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Negative Binomial and multilevel

S S Paul, L Harvey, C G Canning, S Boufous, S R Lord, J C T Close, C Sherrington
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Falls are common in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) but few data exist on fall-related hospitalizations in this group. This population-based study compared fall-related hospital admissions, injury rates and consequences in people with and without PD, and determined whether PD was an independent predictor of fall-related hospital length of stay. METHODS: This was a retrospective study using probabilistic linkage of hospital data in people aged ≥65 years hospitalized for a fall between 1 July 2005 and 31 December 2013 in New South Wales, Australia...
January 24, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Yunning Liu, Thomas Astell-Burt, Jiangmei Liu, Peng Yin, Xiaoqi Feng, Jinling You, Andrew Page, Maigeng Zhou, Lijun Wang
We investigated temporal trends and geographical variations in lung cancer mortality in China from 2006 to 2012. Lung cancer mortality counts for people aged over 40 years were extracted from the China Mortality Surveillance System for 161 disease surveillance points. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate potential spatiotemporal variation and correlations with age, gender, urbanization, and region. Lung cancer mortality increased in China over the study period from 78.77 to 85.63 (1/100,000), with higher mortality rates evident in men compared to women...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hyunil Kim, Brett Drake
This study examined the relationship of a family's duration in poverty-related programs (i.e., Aid to Families with Dependent Children/Temporary Assistance for Needy Families and Medicaid) to the subject child's number of maltreatment reports while considering race and baseline neighborhood poverty. Children from a large Midwestern metropolitan area were followed through a linked cross-sector administrative database from birth to age 15. Generalized multilevel models were employed to account for the multilevel structure of the data (i...
December 5, 2016: Child Maltreatment
Øystein Vedaa, Ståle Pallesen, Siri Waage, Bjørn Bjorvatn, Børge Sivertsen, Eilin Erevik, Erling Svensen, Anette Harris
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to use objective registry data to prospectively investigate the effects of quick returns (QR, <11 hours of rest between shifts) and night shifts on sick leave. METHODS: A total of 1538 nurses (response rate =41.5%) answered questionnaires on demographics and personality and provided consent to link this information to registry data on shift work and sick leave from employers' records. A multilevel negative binomial model was used to investigate the predictive effect of exposure to night shifts and QR every month for 1 year, on sick leave the following month...
November 8, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Kate A Levin, Emilia M Crighton
This study describes trends in emergency admissions (EAs) in Glasgow City during a period when interventions were designed and implemented, aimed at shifting the balance from institutional to community-based care. Standardised monthly rates of EAs between April 2011 and March 2015 were calculated, for residents of Glasgow City aged 65 years and over. Multilevel zero-inflated Negative Binomial models for EAs nested by datazone were created, adjusting for sex, 5-year age group, area-level deprivation (SIMD quintile), season, month and month squared...
December 2016: Maturitas
Nguyen X Thanh, Anderson W Chuck, Tracy Wasylak, Jeannette Lawrence, Peter Faris, Olle Ljungqvist, Gregg Nelson, Leah M Gramlich
BACKGROUND: In February 2013, Alberta Health Services established an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) implementation program for adopting the ERAS Society colorectal guidelines into 6 sites (initial phase) that perform more than 75% of all colorectal surgeries in the province. We conducted an economic evaluation of this initiative to not only determine its cost-effectiveness, but also to inform strategy for the spread and scale of ERAS to other surgical protocols and sites. METHODS: We assessed the impact of ERAS on patients' health services utilization (HSU; length of stay [LOS], readmissions, emergency department visits, general practitioner and specialist visits) within 30 days of discharge by comparing pre- and post-ERAS groups using multilevel negative binomial regressions...
