vehicle crashes (ESVCs) are a leading cause of death in the United States fire service. Risk management (RM) is a proactive process for identifying occupational risks and reducing hazards and unwanted events through an iterative process of scoping hazards, risk assessment, and implementing controls. We describe the process, outputs, and lessons learned from the application of a proactive RM process to reduce ESVCs in US fire departments. METHODS: Three fire departments representative of urban, suburban, and rural geographies, participated in a facilitated RM process delivered through focus groups and stakeholder discussion...
November 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121894/frequency-of-acute-cervical-and-lumbar-pathology-in-common-types-of-motor-vehicle-collisions-a-retrospective-record-review
#19
Rami Hashish, Hasan Badday
BACKGROUND: There are more than 5 million motor vehicle collisions annually in the United States, resulting in more than 2 million injured occupants. The most common types of collisions are head-on impacts, rear-ends, side-swipes, and t-bones, whilst the most common injury sites are the cervical and lumbar spine. The purpose of this retrospective record review was to examine the differences in frequency of cervical and lumbar pathology across and between these common collision types. METHODS: Nine-hundred and three patients were included in this analysis, 88 of whom described being in a head-on collision, 546 in a rear-end, 123 in a side-swipe, and 146 in a t-bone...
November 9, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101787/how-safe-is-tuning-a-radio-using-the-radio-tuning-task-as-a-benchmark-for-distracted-driving
#20
Ja Young Lee, John D Lee, Jonas Bärgman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer
Drivers engage in non-driving tasks while driving, such as interactions entertainment systems. Studies have identified glance patterns related to such interactions, and manual radio tuning has been used as a reference task to set an upper bound on the acceptable demand of interactions. Consequently, some view the risk associated with radio tuning as defining the upper limit of glance measures associated with visual-manual in-vehicle activities. However, we have little knowledge about the actual degree of crash risk that radio tuning poses and, by extension, the risk of tasks that have similar glance patterns as the radio tuning task...
October 27, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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