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Smokeless tobacco

Smita Asthana, Satyanarayana Labani, Uma Kailash, Dhirendra N Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
Introduction: Smokeless tobacco products have been linked to precancerous and cancers of oral cavity for long. Evidence was available on the association between smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and oral cancers at regional but not at global level. Present meta-analysis is aimed to evaluate the risk of oral cancer with the use of SLT products among "ever" versus "never" users. Method: Studies published for the period (1960-2016) are retrieved using Pubmed, Indmed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar search engines for the subject "ever" versus "never" users of SLT products and estimated the risk association with oral cancer...
May 22, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Walter J Jessen, Michael F Borgerding, G L Prasad
PURPOSE: Alternations in gene methylation and other epigenetic changes regulate normal development as well as drive disease progression. The aim of this study is to investigate global methylation changes in the buccal cells of smokers and smokeless tobacco users. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Generally healthy adult male subjects were recruited into Smoker (SMK), Moist Snuff Consumer (MSC) and Non-Tobacco Consumer (NTC) cohorts (40 subjects/cohort) ( Identifier: NCT01923402)...
May 17, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Yılmaz İnanç, Fatma Özlem Orhan, Yusuf İnanç
Background: It is accepted that smoking often triggers migraine. However, studies evaluating the relationship between the use of smokeless tobacco and migraine are limited, and there is no clear consensus on the subject. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the relationship between migraine and Maras powder, which is the most common smokeless tobacco in Turkey. Subjects and methods: The study included a total of 600 subjects, consisting of 300 patients (aged >18 years) diagnosed with a migraine according to the International Headache Society (IHS-ICHD-3 Beta) criteria after presenting at Sütçü Imam University Medical Faculty Neurology Policlinic with the complaint of headache between July 2016 and December 2016 and a control group of 300 individuals with similar features of age, gender, and educational level...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Neel Shimpi, Monica Jethwani, Aditi Bharatkumar, Po-Huang Chyou, Ingrid Glurich, Amit Acharya
BACKGROUND: Oral cancer (OC) is associated with multiple risk factors and high mortality rates and substantially contributes to the global cancer burden despite being highly preventable. This cross-sectional study sought to assess current knowledge, awareness, and behaviors of patients in rural communities surrounding OC risk. METHODS: An anonymous 21-question survey was distributed to patients in waiting rooms of a large integrated medical-dental health system serving north-central Wisconsin...
May 15, 2018: BMC Oral Health
R Steven Pappas, Clifford H Watson, Liza Valentin-Blasini
A quantitative method for the analysis of aluminum in tobacco products was developed, validated and applied to select samples. Samples were prepared using standard microwave digestion of tobacco from various products. Detection and quantification utilized sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Method applicability to analyze aluminum in a range of tobacco products was demonstrated with quantitative analyses of smokeless tobacco products, cigarette tobacco, little cigar tobacco and roll-your-own/pipe tobacco...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Natasha Azhar, Maheen Sohail, Fareeha Ahmad, Shaheen Fareeha, Soofia Jamil, Nouman Mughal, Hira Salam
Background: Oral cancer is a highly prevalent malignancy in Pakistan. Among various risk factors associated with this neoplasm, habits such as smoked and smokeless tobacco usage, betel quid, and betel nut consumption are the major culprits in our society. In the present study, we aimed to ascertain prevalent risk factors for OC in our population and to compare our findings with healthy controls to establish their significance. Material and Methods: A hospital-based case control study was conducted at Dow University of Health Sciences, Pakistan from January 2015 - September 2016...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Stephen B Stanfill, Ray E Croucher, Prakash C Gupta, Joseph G Lisko, Tameka S Lawler, Peter Kuklenyik, Manu Dahiya, Bryce Duncan, J Brett Kimbrell, Elizabeth H Peuchen, Clifford H Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ritesh Mistry, Mangesh S Pednekar, William J McCarthy, Ken Resnicow, Sharmila A Pimple, Hsing-Fang Hsieh, Gauravi A Mishra, Prakash C Gupta
BACKGROUND: We measured how student tobacco use and psychological risk factors (intention to use and perceived ease of access to tobacco products) were associated with tobacco vendor compliance with India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act provisions regulating the point-of-sale (POS) environment. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey of high school students (n=1373) and tobacco vendors (n=436) in school-adjacent communities (n=26) in Mumbai, India...