October 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Matthew Gittins, Roseanne McNamee, Fiona Holland, Lesley-Anne Carter
OBJECTIVE: Accurate estimation of the true incidence of ill-health is a goal of many surveillance systems. In surveillance schemes including zero reporting to remove ambiguity with nonresponse, reporter fatigue might increase the likelihood of a false zero case report in turn underestimating the true incidence rate and creating a biased downward trend over time. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial models were fitted to incidence case reports of three surveillance schemes running between 1996 and 2012 in the United Kingdom...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
E Alhelih, O Ghazi Baker, A E Aboshaiqah
This research aimed to describe changes in symptom occurrence and severity of the 31 symptoms during the chemotherapy cycle at three time points. This descriptive, longitudinal study investigated Saudi children who underwent a cycle of chemotherapy (n = 132) in four tertiary hospitals. The Arabic version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, Karnofsky Performance Status and a demographic questionnaire were used. More than 30% of children reported 10 or more symptoms during the cycle. Symptom occurrence trajectories were analysed using multilevel logistic regression...
July 20, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Marzieh Mahmoodi, Abbas Moghimbeigi, Kazem Mohammad, Javad Faradmal
This study proposes semiparametric models for analysis of hierarchical count data containing excess zeros and overdispersion simultaneously. The methods discussed in this paper handle nonlinear covariate effects through flexible semiparametric multilevel regression techniques. This is performed by providing a comprehensive comparison of semiparametric multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial and semiparametric multilevel zero-inflated generalized Poisson models under the real and simulated data. An EM algorithm based on Newton-Raphson equations for maximum penalized likelihood estimation approach is developed...
July 7, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Silvia A S Vedovello, Glaucia M B Ambrosano, Antonio C Pereira, Heloísa C Valdrighi, Mario Vedovello Filho, Marcelo de C Meneghim
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine associations among malocclusion and the contextual factors of quality of life and socioeconomic status. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a population-based sample of 1256 children from 7 to 10 years old. Malocclusion was assessed clinically; oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was assessed using the Brazilian version of the child perceptions questionnaire; socioeconomic status was determined from data made available by the Research and Planning Institute of Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil...
July 2016: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Sanjay Saint, M Todd Greene, Sarah L Krein, Mary A M Rogers, David Ratz, Karen E Fowler, Barbara S Edson, Sam R Watson, Barbara Meyer-Lucas, Marie Masuga, Kelly Faulkner, Carolyn V Gould, James Battles, Mohamad G Fakih
BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common device-associated infection in hospitals. Both technical factors--appropriate catheter use, aseptic insertion, and proper maintenance--and socioadaptive factors, such as cultural and behavioral changes in hospital units, are important in preventing catheter-associated UTI. METHODS: The national Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program, funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, aimed to reduce catheter-associated UTI in intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICUs...
June 2, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Charles DiMaggio, Spiros Frangos, Guohua Li
PURPOSE: Safe Routes to School (SRTS) was a federally funded transportation program for facilitating physically active commuting to and from school in children through improvements of the built environment. There is evidence that SRTS programs increase walking and bicycling in school-age children, but their impact on pedestrian and bicyclist safety has not been adequately examined. We investigate the impact and effects of the SRTS program on school-age pedestrian and bicyclist injuries in a nationwide sample in the United States...
June 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Jennifer Meddings, Heidi Reichert, M Todd Greene, Nasia Safdar, Sarah L Krein, Russell N Olmsted, Sam R Watson, Barbara Edson, Mariana Albert Lesher, Sanjay Saint
BACKGROUND: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has funded national collaboratives using the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program to reduce rates of two catheter-associated infections-central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), using evidence-based intervention bundles to improve technical aspects of care and socioadaptive approaches to foster a culture of safety. OBJECTIVE: Examine the association between hospital units' results for the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) and catheter-associated infection rates...
May 24, 2016: BMJ Quality & Safety
Helenita Corrêa Ely, Claides Abegg, Roger Keller Celeste, Marcos Pascoal Pattussi
The Family Health Strategy (FHS) has produced effective results in health indicators. In this cross-sectional study, the impact of the oral health teams (OHT) of the Family Health Strategy was evaluated on the oral health of 2581 adolescent schoolchildren aged 12 and 15-19 years in 36 municipalities (19 with and 17 without OHT/FHS). Four dentists performed oral examinations. Socioeconomic status, the use of and access to health services were assessed via a structured questionnaire. The presence of the OHT in the FHS were the main independent variables...
