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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803960/evaluating-impacts-of-different-longitudinal-driver-assistance-systems-on-reducing-multi-vehicle-rear-end-crashes-during-small-scale-inclement-weather
#1
Ye Li, Lu Xing, Wei Wang, Hao Wang, Changyin Dong, Shanwen Liu
Multi-vehicle rear-end (MVRE) crashes during small-scale inclement (SSI) weather cause high fatality rates on freeways, which cannot be solved by traditional speed limit strategies. This study aimed to reduce MVRE crash risks during SSI weather using different longitudinal driver assistance systems (LDAS). The impact factors on MVRE crashes during SSI weather were firstly analyzed. Then, four LDAS, including Forward collision warning (FCW), Autonomous emergency braking (AEB), Adaptive cruise control (ACC) and Cooperative ACC (CACC), were modeled based on a unified platform, the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM)...
August 9, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777766/risk-factors-for-roadway-single-and-multi-vehicle-all-terrain-vehicle-crashes-in%C3%A2-pennsylvania-2010-2013
#2
Serap Gorucu, Dennis Murphy, Cathy Kassab
BACKGROUND: All Terrain Vehicles on public roadways become major risk factors for the motorists. OBJECTIVE: To compare characteristics of crashes and injury severity related to single vehicle (SV) and multi-vehicle (MV) All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) roadway crashes in Pennsylvania, USA. METHODS: Data on ATV crashes occurring on public roads during the years 2010-2013 was obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) and analyzed...
August 1, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709110/a-full-bayesian-approach-to-appraise-the-safety-effects-of-pedestrian-countdown-signals-to-drivers
#3
Angela E Kitali, P E Thobias Sando
Although they are meant for pedestrians, pedestrian countdown signals (PCSs) give cues to drivers about the length of the remaining green phase, hence affecting drivers' behavior at intersections. This study focuses on the evaluation of the safety effectiveness of PCSs to drivers, in the cities of Jacksonville and Gainesville, Florida, using crash modification factors (CMFs) and crash modification functions (CMFunctions). A full Bayes (FB) before-and-after with comparison group method was used to quantify the safety impacts of PCSs to drivers...
July 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687120/safety-effects-of-dynamic-speed-limits-on-motorways
#4
Ellen De Pauw, Stijn Daniels, Laurent Franckx, Inge Mayeres
Dynamic speed limits (DSL) are limits that change according to real-time traffic, road or weather conditions. In DSL-schemes road users are typically informed of speed limit changes by electronic signs that are housed within gantries situated above lanes. Dynamic speed limit systems are increasingly applied worldwide, usually on motorways. One of the objectives of dynamic speed limits is to improve traffic safety through reductions in speed variations within and across lanes and between upstream and downstream flows...
July 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652941/two-headed-butterfly-vs-mantis-do-false-antennae-matter
#5
Tania G López-Palafox, Carlos R Cordero
The colour patterns and morphological peculiarities of the hindwings of several butterfly species result in the appearance of a head at the rear end of the insect's body. Although some experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that the "false head" deflects predator attacks towards the rear end of the butterfly, more research is needed to determine the role of the different components of the "false head". We explored the role of hindwing tails (presumably mimicking antennae) in predator deception in the "false head" butterfly Callophrys xami...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636489/evaluation-of-countermeasures-for-red-light-running-by-traffic-simulator-based-surrogate-safety-measures
#6
Changju Lee, Jaehyun Jason So, Jiaqi Ma
OBJECTIVE: The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures by the comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis...
June 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595973/crash-probability-estimation-via-quantifying-driver-hazard-perception
#7
Yang Li, Yang Zheng, Jianqiang Wang, Kenji Kodaka, Keqiang Li
Crash probability estimation is an important method to predict the potential reduction of crash probability contributed by forward collision avoidance technologies (FCATs). In this study, we propose a practical approach to estimate crash probability, which combines a field operational test and numerical simulations of a typical rear-end crash model. To consider driver hazard perception characteristics, we define a novel hazard perception measure, called as driver risk response time, by considering both time-to-collision (TTC) and driver braking response to impending collision risk in a near-crash scenario...
