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S Kalpana, B Sarath Balaji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Hongpeng Lai, Shuyong Wang, Yongli Xie
In the New Qidaoliang Tunnel (China), a rear-end collision of two tanker trunks caused a fire. To understand the damage characteristics of the tunnel lining structure, in situ investigation was performed. The results show that the fire in the tunnel induced spallation of tunnel lining concrete covering 856 m³; the length of road surface damage reached 650 m; the sectional area had a maximum 4% increase, and the mechanical and electrical facilities were severely damaged. The maximum area loss happened at the fire spot with maximum observed concrete spallation up to a thickness of 35...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ye Li, Hao Wang, Wei Wang, Lu Xing, Shanwen Liu, Xueyan Wei
Although plenty of studies have been conducted recently about the impacts of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) system on traffic efficiency, there are few researches analyzing the safety effects of this advanced driving-assistant system. Thus, the primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of the CACC system on reducing rear-end collision risks on freeways. The CACC model is firstly developed, which is based on the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM). Then, two surrogated safety measures, derived from the time-to-collision (TTC), denoting time exposed time-to-collision (TET) and time integrated time-to-collision (TIT), are introduced for quantifying the collision risks...
October 3, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Benjamin S Elkin, James M Elliott, Gunter P Siegmund
Study Design Finite element modeling of experimental data. Background The clinical presentations of whiplash injury and concussion have considerable overlap. Both diagnoses are generally based on presenting signs and symptoms, and a history of neck or head trauma. With incomplete knowledge of the trauma, differentiating between whiplash injury and concussion can be clinically challenging. Objectives To estimate the brain strains that develop during rear-end car crashes, evaluate how these strains vary with different head kinematic parameters, and compare these strains to those generated during potentially concussive football helmet impacts...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Timothy P Holsgrove, Nicolas V Jaumard, Nina Zhu, Nicholas S Stiansen, William C Welch, Beth A Winkelstein
Dynamic cervical spine loading can produce facet capsule injury. Despite a large proportion of neck pain being attributable to the C2/C3 facet capsule, potential mechanisms are not understood. This study replicated low-speed frontal and rear-end traffic collisions in Occiput-C3 human cadaveric cervical spine specimens, and used kinematic and full-field strain analyses to assess injury. Specimens were loaded quasistatically in flexion and extension before and after dynamic rotation of C3 at 100°/sec. Global kinematics in the sagittal plane were tracked at 1kHz and C2/C3 facet capsule full-field strains were measured...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Michele Curatolo
Synopsis Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) is a group of symptoms and clinical manifestations resulting from rear-end or side impact. Despite the wide use of medications in WAD, the published research does not allow recommendations based on high evidence level. It may be meaningful to use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the acute posttraumatic phase. In chronic WAD, the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is more concerning due to potential gastrointestinal and renal complications with prolonged use and lack of evidence for long-term benefits...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Thomas Seacrist, Aditya Belwadi, Abhiti Prabahar, Samuel Chamberlain, James Megariotis, Helen Loeb
OBJECTIVE: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens. Previous teen and adult crash rates have been based upon fatal crashes, police-reported crashes, and estimated miles driven. Large-scale naturalistic driving studies offer the opportunity to compute crash rates using a reliable methodology to capture crashes and driving exposure. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) Naturalistic Driving Study contains extensive real-world data on teen and adult driving...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Irene Isaksson-Hellman, Magdalena Lindman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the crash mitigation performance of low-speed automated emergency braking collision avoidance technologies by examining crash rates, car damage, and personal injuries. METHOD: Insurance claims data were used to identify rear-end frontal collisions, the specific situations where the low-speed automated emergency braking system intervenes. We compared cars of the same model (Volvo V70) with and without the low-speed automated emergency braking system (AEB and no AEB, respectively)...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Fusako Sato, Mamiko Odani, Yusuke Miyazaki, Kunio Yamazaki, Jonas Östh, Mats Svensson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the whole spine alignment in automotive seated postures for both genders and effects of the spinal alignment patterns on cervical vertebral motion in rear impact using a human Finite Element (FE) model. METHODS: Image data of 8 female and 7 male subjects in a seated posture acquired by an upright open MRI system were utilized. Spinal alignment was determined from the centers of the vertebrae and average spinal alignment patterns for both genders were estimated by Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS)...
August 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Xiaomeng Li, Xuedong Yan, Jiawei Wu, Essam Radwan, Yuting Zhang
Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration...
August 23, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Kun-Feng Wu, Craig P Thor, Muhammad Nashir Ardiansyah
The current practice of crash characterization in highway engineering reduces multiple dimensions of crash contributing factors and their relative sequential connections, crash sequences, into broad definitions, resulting in crash categories such as head-on, sideswipe, rear-end, angle, and fixed-object. As a result, crashes that are classified in the same category may contain many different crash sequences. This makes it difficult to develop effective countermeasures because these crash categorizations are based on the outcomes rather than the preceding events...
