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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433071/applying-crash-data-to-injury-claims-an-investigation-of-determinant-factors-in-severe-motor-vehicle-accidents
#1
Darren Shannon, Finbarr Murphy, Martin Mullins, Julian Eggert
An extensive number of research studies have attempted to capture the factors that influence the severity of vehicle impacts. The high number of risks facing all traffic participants has led to a gradual increase in sophisticated data collection schemes linking crash characteristics to subsequent severity measures. This study serves as a departure from previous research by relating injuries suffered in road traffic accidents to expected trauma compensation payouts and deriving a quantitative cost function. Data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Crash Injury Research (CIREN) database for the years 2005-2014 is combined with the Book of Quantum, an Irish governmental document that offers guidelines on the appropriate compensation to be awarded for injuries sustained in accidents...
February 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432451/microexon-gene-transcriptional-profiles-and-evolution-provide-insights-into-blood-processing-by-the-schistosoma-japonicum-esophagus
#2
Xiao-Hong Li, Ricardo DeMarco, Leandro X Neves, Sally R James, Katherine Newling, Peter D Ashton, Jian-Ping Cao, R Alan Wilson, William Castro-Borges
BACKGROUND: Adult schistosomes have a well-developed alimentary tract comprising an oral sucker around the mouth, a short esophagus and a blind ending gut. The esophagus is not simply a muscular tube for conducting blood from the mouth to gut but is divided into compartments, surrounded by anterior and posterior glands, where processing of ingested blood is initiated. Self-cure of rhesus macaques from a Schistosoma japonicum infection appears to operate by blocking the secretory functions of these glands so that the worms cease feeding and slowly starve to death...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411677/factors-contributing-to-motorcycle-fatal-crashes-on-national-highways-in-india
#3
Hasan Mehdi Naqvi, Geetam Tiwari
This study analyses fatal crash patterns, and identifies the risk factors contributing to motorcycle versus non-motorcycle fatal crashes using binomial logistic regression on two-, four- and six-lane National Highways (NHs) in India utilizing police fatal crash data. The distribution of victims' mode by striking vehicles shows that percentage share of striking vehicles (truck) against the victims' vehicles (motorcycle) is 44%, 52% and 37% on two-lane NH-8, four-lane NH-24 and six-lane NH-1, respectively. Nine explanatory variables pertaining to fatal crash, victim, roadway and environment are considered for the model (using combined data of cited three NHs)...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407662/assessing-rear-end-collision-risk-of-cars-and-heavy-vehicles-on-freeways-using-a-surrogate-safety-measure
#4
Peibo Zhao, Chris Lee
This study analyzes rear-end collision risk of cars and heavy vehicles on freeways using a surrogate safety measure. The crash potential index (CPI) was modified to reflect driver's reaction time and estimated by types of lead and following vehicles (car or heavy vehicle). CPIs were estimated using the individual vehicle trajectory data from a segment of the US-101 freeway in Los Angeles, U.S.A. It was found that the CPI was generally higher for the following heavy vehicle than the following car due to heavy vehicle's lower braking capability...
February 2, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404847/human-brain-modeling-with-its-anatomical-structure-and-realistic-material-properties-for-brain-injury-prediction
#5
Noritoshi Atsumi, Yuko Nakahira, Eiichi Tanaka, Masami Iwamoto
Impairments of executive brain function after traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head impacts in traffic accidents need to be obviated. Finite element (FE) analyses with a human brain model facilitate understanding of the TBI mechanisms. However, conventional brain FE models do not suitably describe the anatomical structure in the deep brain, which is a critical region for executive brain function, and the material properties of brain parenchyma. In this study, for better TBI prediction, a novel brain FE model with anatomical structure in the deep brain was developed...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323934/safe-speed-limits-for-a-safe-system-the-relationship-between-speed-limit-and-fatal-crash-rate-for-different-crash-types
#6
Sam D Doecke, Craig N Kloeden, Jeffrey K Dutschke, Matthew R J Baldock
Objective To provide empirical evidence for 'safe' speed limits that will meet the objectives of the Safe System by examining the relationship between speed limit and injury severity for different crash types, using police-reported crash data. Method Police reported crashes from two Australian jurisdictions were used to calculate a fatal crash rate by speed limit and crash type. Example 'safe' speed limits were defined using threshold risk levels. Results A positive exponential relationship between speed limit and fatality rate was found...
January 11, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275900/longitudinal-safety-evaluation-of-connected-vehicles-platooning-on-expressways
#7
Md Sharikur Rahman, Mohamed Abdel-Aty
Connected vehicles (CV) technology has recently drawn an increasing attention from governments, vehicle manufacturers, and researchers. One of the biggest issues facing CVs popularization associates it with the market penetration rate (MPR). The full market penetration of CVs might not be accomplished recently. Therefore, traffic flow will likely be composed of a mixture of conventional vehicles and CVs. In this context, the study of CV MPR is worthwhile in the CV transition period. The overarching goal of this study was to evaluate longitudinal safety of CV platoons by comparing the implementation of managed-lane CV platoons and all lanes CV platoons (with same MPR) over non-CV scenario...
