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Epilepsy and stroke

Song Hee Lee, Bo Young Choi, Jin Hee Kim, A Ra Kho, Min Sohn, Hong Ki Song, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Choline alfoscerate (α-GPC) is a common choline compound and acetylcholine precursor in the brain, which has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. α-GPC has been shown to enhance memory and cognitive function in stroke and Alzheimer's patients but currently remains untested in patients suffering from epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate whether α-GPC treatment after seizure can ameliorate seizure-induced cognitive impairment and neuronal injury. The potential therapeutic effects of α-GPC on seizure-induced cognitive impairment were tested in an animal model of pilocarpine-induced seizure...
October 17, 2016: Brain Research
Guy Bar-Klein, Rebecca Klee, Claudia Brandt, Marion Bankstahl, Pablo Bascuñana, Kathrin Töllner, Hotjensa Dalipaj, Jens P Bankstahl, Alon Friedman, Wolfgang Löscher
OBJECTIVE: Acquired epilepsy is a devastating long-term risk of various brain insults, including trauma, stroke, infections, and status epilepticus (SE). There is no preventive treatment for patients at risk. Due to the complex alterations involved in epileptogenesis, it is likely that multi-targeted approaches are required for epilepsy prevention. We report novel preclinical findings with isoflurane, which exerts various non-anesthetic effects that may be relevant for anti-epileptogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Y H Shi, J H Zhao, J L Song, Y J Li, K Liang
Objective: To explore the clinical and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) characteristics of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) in order to improve the early diagnosis rate. Methods: Clinical and imaging data of 46 patients with final diagnosis of MELAS treated in Henan Province People's Hospital from January 2012 to June 2016 were collected. Results: Patients presented with symptoms of epilepsy, hemiplegia, language disorders, and decreased visual acuity and so on...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
Bo Liu, Fei Li, Jingshan Shi, Danli Yang, Yuanyuan Deng, Qihai Gong
Gastrodin (GAS), which is extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has long been used to improve stroke, epilepsy, dizziness and dementia. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of GAS on subacute phase cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion (I/R) injury remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of GAS on cerebral I/R injury in rats. The rats were pretreated with GAS by gavage for 7 days followed by I/R surgery, and were then treated with GAS for 7 days after I/R surgery...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Cory G Couch, Mariano E Menendez, C Lowry Barnes
BACKGROUND: Epilepsies is a spectrum of brain disorders ranging from severe, life threatening, and disabling to more benign, but little is known about its impact in the perioperative arthroplasty setting. We sought to determine whether epileptic patients undergoing elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) would be at increased risk for in-hospital complications and death, prolonged stay, and nonroutine discharge. METHODS: Using discharge records from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2001), we identified 6,054,344 patients undergoing elective primary TJA, of whom 31,865 (0...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Sammy Krachunov, Alexander J Casson
Electroencephalography (EEG) is a procedure that records brain activity in a non-invasive manner. The cost and size of EEG devices has decreased in recent years, facilitating a growing interest in wearable EEG that can be used out-of-the-lab for a wide range of applications, from epilepsy diagnosis, to stroke rehabilitation, to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). A major obstacle for these emerging applications is the wet electrodes, which are used as part of the EEG setup. These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability...
October 2, 2016: Sensors
Mark P Jackson, Asif Rahman, Belen Lafon, Gregory Kronberg, Doris Ling, Lucas C Parra, Marom Bikson
The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of animal research using direct current stimulation (DCS) to our understanding of the physiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We comprehensively address experimental methodology in animal studies, broadly classified as: (1) transcranial stimulation; (2) direct cortical stimulation in vivo and (3) in vitro models. In each case advantages and disadvantages for translational research are discussed including dose translation and the overarching "quasi-uniform" assumption, which underpins translational relevance in all animal models of tDCS...
September 10, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Maryam Daneshpazhooh, Javad Khorassani, Kamran Balighi, Narges Ghandi, Hamidreza Mahmoudi, Hamidreza Tohidinik, Shahin Hamzelou, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi
INTRODUCTION: Neurological diseases are important co-morbidities found in association with bullous pemphigoid. Various neurological conditions (stroke, Parkinson's disease, dementia, epilepsy and multiple sclerosis) have been reported as associations of this bullous disease; whether these are significant has not been definitely proved. However, the presence of neurological conditions is a predictor of poorer prognosis. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to examine the association of bullous pemphigoid and neurological diseases in Iranian bullous pemphigoid patients...
September 26, 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Kh Rezaee, E Azizi, J Haddadnia
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a severe disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes the person to recurrent seizures. Fifty million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy; after Alzheimer's and stroke, it is the third widespread nervous disorder. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, an algorithm to detect the onset of epileptic seizures based on the analysis of brain electrical signals (EEG) has been proposed. 844 hours of EEG were recorded form 23 pediatric patients consecutively with 163 occurrences of seizures...
June 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Ha Neul Lee, Soyong Eom, Se Hoon Kim, Hoon-Chul Kang, Joon Soo Lee, Heung Dong Kim, Young-Mock Lee
BACKGROUND: Epileptic seizures in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) are heterogeneous with no pathognomonic features. We reviewed epilepsy characteristics and clinical outcome exclusively in a pediatric population. METHODS: Twenty-two children and adolescents (13 males) with confirmed mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes due to mitochondrial DNA A3243G mutation and epilepsy were recruited...