May 9, 2018: Tobacco Control
Chuan Wang, James Dickie, Ruhcha V Sutavani, Catherine Pointer, Gareth J Thomas, Natalia Savelyeva
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a heterogeneous group of squamous cell cancers that affect the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Worldwide, it is the sixth most common cancer but in parts of Southern and South-East Asia, HNC is one of the most common cancers. A significant proportion of HNC is driven by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, whereas HPV-independent HNC is associated with alcohol, smoking, and smokeless tobacco consumption. Here, we review the past and present experience of targeting HNC with vaccination focusing on HPV-derived antigens as well as non-viral antigens for HPV-negative HNC...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
T Khaldi, N Chekchaki, M Boumendjel, F Taibi, M Abdellaoui, M Messarah, A Boumendjel
BACKGROUND: The comparison of smokeless tobacco (ST) exposure versus Ovalbumin (Ova) sensitized rats or asthmatic patients has hardly been studied in the literature. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the aggravation of inflammation, exacerbation of asthma, oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by ST. METHODS: ST was given at the dose of 40mg/kg in an allergic asthma model in Wistar rats. Furthermore, the effects of oral administration of Nigella sativa oil (NSO), at a dose of 4mL/kg/day, were investigated...
May 5, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Ali G Alrashidi, Turkey G Alrashidi, Sami A Alrashedi, Nasser A Alreshidi, Meshal F Alrashidi, Abdullah S Alrashidi, Eid H Alkhaldi, Ahmed G Alrashdi, Mohammed S Alshammari, Hussain G Ahmed
Aim: Smokeless tobacco (ST) use is a significant health risk and cause of disease. Most studies conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) focused on cigarette smoking. Therefore, the objective was to study the epidemiologic pattern and types of oral ST usage in northern and western Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A total of 428 volunteers living in three cities (Hail, Mecca, and Tabuk) were investigated. All of the study subjects were currently ST users of one type or more, including toombak, shammah, pan masala (PM), Afdhal, Nashooq, and others...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Hongfei Zhang, Yongqiang Pang, Yanbo Luo, Xiangyu Li, Huan Chen, Shulei Han, Xingyi Jiang, Fengpeng Zhu, Hongwei Hou, Qingyuan Hu
Evaluating the source of nicotine in e-liquid is a problem. Tobacco-derived nicotine contains predominantly (S)-(-)-nicotine, whereas tobacco-free nicotine products may not. Thus, we developed a new normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography method to determinate the enantiomeric composition of nicotine in 10 kinds of flue-cured tobacco, 3 kinds of burley, 1 kind of cigar tobacco, 2 kinds of oriental tobacco, 5 kinds of Virginia cigarette, 5 kinds of blend cigarette, 10 kinds of e-liquid, and 4 kinds of smokeless tobacco...
May 3, 2018: Chirality
Amanda Y Kong, Shelley D Golden, Allison E Myers, Melissa A Little, Robert Klesges, Wayne Talcott, Sara M Vandegrift, Daniel G Cassidy, Kurt M Ribisl
INTRODUCTION: Active duty military personnel have higher cigarette and smokeless tobacco use rates than civilian populations. Although US Airmen (called Airmen regardless of gender or rank) are required to be tobacco-free during initial training, many resume use once this period ends, perhaps as a result of easy access to cheap tobacco products. METHODS: Between July and September 2016, we collected tobacco product, price and promotion information by visiting on-base (n=28) and off-base (n=80) tobacco retailers near the eight technical training bases where approximately 99% of Airmen attend training...