December 21, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227692/autonomous-emergency-braking-systems-adapted-to-snowy-road-conditions-improve-drivers-perceived-safety-and-trust
#8
Ioana Koglbauer, Jürgen Holzinger, Arno Eichberger, Cornelia Lex
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated drivers' evaluation of a conventional autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system on high and reduced tire-road friction, and compared these results to those of an AEB system adaptive to the reduced tire-road friction by earlier braking. Currently automated systems such as the AEB do not adapt the vehicle control strategy to the road friction, e.g. on snowy roads. Since winter precipitation is associated with a 19% increase in traffic crashes and a 13% increase in injuries compared to dry conditions, the potential of conventional AEB to prevent collisions could be significantly improved by including friction in the control algorithm...
December 11, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214988/anthropometric-characteristics-and-traffic-accident-circumstances-of-patients-with-isolated-whiplash-injury-in-university-clinical-hospital-mostar
#9
Pejana Rastović, Marija Definis Gojanović, Ines Perić, Marko Pavlović, Josip Lesko, Gordan Galić, Marko Ostojić
Aim To investigate anthropometric characteristics and traffic accident circumstances of subjects with isolated whiplash injury. Methods This cross sectional study involved 75 subjects from traffic accidents with isolated whiplash injury classified by Quebec Task Force (QTF). Anthropometric data were collected as well as claims about circumstances of traffic accidents. Results Distribution of 1st (28; 37.3%), 2nd (25; 33.3%) and 3rd (22; 29.3%) grade of whiplash injury was almost equal. Females had smaller anthropometric measurements than males; neck circumference was the most significant difference between males and females in the context of whiplash injury...
February 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203024/rage-against-the-machine-google-s-self-driving-cars-versus-human-drivers
#10
Eric R Teoh, David G Kidd
INTRODUCTION: Automated driving represents both challenges and opportunities in highway safety. Google has been developing self-driving cars and testing them under employee supervision on public roads since 2009. These vehicles have been involved in several crashes, and it is of interest how this testing program compares to human drivers in terms of safety. METHODS: Google car crashes were coded by type and severity based on narratives released by Google. Crash rates per million vehicle miles traveled (VMT) were computed for crashes deemed severe enough to be reportable to police...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203019/using-naturalistic-driving-study-data-to-investigate-the-impact-of-driver-distraction-on-driver-s-brake-reaction-time-in-freeway-rear-end-events-in-car-following-situation
#11
Jingru Gao, Gary A Davis
INTRODUCTION: The rear-end crash is one of the most common freeway crash types, and driver distraction is often cited as a leading cause of rear-end crashes. Previous research indicates that driver distraction could have negative effects on driving performance, but the specific association between driver distraction and crash risk is still not fully revealed. This study sought to understand the mechanism by which driver distraction, defined as secondary task distraction, could influence crash risk, as indicated by a driver's reaction time, in freeway car-following situations...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149879/risk-management-of-emergency-service-vehicle-crashes-in-the-united-states-fire-service-process-outputs-and-recommendations
#12
David P Bui, Keshia P Porter, Stephanie Griffin, Dustin D French, Alesia M Jung, Stephen Crothers, Jefferey L Burgess
BACKGROUND: Emergency service vehicle crashes (ESVCs) are a leading cause of death in the United States fire service. Risk management (RM) is a proactive process for identifying occupational risks and reducing hazards and unwanted events through an iterative process of scoping hazards, risk assessment, and implementing controls. We describe the process, outputs, and lessons learned from the application of a proactive RM process to reduce ESVCs in US fire departments. METHODS: Three fire departments representative of urban, suburban, and rural geographies, participated in a facilitated RM process delivered through focus groups and stakeholder discussion...
November 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121894/frequency-of-acute-cervical-and-lumbar-pathology-in-common-types-of-motor-vehicle-collisions-a-retrospective-record-review
#13
Rami Hashish, Hasan Badday
BACKGROUND: There are more than 5 million motor vehicle collisions annually in the United States, resulting in more than 2 million injured occupants. The most common types of collisions are head-on impacts, rear-ends, side-swipes, and t-bones, whilst the most common injury sites are the cervical and lumbar spine. The purpose of this retrospective record review was to examine the differences in frequency of cervical and lumbar pathology across and between these common collision types. METHODS: Nine-hundred and three patients were included in this analysis, 88 of whom described being in a head-on collision, 546 in a rear-end, 123 in a side-swipe, and 146 in a t-bone...