June 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571594/dual-torcs-driven-and-b56-orchestrated-signaling-network-guides-eukaryotic-cell-migration
#8
Lou W Kim
Different types of eukaryotic cells may adopt seemingly distinct modes of directional cell migration. However, several core aspects are regarded common whether the movement is either ameoboidal or mesenchymal. The region of cells facing the attractive signal is often termed leading edge where lamellipodial structures dominates and the other end of the cell called rear end is often mediating cytoskeletal F-actin contraction involving Myosin-II. Dynamic remodeling of cell-to-matrix adhesion involving integrin is also evident in many types of migrating cells...
June 2, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554588/pathologic-c-spine-fracture-with-low-risk-mechanism-and-normal-physical-exam
#9
Andrew Hunter, Jolion McGreevy, Judith Linden
Cervical spinal fracture is a rare, but potentially disabling complication of trauma to the neck. Clinicians often rely on clinical decision rules and guidelines to decide whether or not imaging is necessary when a patient presents with neck pain. Validated clinical guidelines include the Canadian C-Spine Rule and the Nexus criteria. Studies suggest that the risks of a pathologic fracture from a simple rear end collision are negligible. We present a case of an individual who presented to an emergency department (ED) after a low speed motor vehicle collision complaining of lateral neck pain and had multiple subsequent visits for the same complaint with negative exam findings...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509423/analysis-of-the-relationship-between-the-double-transverse-foramen-and-the-possibility-of-developing-clinical-symptoms-after-whiplash
#10
Juan A Sanchis-Gimeno, Marcelino Perez-Bermejo, Luis Rios, Susanna Llido, Markus Bastir, Esther Blanco-Perez, Federico Mata-Escolano
Currently, there is no information about the possibility of developing clinical symptoms after whiplash in double transverse foramen subjects. Our aim was to test whether subjects with double transverse foramen have an increased risk of presenting with an acute headache, dizziness, vertebral artery dissection, and vomiting after whiplash.We recorded the absence/presence of double transverse foramen, and the absence/presence of neck pain, acute headache, dizziness, vertebral artery dissection, and vomiting in 85 patients who had suffered whiplash injuries in car rear-end impacts in road traffic accidents...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500990/evaluating-the-safety-impact-of-adaptive-cruise-control-in-traffic-oscillations-on-freeways
#11
Ye Li, Zhibin Li, Hao Wang, Wei Wang, Lu Xing
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has been considered one of the critical components of automated driving. ACC adjusts vehicle speeds automatically by measuring the status of the ego-vehicle and leading vehicle. Current commercial ACCs are designed to be comfortable and convenient driving systems. Little attention is paid to the safety impacts of ACC, especially in traffic oscillations when crash risks are the highest. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of ACC parameter settings on rear-end collisions on freeways...
July 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499140/is-vehicle-automation-enough-to-prevent-crashes-role-of-traffic-operations-in-automated-driving-environments-for-traffic-safety
#12
Eunbi Jeong, Cheol Oh, Seolyoung Lee
Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study...
July 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494260/examination-of-the-reliability-of-the-crash-modification-factors-using-empirical-bayes-method-with-resampling-technique
#13
Jung-Han Wang, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Ling Wang
There have been plenty of studies intended to use different methods, for example, empirical Bayes before-after methods, to get accurate estimation of CMFs. All of them have different assumptions toward crash count if there was no treatment. Additionally, another major assumption is that multiple sites share the same true CMF. Under this assumption, the CMF at an individual intersection is randomly drawn from a normally distributed population of CMFs at all intersections. Since CMFs are non-zero values, the population of all CMFs might not follow normal distributions, and even if it does, the true mean of CMFs at some intersections may be different from that at others...
July 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454872/effects-of-an-integrated-collision-warning-system-on-teenage-driver-behavior
#14
Jessica S Jermakian, Shan Bao, Mary Lynn Buonarosa, James R Sayer, Charles M Farmer
INTRODUCTION: Crash warning systems have been shown to provide safety benefits, but no studies have examined how teenagers respond. This study sought to find out whether young, inexperienced drivers change behavior in response to warnings. METHODS: Forty 16-17 year-olds drove an instrumented vehicle equipped with a system that warned for lane departures and potential rear-end and lane change/merge crashes. Participants were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups, and their driving was monitored for 14weeks during 2011-12...
