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Current opinion in metabolic and nutrition

Masahiko Kawai
Growth failure caused by undernutrition is considered one of the major causes for psychomotor delay in extremely preterm infants, and the concept for "aggressive nutritional approach" is widely accepted worldwide. Based on this, postnatal early catch-up growth due to sufficient supply of nutrients including sufficient amounts of amino acids is believed to be essential for a better outcome; however, there is no definitive evidence of aggressive nutrition on better outcomes in mortality, growth, and neurodevelopment...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Sergio Sandrucci, Geerard Beets, Marco Braga, Kees Dejong, Nicolas Demartines
Malnutrition in cancer patients - in both prevalence and degree - depends primarily on tumor stage and site. Preoperative malnutrition in surgical patients is a frequent problem and is associated with prolonged hospital stay, a higher rate of postoperative complications, higher re-admission rates, and a higher incidence of postoperative death. Given the focus on the cancer and its cure, nutrition is often neglected or under-evaluated, and this despite the availability of international guidelines for nutritional care in cancer patients and the evidence that nutritional deterioration negatively affects survival...
April 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Lijun Wang, Fang Tian
With the rapid development of critical care medicine (CCM) in China, there are increases in the number of intensive care units (ICUs), the scale of one center ICU and the team. Subspecialty construction of CCM is of great concerns for personnel training as well as discipline development, and is currently one of the urgent problems that need to be resolved. Experience of CCM subspecialty construction from Europe and the United States is lacking and it is necessary to propose some opinions on innovation to construct CCM subspecialties with Chinese characteristics...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Shiri Sherf Dagan, Ariela Goldenshluger, Inbal Globus, Chaya Schweiger, Yafit Kessler, Galit Kowen Sandbank, Tair Ben-Porat, Tali Sinai
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its associated metabolic complications. To ensure long-term postoperative success, patients must be prepared to adopt comprehensive lifestyle changes. This review summarizes the current evidence and expert opinions with regard to nutritional care in the perioperative and long-term postoperative periods. A literature search was performed with the use of different lines of searches for narrative reviews. Nutritional recommendations are divided into 3 main sections: 1 ) presurgery nutritional evaluation and presurgery diet and supplementation; 2 ) postsurgery diet progression, eating-related behaviors, and nutritional therapy for common gastrointestinal symptoms; and 3 ) recommendations for lifelong supplementation and advice for nutritional follow-up...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
Jann Arends, Patrick Bachmann, Vickie Baracos, Nicole Barthelemy, Hartmut Bertz, Federico Bozzetti, Ken Fearon, Elisabeth Hütterer, Elizabeth Isenring, Stein Kaasa, Zeljko Krznaric, Barry Laird, Maria Larsson, Alessandro Laviano, Stefan Mühlebach, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Line Oldervoll, Paula Ravasco, Tora Solheim, Florian Strasser, Marian de van der Schueren, Jean-Charles Preiser
Cancers are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the number of new cases is expected to rise significantly over the next decades. At the same time, all types of cancer treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and pharmacological therapies are improving in sophistication, precision and in the power to target specific characteristics of individual cancers. Thus, while many cancers may still not be cured they may be converted to chronic diseases. All of these treatments, however, are impeded or precluded by the frequent development of malnutrition and metabolic derangements in cancer patients, induced by the tumor or by its treatment...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Dominique Bouglé, Saïd Bouhallab
Current opinion strongly links nutrition and health. Among nutrients, proteins, and peptides which are encrypted in their sequences and released during digestion could play a key role in improving health. These peptides have been claimed to be active on a wide spectrum of biological functions or diseases, including blood pressure and metabolic risk factors (coagulation, obesity, lipoprotein metabolism, and peroxidation), gut and neurological functions, immunity, cancer, dental health, and mineral metabolism...
January 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
P Deng, K S Swanson
Companion animals play an important role in our lives and are now considered to be and treated as family members in a majority of households in the United States. Because of the high number of pets that now exist, an increasingly stronger pet-human bond, and the importance placed on health and longevity, the pet food industry has realized steady growth over the last few decades. Despite past successes and opportunities that exist in the future, there are also challenges that must be considered. This review will present a brief overview of the current pet food industry and address some of the key issues moving forward...
March 2015: Journal of Animal Science
Mette M Berger, Claude Pichard
Critically ill patients depend on artificial nutrition for the maintenance of their metabolic functions and lean body mass, as well as for limiting underfeeding-related complications. Current guidelines recommend enteral nutrition (EN), possibly within the first 48 hours, as the best way to provide the nutrients and prevent infections. EN may be difficult to realize or may be contraindicated in some patients, such as those presenting anatomic intestinal continuity problems or splanchnic ischemia. A series of contradictory trials regarding the best route and timing for feeding have left the medical community with great uncertainty regarding the place of parenteral nutrition (PN) in critically ill patients...
August 8, 2014: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
(no author information available yet)
Up to 50% of patients with cancer suffer from weight loss and undernutrition (as called cachexia) even though it is rarely screened or properly handled. Patients' prognosis and quality of life could be greatly improved by simple and inexpensive means encompassing nutritional status assessment and effective nutritional care. These guidelines aim to give health professionals and patients practical and up-to-date advice to manage nutrition in the principal situations encountered during the cancer course according to the type of tumour and treatment (i...