November 9, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101787/how-safe-is-tuning-a-radio-using-the-radio-tuning-task-as-a-benchmark-for-distracted-driving
#14
Ja Young Lee, John D Lee, Jonas Bärgman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer
Drivers engage in non-driving tasks while driving, such as interactions entertainment systems. Studies have identified glance patterns related to such interactions, and manual radio tuning has been used as a reference task to set an upper bound on the acceptable demand of interactions. Consequently, some view the risk associated with radio tuning as defining the upper limit of glance measures associated with visual-manual in-vehicle activities. However, we have little knowledge about the actual degree of crash risk that radio tuning poses and, by extension, the risk of tasks that have similar glance patterns as the radio tuning task...
October 27, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078072/development-of-a-lane-change-risk-index-using-vehicle-trajectory-data
#15
Hyunjin Park, Cheol Oh, Jaepil Moon, Seongho Kim
Surrogate safety measures (SSMs) have been widely used to evaluate crash potential, which is fundamental for the development of effective safety countermeasures. Unlike existing SSMs, which are mainly focused on the evaluation of longitudinal vehicle maneuvering leading to rear-end crashes, this study proposes a new method for estimating crash risk while a subject vehicle changes lanes, referred to as the lane change risk index (LCRI). A novel feature of the proposed methodology is its incorporation of the amount of exposure time to potential crash and the expected crash severity level by applying a fault tree analysis (FTA) to the evaluation framework...
October 24, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041759/assembly-and-alignment-method-for-optimized-spatial-resolution-of-off-axis-three-mirror-fore-optics-of-hyperspectral-imager
#16
Youngsoo Kim, Jinsuk Hong, Byungin Choi, Jong-Ung Lee, Yeonsoo Kim, Hyunsook Kim
A fore optics for the hyperspectral spectrometer is designed, manufactured, assembled, and aligned. The optics has a telecentric off-axis three-mirror configuration with a field of view wider than 14 degrees and an f-number as small as 2.3. The primary mirror (M1) and the secondary mirror (M2) are axially symmetric aspheric surfaces to minimize the sensitivity. The tertiary mirror (M3) is a decentered aspheric surface to minimize the coma and astigmatism aberration. The M2 also has a hole for the slit to maintain the optical performance while maximizing the telecentricity...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040294/towards-social-autonomous-vehicles-efficient-collision-avoidance-scheme-using-richardson-s-arms-race-model
#17
Faisal Riaz, Muaz A Niazi
This paper presents the concept of a social autonomous agent to conceptualize such Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), which interacts with other AVs using social manners similar to human behavior. The presented AVs also have the capability of predicting intentions, i.e. mentalizing and copying the actions of each other, i.e. mirroring. Exploratory Agent Based Modeling (EABM) level of the Cognitive Agent Based Computing (CABC) framework has been utilized to design the proposed social agent. Furthermore, to emulate the functionality of mentalizing and mirroring modules of proposed social agent, a tailored mathematical model of the Richardson's arms race model has also been presented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990037/spreading-dynamics-of-a-precursor-film-of-nanodrops-on-total-wetting-surfaces
#18
Yu-Hsuan Weng, Cyuan-Jhang Wu, Heng-Kwong Tsao, Yu-Jane Sheng
The spreading dynamics of a nanodrop on a total wetting surface is explored by many-body dissipative particle dynamics. Both smooth and rough surfaces with various spreading coefficients (S) are considered. The evolution of the spreading film is mainly characterized by the radius of the wetting area (Rp) and the apparent base radius (Rb) and the contact angle (θ) of the spherical cap. The difference between Rp and Rb reveals the presence of the precursor film. The dynamic behavior can be described by the power law: Rp ∼ t(m), Rb ∼ t(n), and θ ∼ t(-α)...
October 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922081/clinical-outcomes-following-conservative-management-of-chronic-traumatic-cervical-myelopathy-a-case-report
#19
Justin Bridges, Roberto Sandoval
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is limited evidence supporting the conservative management of patients with cervical myelopathy. The purpose of this report is to describe the intervention and outcomes of conservative physical therapy interventions for one patient with chronic cervical myelopathy. CASE DESCRIPTION: This case was a 50-year-old male who sustained a neck injury following a rear-end collision 4 years prior to this therapeutic episode. The patient presented with decreased range of motion in the cervical spine and right upper extremity, strength deficits, altered sensation, poor posture, and reported chronic cervical region pain and difficulty sleeping...
September 18, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911878/comparison-of-proposed-countermeasures-for-dilemma-zone-at-signalized-intersections-based-on-cellular-automata-simulations
#20
Yina Wu, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Yaoxian Ding, Bin Jia, Qi Shi, Xuedong Yan
The Type II dilemma zone describes the road segment to a signalized intersection where drivers have difficulties to decide either stop or go at the onset of yellow signal. Such phenomenon can result in an increased crash risk at signalized intersections. Different types of warning systems have been proposed to help drivers make decisions. Although the warning systems help to improve drivers' behavior, they also have several disadvantages such as increasing rear-end crashes or red-light running (RLR) violations...
September 11, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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