November 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Gustav Markkula, Johan Engström, Johan Lodin, Jonas Bärgman, Trent Victor
Driver braking behavior was analyzed using time-series recordings from naturalistic rear-end conflicts (116 crashes and 241 near-crashes), including events with and without visual distraction among drivers of cars, heavy trucks, and buses. A simple piecewise linear model could be successfully fitted, per event, to the observed driver decelerations, allowing a detailed elucidation of when drivers initiated braking and how they controlled it. Most notably, it was found that, across vehicle types, driver braking behavior was strongly dependent on the urgency of the given rear-end scenario's kinematics, quantified in terms of visual looming of the lead vehicle on the driver's retina...
October 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Katharina Preuk, Eric Stemmler, Caroline Schießl, Meike Jipp
With Intelligent Transport Systems (e.g., traffic light assistance systems) assisted drivers are able to show driving behavior in anticipation of upcoming traffic situations. In the years to come, the penetration rate of such systems will be low. Therefore, the majority of vehicles will not be equipped with these systems. Unequipped vehicles' drivers may not expect the driving behavior of assisted drivers. However, drivers' predictions and expectations can play a significant role in their reaction times. Thus, safety issues could arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter driving behavior of assisted drivers...
October 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Yikai Chen, Kai Wang, Mark King, Jie He, Jianxun Ding, Qin Shi, Changjun Wang, Pingfan Li
OBJECTIVES: Road traffic crashes that involve very high numbers of fatalities and injuries arouse public concern wherever they occur. In China, there are two categories of such crashes: a crash that results in 10-30 fatalities, 50-100 serious injuries or a total cost of 50-100 million RMB ($US8-16m) is a "serious road traffic crash" (SRTC), while a crash that is even more severe or costly is a "particularly serious road traffic crash" (PSRTC). The aim of this study is to identify the main factors affecting different types of these crashes (single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact) with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies...
2016: PloS One
Boris Claros, Carlos Sun, Praveen Edara
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objective Red light cameras (RLC) have generated heated discussions over issues of safety effectiveness, revenue generation, and procedural due process. This study focuses on the safety evaluation of RLC in Missouri, including the economic valuation of safety benefits. The publication of the national Highway Safety Manual (HSM) in 2010 produced statistical safety models for intersections and spurred the calibration of these models to local conditions. Methods This study adds to existing knowledge by applying the latest statistical methodology presented in the HSM and more current data...
June 27, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Liang-Liang Shi, Chen Lei, Kui Li, Shuo-Zhen Fu, Zheng-Wei Wu, Zhi-Yong Yin
PURPOSE: This study aims to explore the biomechanical mechanism of lower limb injuries to the driver by establishing a finite element (FE) simulation model of collisions. METHODS: First a minibus FE model was integrated with a seat belt system. Then it was used to rebuild two collisions together with the total human model for safety (THUMS) provided by Toyota Motor Corporation: a rear-end collision between a minibus and a truck and a head-on collision of a minibus to a rigid wall...
June 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Samuel J Levulis, Patricia R DeLucia, Daniel Oberfeld
OBJECTIVE: Two experiments were conducted to determine whether detection of the onset of a lead car's deceleration and judgments of its time to contact (TTC) were affected by the presence of vehicles in lanes adjacent to the lead car. BACKGROUND: In a previous study, TTC judgments of an approaching object by a stationary observer were influenced by an adjacent task-irrelevant approaching object. The implication is that vehicles in lanes adjacent to a lead car could influence a driver's ability to detect the lead car's deceleration and to make judgments of its TTC...
June 8, 2016: Human Factors
Cher Carney, Karisa K Harland, Daniel V McGehee
INTRODUCTION: While teen driver distraction is cited as a leading cause of crashes, especially rear-end crashes, little information is available regarding its true prevalence. The majority of distraction studies rely on data derived from police reports, which provide limited information regarding driver distraction. METHOD: This study examined over 400 teen driver rear-end crashes captured by in-vehicle event recorders. A secondary data analysis was conducted, paying specific attention to driver behaviors, eyes-off-road time, and response times to lead-vehicle braking...
June 2016: Journal of Safety Research
Mark D Chandler, Terry L Bunn, Svetla Slavova
Trucking remains one of the most dangerous industries in the U.S. Study aims were to (1) identify differences in worker injury types; (2) describer typical injury scenarios; and (3) recommend injury control measures, in short-haul vs. long-haul trucking. Narrative text analyses of Kentucky short-haul and long-haul trucking workers' compensation first reports of injury were performed. A higher percentage of lifting and cranking injuries were identified in short-haul trucking compared with long-haul trucking that had a higher percentage of securing/opening/closing/adjusting injuries that involved tarping, trailer door handling, and cab slippage...
May 4, 2016: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
Jonathan Wood, Eric T Donnell
The continuous green T intersection is characterized by a channelized left-turn movement from the minor street approach onto the major street, along with a continuous through movement on the major street. The continuous flow through movement is not controlled by the three-phase traffic signal that is used to separate all other movements at the intersection. Rather, the continuous through movement typically has a green through arrow indicator to inform drivers that they do not have to stop. Past research has consistently shown that there are operational and environmental benefits to implementing this intersection form at three-leg locations, when compared to a conventional signalized intersection...
August 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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