June 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429637/analysis-of-rotation-angles-and-motions-of-the-flexible-mechanisms-in-bifurcated-blood-vessels
#15
Bin He, Shoulin Xu, An Ding, Yanmin Zhou
This article investigates the relationship of rotation angle of two ends of elastic guidewires, and motion method of guidewires and catheters in bifurcated blood vessels. The relationship of rotation angles of the two ends of the guidewire has first been studied by mathematical reasoning, indicating that the rotation angle of the front end of guidewire can be precisely described by that of the rear end. In order to satisfy the requirements of different vascular interventional surgeries, we further investigated a general model of bifurcated human blood vessels...
April 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407100/seqa-structures-behind-escherichia-coli-replication-forks-affect-replication-elongation-and-restart-mechanisms
#16
Ida Benedikte Pedersen, Emily Helgesen, Ingvild Flåtten, Solveig Fossum-Raunehaug, Kirsten Skarstad
The SeqA protein binds hemi-methylated GATC sites and forms structures that sequester newly replicated origins and trail the replication forks. Cells that lack SeqA display signs of replication fork disintegration. The broken forks could arise because of over-initiation (the launching of too many forks) or lack of dynamic SeqA structures trailing the forks. To confirm one or both of these possible mechanisms, we compared two seqA mutants with the oriCm3 mutant. The oriCm3 mutant over-initiates because of a lack of origin sequestration but has wild-type SeqA protein...
April 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340317/opportunities-for-crash-and-injury-reduction-a-multiharm-approach-for-crash-data-analysis
#17
Ann Mallory, Allison Kender, Kevin Moorhouse
OBJECTIVE: A multiharm approach for analyzing crash and injury data was developed for the ultimate purpose of getting a richer picture of motor vehicle crash outcomes for identifying research opportunities in crash safety. METHODS: Methods were illustrated using a retrospective analysis of 69,597 occupant cases from NASS CDS from 2005 to 2015. Occupant cases were analyzed by frequency and severity of outcome: fatality, injury by Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), number of cases, attributable fatality, disability, and injury costs...
May 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326809/identifying-factors-affecting-the-safety-of-mid-block-bicycle-lanes-considering-mixed-2-wheeled-traffic-flow
#18
Lu Bai, Ching-Yao Chan, Pan Liu, Chengcheng Xu
OBJECTIVE: Electric bikes (e-bikes) have been one of the fastest growing trip modes in Southeast Asia over the past 2 decades. The increasing popularity of e-bikes raised some safety concerns regarding urban transport systems. The primary objective of this study was to identify whether and how the generalized linear regression model (GLM) could be used to relate cyclists' safety with various contributing factors when riding in a mid-block bike lane. The types of 2-wheeled vehicles in the study included bicycle-style electric bicycles (BSEBs), scooter-style electric bicycles (SSEBs), and regular bicycles (RBs)...
October 3, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315616/counterfactual-simulations-applied-to-shrp2-crashes-the-effect-of-driver-behavior-models-on-safety-benefit-estimations-of-intelligent-safety-systems
#19
Jonas Bärgman, Christian-Nils Boda, Marco Dozza
As the development and deployment of in-vehicle intelligent safety systems (ISS) for crash avoidance and mitigation have rapidly increased in the last decades, the need to evaluate their prospective safety benefits before introduction has never been higher. Counterfactual simulations using relevant mathematical models (for vehicle dynamics, sensors, the environment, ISS algorithms, and models of driver behavior) have been identified as having high potential. However, although most of these models are relatively mature, models of driver behavior in the critical seconds before a crash are still relatively immature...
May 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296466/road-accident-fatality-risks-for-vulnerable-versus-protected-road-users-in-northern-ghana
#20
James Damsere-Derry, Gavan Palk, Mark King
BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic that claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. The unfavorable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure, and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users...
October 3, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
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