August 2014: Digestive and Liver Disease
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2013: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Giovanni Mantovani, Clelia Madeddu, Antonio Macciò
Cancer-related anorexia and cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a complex multifactorial condition, with loss of lean body mass, chronic inflammation, severe metabolic derangements, reduced food intake, reduced physical activity, and poor quality of life as key symptoms. Cachexia recognizes different phases or stages, moving from precachexia through overt cachexia to advanced or refractory cachexia. The purpose of this review is to describe currently effective approaches for the treatment of cachexia, moving forward to drugs and treatments already shown to be effective but needing further clinical trials to confirm their efficacy...
2013: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
V Jekl, S Redrobe
Dental disease is considered as one of the, if not, the most common disorders seen in pet rabbits. This article provides a review of the scientific literature and an overview of the peculiarities of calcium homeostasis in the rabbit in an attempt to draw together current thinking on the cause of dental disease. A complete understanding of the aetiology and pathophysiology of rabbit dental disease is necessary for the veterinary practitioner to establish a proper therapeutic plan, prognosis and ultimately prevention of this common cause of morbidity and mortality in pet rabbits...
September 2013: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Anna Kawicka, Bozena Regulska-Ilow
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms arising that are apparent throughout the patient's lifespan. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by impaired social and communication interactions as well as restricted, repetitive interests and behaviour. Currently in Poland, about 50 000 people suffer from autism, of which 1/5 are children. Epidemiological studies show that the incidence of autism is increasing, which may be due to the diagnostic category of ASD having been developed. Of vital importance in the treatment of autism, is early diagnosis which is conducive to more rapidly improving the quality of patients' health...
2013: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Vidyut Bhatia, Ashish Bavdekar, Surender Kumar Yachha
PROCESS: Selected members were requested to prepare guidelines on specific issues, which were reviewed by two other members. These guidelines were then incorporated into a draft statement, which was circulated to all members. On 17th December 2011, Kunwar Viren Oswal round table conference was organized by the Apollo Center for Advanced Pediatrics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi and the Sub-specialty Chapter of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Presentations, ensuing discussions, and opinions expressed by the participants were incorporated into the final draft...
May 8, 2013: Indian Pediatrics
Lu Qi
Rates of obesity and related complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have climbed sharply over the past decades, in parallel with shift from principally more active lifestyle and nutritionally dense tradition diet to sedentary lifestyle and more energy-dense, Western-pattern diet. In the past few years, advances in genotyping technology and in particular a number of large-scale genome-wide association studies have made great strides in unraveling the genetic basis of complex diseases; and the growing inventory of genetic variation is facilitating efforts to investigate gene-diet interactions...
December 1, 2012: Current Nutrition Reports
Nyaladzi Balogun, Alastair Forbes, Martin Widschwendter, Anne Lanceley
OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition, suffered by more than 50% of patients with ovarian cancer during the course of their disease, significantly compromises the effectiveness of treatment, causes distress, and increases morbidity and mortality. This review outlines the nutritional challenges faced by women with ovarian cancer and evaluates the evidence base for current practice and possible opportunities for intervention in clinical settings. METHODS: PubMed and MetaLib databases were searched for literature on nutrition and cancer/ovarian cancer using terms and truncations covering cancer, cachexia, mouse models, malnutrition, and nutrition intervention...
July 2012: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
V Reid Sutton, Kimberly A Chapman, Andrea L Gropman, Erin MacLeod, Kathy Stagni, Marshall L Summar, Keiko Ueda, Nicholas Ah Mew, Jill Franks, Eddie Island, Dietrich Matern, Loren Peña, Brittany Smith, Tina Urv, Charles Venditti, Anupam Chakarapani
Propionic acidemia is a relatively rare inborn error of metabolism. Individuals with propionic acidemia often have life-threatening episodes of hyperammonemia and metabolic acidosis, as well as intellectual disability. There are many reports of additional problems, including poor growth, stroke-like episodes of the basal ganglia, seizures, cardiomyopathy, long QTc syndrome, immune defects, pancreatitis and optic neuropathy; however, there is little information about the incidence of these problems in this rare disease...
January 2012: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Rosemary L Walzem, Peter Murano
Pediatric hyperlipidemias increasingly require dietary management of overweight and obesity for resolution. Dietary management of inappropriate weight gain may be outside of normal pediatric expertise. This review used scientific statements of expert professional groups, federal program documentation, and selected original articles or opinions to survey dietary techniques and highlight continuing controversies and therapeutic successes. At present, complex societal and environmental factors underlie the current epidemic in pediatric overweight, precluding definitive statements of best practices...
June 2008: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Ruth King, Pauline Glover, Kathryn Byrt, Leonie Porter-Nocella
OBJECTIVE: to identify factors affecting women's oral nutrition in labour. DESIGN: literature review (1988-2009). SETTING: Westernised maternity care settings. PARTICIPANTS: women, midwives, obstetricians, anaesthetists and hospitals. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: when addressing labour stages, the risk categorisation of women and maternal/fetal birthing outcomes, there was a lack of consistent evidence identifying adverse outcomes for mothers/infants when oral nutrition in labour had occurred...
October 2011: Midwifery
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2010: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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