April 28, 2018: Tobacco Control
Yingning Wang, Hai-Yen Sung, Tingting Yao, James Lightwood, Wendy Max
OBJECTIVES: Cigar use in the United States is a growing public health concern because of its increasing popularity. We estimated health care utilization and expenditures attributable to cigar smoking among US adults aged ≥35. METHODS: We analyzed data on 84 178 adults using the 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 National Health Interview Surveys. We estimated zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression models on hospital nights, emergency department (ED) visits, physician visits, and home-care visits as a function of tobacco use status-current sole cigar smokers (ie, smoke cigars only), current poly cigar smokers (smoke cigars and smoke cigarettes or use smokeless tobacco), former sole cigar smokers (used to smoke cigars only), former poly cigar smokers (used to smoke cigars and smoke cigarettes or use smokeless tobacco), other tobacco users (ever smoked cigarettes and used smokeless tobacco but not cigars), and never tobacco users (never smoked cigars, smoked cigarettes, or used smokeless tobacco)-and other covariates...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
Jidong Huang, Cezary Gwarnicki, Xin Xu, Ralph S Caraballo, Roy Wada, Frank J Chaloupka
While much is known about the demand for cigarettes, research on the demand for non-cigarette tobacco products and the cross-price impacts among those products is limited. This study aims to comprehensively examine the own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for tobacco and nicotine replacement products (NRPs) in the U.S. We analyzed market-level quarterly data on sales and prices of 15 different types of tobacco products and NRPs from 2007 to 2014, compiled from retail store scanner data. Fixed effects models with controls were used to estimate their own-price elasticities and cross-price elasticities between cigarettes and the other 14 products...
April 20, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Omara Dogar, Deepa Barua, Melanie Boeckmann, Helen Elsey, Razia Fatima, Rhian Gabe, Rumana Huque, Ada Keding, Amina Khan, Daniel Kotz, Eva Kralikova, James N Newell, Iveta Nohavova, Steve Parrott, Anne Readshaw, Lottie Renwick, Aziz Sheikh, Kamran Siddiqi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tuberculosis (TB) patients who quit smoking have much better disease outcomes than those who continue to smoke. Behavioural support combined with pharmacotherapy is the most effective strategy in helping people to quit, in general populations. However, there is no evidence for the effectiveness of this strategy in TB patients who smoke. We will assess the safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cytisine - a low-cost plant-derived nicotine substitute - for smoking cessation in TB patients compared with placebo, over and above brief behavioural support...
April 20, 2018: Addiction
Nigar Nargis, Michal Stoklosa, Jeffrey Drope, Geoffrey T Fong, Anne C K Quah, Pete Driezen, Ce Shang, Frank J Chaloupka, A K M Ghulam Hussain
BACKGROUND: The price of tobacco products in relation to the income of tobacco users-affordability-is recognised as a key determinant of tobacco use behaviour. The effectiveness of a price increase as a deterrent to tobacco use depends on how much price increases in relation to the income of the potential users. The aim of this paper is to examine the distribution of and trends in the affordability of tobacco products in Bangladesh. METHOD: Using four waves of International Tobacco Control Survey data on Bangladesh, this study measures affordability of tobacco products at the individual level as the ratio of self-reported price and self-reported income...
April 19, 2018: Tobacco Control
Katherine A Margolis, Elisabeth A Donaldson, David B Portnoy, Joelle Robinson, Linda J Neff, Ahmed Jamal
Understanding factors associated with youth e-cigarette openness and curiosity are important for assessing probability of future use. We examined how e-cigarette harm perceptions and advertising exposure are associated with openness and curiosity among tobacco naive youth. Findings from the 2015 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) were analyzed. The 2015 NYTS is a nationally representative survey of 17,711 U.S. middle and high school students. We calculated weighted prevalence estimates of never users of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos/little cigars, waterpipe/hookah, smokeless tobacco, bidis, pipes, dissolvables, e-cigarettes) who were open to or curious about e-cigarette use, by demographics...
April 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Lynn T Kozlowski
BACKGROUND: Before the 1980s in the USA, smokeless tobacco carried no health warnings, was not judged to cause disease, and was a declining practice. In 1986, the federal government passed legislation requiring rotating warnings on "mouth cancer," "gum disease and tooth loss," and "This product is not a safe alternative to cigarettes." This paper explores the history of the establishment of these warnings with emphasis on the 'not a safe alternative' warning and the bases for claiming that smokeless was 'not safe' (absolute harm) versus 'not safer than cigarettes' (relative harm)...
April 16, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Benjamin T Kopp, Alice Hinton, Rong Lu, Sarah Cooper, Haikady Nagaraja, Mary Ellen Wewers
OBJECTIVES: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) in children is changing due to new public policy and electronic nicotine products (e-cigarettes). We examined factors related to self-imposed indoor household tobacco restrictions, with emphasis on children in the household and associations with combustible and non-combustible product use. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of urban and rural Ohio adult tobacco users classified participants as exclusive combustible users, smokeless tobacco (SLT) users, e-cigarette users, or dual users...
April 10, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
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