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Negative Binomial and multilevel

Nguyen X Thanh, Anderson W Chuck, Tracy Wasylak, Jeannette Lawrence, Peter Faris, Olle Ljungqvist, Gregg Nelson, Leah M Gramlich
BACKGROUND: In February 2013, Alberta Health Services established an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) implementation program for adopting the ERAS Society colorectal guidelines into 6 sites (initial phase) that perform more than 75% of all colorectal surgeries in the province. We conducted an economic evaluation of this initiative to not only determine its cost-effectiveness, but also to inform strategy for the spread and scale of ERAS to other surgical protocols and sites. METHODS: We assessed the impact of ERAS on patients' health services utilization (HSU; length of stay [LOS], readmissions, emergency department visits, general practitioner and specialist visits) within 30 days of discharge by comparing pre- and post-ERAS groups using multilevel negative binomial regressions...
October 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Matthew Gittins, Roseanne McNamee, Fiona Holland, Lesley-Anne Carter
OBJECTIVE: Accurate estimation of the true incidence of ill-health is a goal of many surveillance systems. In surveillance schemes including zero reporting to remove ambiguity with non-response, reporter fatigue might increase the likelihood of a false zero case report in turn underestimating the true incidence rate and creating a biased downward trend over time. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial models were fitted to incidence case reports of three surveillance schemes running between 1996 and 2012 in the UK...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
E Alhelih, O Ghazi Baker, A E Aboshaiqah
This research aimed to describe changes in symptom occurrence and severity of the 31 symptoms during the chemotherapy cycle at three time points. This descriptive, longitudinal study investigated Saudi children who underwent a cycle of chemotherapy (n = 132) in four tertiary hospitals. The Arabic version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, Karnofsky Performance Status and a demographic questionnaire were used. More than 30% of children reported 10 or more symptoms during the cycle. Symptom occurrence trajectories were analysed using multilevel logistic regression...
July 20, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Marzieh Mahmoodi, Abbas Moghimbeigi, Kazem Mohammad, Javad Faradmal
This study proposes semiparametric models for analysis of hierarchical count data containing excess zeros and overdispersion simultaneously. The methods discussed in this paper handle nonlinear covariate effects through flexible semiparametric multilevel regression techniques. This is performed by providing a comprehensive comparison of semiparametric multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial and semiparametric multilevel zero-inflated generalized Poisson models under the real and simulated data. An EM algorithm based on Newton-Raphson equations for maximum penalized likelihood estimation approach is developed...
July 7, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Silvia A S Vedovello, Glaucia M B Ambrosano, Antonio C Pereira, Heloísa C Valdrighi, Mario Vedovello Filho, Marcelo de C Meneghim
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine associations among malocclusion and the contextual factors of quality of life and socioeconomic status. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a population-based sample of 1256 children from 7 to 10 years old. Malocclusion was assessed clinically; oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was assessed using the Brazilian version of the child perceptions questionnaire; socioeconomic status was determined from data made available by the Research and Planning Institute of Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil...
July 2016: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Sanjay Saint, M Todd Greene, Sarah L Krein, Mary A M Rogers, David Ratz, Karen E Fowler, Barbara S Edson, Sam R Watson, Barbara Meyer-Lucas, Marie Masuga, Kelly Faulkner, Carolyn V Gould, James Battles, Mohamad G Fakih
BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common device-associated infection in hospitals. Both technical factors--appropriate catheter use, aseptic insertion, and proper maintenance--and socioadaptive factors, such as cultural and behavioral changes in hospital units, are important in preventing catheter-associated UTI. METHODS: The national Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program, funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, aimed to reduce catheter-associated UTI in intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICUs...
June 2, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Charles DiMaggio, Spiros Frangos, Guohua Li
PURPOSE: Safe Routes to School (SRTS) was a federally funded transportation program for facilitating physically active commuting to and from school in children through improvements of the built environment. There is evidence that SRTS programs increase walking and bicycling in school-age children, but their impact on pedestrian and bicyclist safety has not been adequately examined. We investigate the impact and effects of the SRTS program on school-age pedestrian and bicyclist injuries in a nationwide sample in the United States...
June 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Jennifer Meddings, Heidi Reichert, M Todd Greene, Nasia Safdar, Sarah L Krein, Russell N Olmsted, Sam R Watson, Barbara Edson, Mariana Albert Lesher, Sanjay Saint
BACKGROUND: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has funded national collaboratives using the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program to reduce rates of two catheter-associated infections-central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), using evidence-based intervention bundles to improve technical aspects of care and socioadaptive approaches to foster a culture of safety. OBJECTIVE: Examine the association between hospital units' results for the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) and catheter-associated infection rates...
May 24, 2016: BMJ Quality & Safety
Helenita Corrêa Ely, Claides Abegg, Roger Keller Celeste, Marcos Pascoal Pattussi
The Family Health Strategy (FHS) has produced effective results in health indicators. In this cross-sectional study, the impact of the oral health teams (OHT) of the Family Health Strategy was evaluated on the oral health of 2581 adolescent schoolchildren aged 12 and 15-19 years in 36 municipalities (19 with and 17 without OHT/FHS). Four dentists performed oral examinations. Socioeconomic status, the use of and access to health services were assessed via a structured questionnaire. The presence of the OHT in the FHS were the main independent variables...
May 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jessica E Miller, Geoffrey C Hammond, Tobias Strunk, Hannah C Moore, Helen Leonard, Kim W Carter, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Fiona Stanley, Nicholas de Klerk, David P Burgner
BACKGROUND: Reduced gestational age and low birthweight are associated with an increased risk of neonatal infections. However, the long-term risk of infection, especially in late preterm infants or those at near-normal birthweight, is unknown. We estimated whether rates of infection-related admissions to hospital for children in Western Australia were associated with age, gestational age, birthweight, and birth length. METHODS: We did a population-based, data-linkage study using total-linked, registry data from the Western Australia Birth Register of all liveborn, non-Indigenous Australian singleton births recorded from Jan 1, 1980, to Dec 31, 2010...