August 26, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Daniel T Hass, Colin J Barnstable
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are free radicals thought to mediate the neurotoxic effects of several neurodegenerative disorders. In the central nervous system, ROS can also trigger a phenotypic switch in both astrocytes and microglia that further aggravates neurodegeneration, termed reactive gliosis. Negative regulators of ROS, such as mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are neuroprotective factors that decrease neuron loss in models of stroke, epilepsy, and parkinsonism. However, it is unclear whether UCP2 acts purely to prevent ROS production, or also to prevent gliosis...
August 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
M Ishwarya, R T Narendhirakannan
Neurological disorders are diseases of the brain, the spine, and the nerves that connect them. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system, such as brain tumors, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and stroke as well as less familiar ones such as frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias; cerebrovascular diseases including stroke, migraine, and other headache disorders; multiple sclerosis; neuroinfections; brain tumors; traumatic disorders of the nervous system such as brain trauma; and neurological disorders as a result of malnutrition...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Kristianne Chelsea Altura, Scott B Patten, Kirsten M Fiest, Callie Atta, Andrew G Bulloch, Nathalie Jetté
OBJECTIVES: Our primary aim was to validate the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 as a screening tool for suicidal ideation (SI). METHODS: Persons with epilepsy (n=188), migraine (n=208), multiple sclerosis (n=151), and stroke (n=122) completed questionnaires (e.g., PHQ-9) and the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with SI [odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)]. The diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-9 in identifying SI [sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV)] was validated against the SCID...
September 2016: General Hospital Psychiatry
Anthony S Kim, Ellen Moffatt, Philip C Ursell, Orrin Devinsky, Jeffrey Olgin, Zian H Tseng
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the frequency of and risk factors for out-of-hospital sudden neurologic deaths. METHODS: During the initial 25 months (February 1, 2011-March 1, 2013) of the San Francisco Postmortem Systematic Investigation of Sudden Cardiac Death Study, we captured incident WHO criteria sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) through active surveillance of consecutive out-of-hospital deaths, which must be reported to the medical examiner by law. All cases were referred for full autopsy with detailed examination of the heart and cranial vault, toxicology, and histology...
October 18, 2016: Neurology
Manohar J Shivananda, T S Sathyanaryana Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sexual dysfunction is associated with many medical disorders. Lack of recognition of sexual dysfunction commonly occurs in medical practice. The impact of unrecognized sexual dysfunction affects quality of life, which in turn affects the recovery from medical illness. This article reviews the recent literature regarding sexual dysfunction in medical practice published in PubMed, Clinical key, Scopus, Google scholar from November 2014 to May 2016. RECENT FINDINGS: New findings suggest that sexual dysfunction is associated with most of the disorders affecting various systems...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Angela M Malek, Dulaney A Wilson, Gabriel U Martz, Braxton B Wannamaker, Janelle L Wagner, Gigi Smith, Jonathan C Edwards, Anbesaw W Selassie
PURPOSE: Incidence of status epilepticus (SE) ranges from 6.8 to 41.0 per 100,000 population. Although SE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, the temporal relationship between SE, epilepsy, and mortality is less clear. The risk of all-cause mortality following SE with and without prior epilepsy was investigated. METHOD: This study identified hospitalizations and emergency department visits for persons with SE and persons with epilepsy between 2000 and 2013...
September 3, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
O A L'vova, L V Shal'kevich, A N Dron', M Yu Lukashchuk, E A Orlova, V V Gusev, E V Suleimanova, A V Sulimov, A I Kudlach
AIM: To determine clinical/instrumental predictors of symptomatic epilepsy after ischemic stroke in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-six patients, aged 0-15 years, with the diagnosis of ischemic stroke (ICD-10 I63.0-I63.9) were examined. The duration of the study was 18 months - 12 years. Patients were stratified into post-stroke (n=22) and control (n=114) groups, the latter included patients without epilepsy regardless of the presence of convulsive seizures in the acute stage of stroke...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Hamdy N El Tallawy, Wafaa Ma Farghaly, Tarek A Rageh, Ahmed O Saleh, Taha Ah Mestekawy, Manal Mm Darwish, Mohamed A Abd El Hamed, Anwar M Ali, Doaa M Mahmoud
A screening questionnaire is an important tool for early diagnosis of neurological disorders, and for epidemiological research. This screening instrument must be both feasible and valid. It must be accepted by the community and must be sensitive enough. So, the aim of this study was to prepare different Arabic screening questionnaires for screening different neurological disorders. This study was carried out in three stages. During the first stage, construction of separate questionnaires designed for screening the five major neurological disorders: cerebrovascular stroke, dementias, epilepsy, movement disorders, and muscle and neuromuscular disorders were done...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Y C Lai, Y W Yew, W C Lambert
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a chronic, autoimmune vesiculobullous disease that frequently occurs in the elderly population. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested an association between BP and neurological diseases; some studies, however, showed conflicting results. This study aimed to investigate if patients with BP have significantly higher risks for neurological disorders, compared to controls. A comprehensive search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Case-control and cohort studies that assessed the relationship between BP and neurological diseases were included...
September 7, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
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