May 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jessica E Miller, Geoffrey C Hammond, Tobias Strunk, Hannah C Moore, Helen Leonard, Kim W Carter, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Fiona Stanley, Nicholas de Klerk, David P Burgner
BACKGROUND: Reduced gestational age and low birthweight are associated with an increased risk of neonatal infections. However, the long-term risk of infection, especially in late preterm infants or those at near-normal birthweight, is unknown. We estimated whether rates of infection-related admissions to hospital for children in Western Australia were associated with age, gestational age, birthweight, and birth length. METHODS: We did a population-based, data-linkage study using total-linked, registry data from the Western Australia Birth Register of all liveborn, non-Indigenous Australian singleton births recorded from Jan 1, 1980, to Dec 31, 2010...
August 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Peng Yin, Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt, Andrew Page, Jiangmei Liu, Yunning Liu, Shiwei Liu, Lijun Wang, Limin Wang, Maigeng Zhou
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the temporal trends and geographic variations in dementia mortality in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Annual dementia mortality counts (years 2006 to 2012) in 161 counties and districts (Disease Surveillance Points, DSP) were extracted from the nationally representative China Mortality Surveillance System and stratified by 5-year age group (aged >65), sex, and time. These counts were linked to annually adjusted denominator populations...
October 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Peng Yin, Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt, Fei Qi, Yunning Liu, Jiangmei Liu, Andrew Page, Limin Wang, Shiwei Liu, Lijun Wang, Maigeng Zhou
Mortality of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is on the decline in China. It is not known if this trend occurs across all areas or whether spatiotemporal variations manifest. We used data from the nationally representative China Mortality Surveillance System to calculate annual COPD mortality counts (2006-2012) stratified by 5-year age groups (aged > 20), gender and time for 161 counties and districts (Disease Surveillance Points, or DSP). These counts were linked to annually adjusted denominator populations...
June 2016: COPD
Thomas Astell-Burt, Yunning Liu, Xiaoqi Feng, Peng Yin, Andrew Page, Shiwei Liu, Jiangmei Liu, Lijun Wang, Maigeng Zhou
China's 2009 expansion of universal health insurance has received global interest, but little empirical investigation. This epidemiological study was a first attempt to assess potential impacts on population health and health equity. Multilevel negative binomial regression was used to analyse all-cause and non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality between 2006 and 2012 from a representative sample including all 31 provinces. The age-standardised ratios (per 100,000) in 2006 were 860.4 and 732.9 for mortality from all-causes and NCDs respectively...
2015: Scientific Reports
Antonio Lasalvia, Tine Van Bortel, Chiara Bonetto, Geetha Jayaram, Jaap van Weeghel, Silvia Zoppei, Lee Knifton, Neil Quinn, Kristian Wahlbeck, Doriana Cristofalo, Mariangela Lanfredi, Norman Sartorius, Graham Thornicroft
BACKGROUND: No study has so far explored differences in discrimination reported by people with major depressive disorder (MDD) across countries and cultures. AIMS: To (a) compare reported discrimination across different countries, and (b) explore the relative weight of individual and contextual factors in explaining levels of reported discrimination in people with MDD. METHOD: Cross-sectional multisite international survey (34 countries worldwide) of 1082 people with MDD...
December 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Matthew E Rossheim, Dennis L Thombs, Sumihiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Alcohol outlet density is positively associated with alcohol consumption and a number of related risk behaviors. However, very little is known about the effects of different types of alcohol outlets on HIV prevalence. The current cross-sectional study examines associations between the number of each type of alcohol outlet and HIV prevalence within 350 cities located in 26 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas. METHODS: State and local health department and U...
October 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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