August 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Peng Yin, Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt, Andrew Page, Jiangmei Liu, Yunning Liu, Shiwei Liu, Lijun Wang, Limin Wang, Maigeng Zhou
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the temporal trends and geographic variations in dementia mortality in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Annual dementia mortality counts (years 2006 to 2012) in 161 counties and districts (Disease Surveillance Points, DSP) were extracted from the nationally representative China Mortality Surveillance System and stratified by 5-year age group (aged >65), sex, and time. These counts were linked to annually adjusted denominator populations...
March 18, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Peng Yin, Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt, Fei Qi, Yunning Liu, Jiangmei Liu, Andrew Page, Limin Wang, Shiwei Liu, Lijun Wang, Maigeng Zhou
Mortality of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is on the decline in China. It is not known if this trend occurs across all areas or whether spatiotemporal variations manifest. We used data from the nationally representative China Mortality Surveillance System to calculate annual COPD mortality counts (2006-2012) stratified by 5-year age groups (aged > 20), gender and time for 161 counties and districts (Disease Surveillance Points, or DSP). These counts were linked to annually adjusted denominator populations...
June 2016: COPD
Thomas Astell-Burt, Yunning Liu, Xiaoqi Feng, Peng Yin, Andrew Page, Shiwei Liu, Jiangmei Liu, Lijun Wang, Maigeng Zhou
China's 2009 expansion of universal health insurance has received global interest, but little empirical investigation. This epidemiological study was a first attempt to assess potential impacts on population health and health equity. Multilevel negative binomial regression was used to analyse all-cause and non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality between 2006 and 2012 from a representative sample including all 31 provinces. The age-standardised ratios (per 100,000) in 2006 were 860.4 and 732.9 for mortality from all-causes and NCDs respectively...
2015: Scientific Reports
Antonio Lasalvia, Tine Van Bortel, Chiara Bonetto, Geetha Jayaram, Jaap van Weeghel, Silvia Zoppei, Lee Knifton, Neil Quinn, Kristian Wahlbeck, Doriana Cristofalo, Mariangela Lanfredi, Norman Sartorius, Graham Thornicroft
BACKGROUND: No study has so far explored differences in discrimination reported by people with major depressive disorder (MDD) across countries and cultures. AIMS: To (a) compare reported discrimination across different countries, and (b) explore the relative weight of individual and contextual factors in explaining levels of reported discrimination in people with MDD. METHOD: Cross-sectional multisite international survey (34 countries worldwide) of 1082 people with MDD...
December 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Matthew E Rossheim, Dennis L Thombs, Sumihiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Alcohol outlet density is positively associated with alcohol consumption and a number of related risk behaviors. However, very little is known about the effects of different types of alcohol outlets on HIV prevalence. The current cross-sectional study examines associations between the number of each type of alcohol outlet and HIV prevalence within 350 cities located in 26 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas. METHODS: State and local health department and U...
October 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Bridget Freisthler, Paul J Gruenewald, Jennifer Price Wolf
The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California...
October 2015: Child Abuse & Neglect
Maigeng Zhou, Thomas Astell-Burt, Peng Yin, Xiaoqi Feng, Andrew Page, Yunning Liu, Jiangmei Liu, Yichong Li, Shiwei Liu, Limin Wang, Lijun Wang, Linhong Wang
BACKGROUND: Despite previous studies reporting spatial in equality in diabetes prevalence across China, potential geographic variations in diabetes mortality have not been explored. METHODS: Age and gender stratified annual diabetes mortality counts for 161 counties were extracted from the China Mortality Surveillance System and interrogated using multilevel negative binomial regression. Random slopes were used to investigate spatiotemporal variation and the proportion of variance explained was used to assess the relative importance of geographical region, urbanization, mean temperature, local diabetes prevalence, behavioral risk factors and relevant biomarkers...
2015: BMC Public Health
S Liu, A Page, P Yin, T Astell-Burt, X Feng, Y Liu, J Liu, L Wang, M Zhou
BACKGROUND: Suicide in China has declined since the 1990s. However, there has been limited investigation of the potential spatiotemporal variation and social determinants of suicide during subsequent periods. METHOD: Annual suicide counts from 2006 to 2012 stratified by county, 5-year age group (⩾15 years) and gender were obtained from the Chinese Disease Surveillance Points system. Trends and geographic differentials were examined using multilevel negative binomial regression models to explore spatiotemporal variation in suicide, and the role of key sociodemographic factors associated with suicide...
November 2015: Psychological Medicine
Igor Ryabov
Using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Asian American late adolescents/young adults (ages 18-26), this article investigates the link between peer effects, school climate, on the one hand, and substance use, which includes tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit mood altering substance. The sample (N = 1585) is drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and III). The study is set to empirically test premises of generational, social capital and stage-environment fit theories...
July 2015: Journal of Adolescence
David E Conroy, Nilam Ram, Aaron L Pincus, Amanda L Rebar
Self-conscious emotions play a role in regulating daily achievement strivings, social behavior, and health, but little is known about the processes underlying their daily manifestation. Emerging adults (n = 182) completed daily diaries for eight days and multilevel models were estimated to evaluate whether, how much, and why their emotions varied from day-to-day. Within-person variation in authentic pride was normally-distributed across people and days whereas the other emotions were burst-like and characterized by zero-inflated, negative binomial distributions...
2015: Self and Identity: the Journal of the International Society for Self and Identity
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