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Smokeless tobacco

Susan E Collins, Victoria E Orfaly, Teresa Wu, Sunny Chang, Robert V Hardy, Amia Nash, Matthew B Jones, Leslie Mares, Emily M Taylor, Lonnie A Nelson, Seema L Clifasefi
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is 5 times more prevalent among homeless individuals than in the general population, and homeless individuals are disproportionately affected by smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Homeless smokers report interest in changing their smoking behavior; however, established smoking cessation interventions are neither desirable to nor highly effective for most members of this population. The aim of this study was to document homeless smokers' perceptions of established smoking interventions as well as self-generated, alternative smoking interventions to elucidate points for intervention enhancement...
November 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Asmat Ullah, Abad Khan, Zafar Iqbal, Ismail Khan
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse and its consequences are a matter of great concern in South-East Asian countries, especially Pakistan and Afghanistan. Due to contamination of Naswar with copper, or by any other physiological mechanism, there is a great chance of copper poisoning in addicts. Keeping in view the literature, there is no comparative study on serum copper levels (SCuL) in Naswar addicts. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate SCuL in this population. METHODS: The current study was performed in September 2016 where a total of 75 volunteers (selected from villages near the University of Peshawar, Pakistan) were grouped as Naswar addicts (n = 45) and the control group (n = 30)...
October 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Fulsen Bozkuş, Nurhan Atilla, Seçil Şimşek, Ergül Kurutaş, Anıl Samur, Hüseyin Arpağ, Hasan Kahraman
Introduction: To the best of our knowledge, no previous study regarding the serum telomerase levels in Maras powder users (MPUs) has been founded. The aim of the current study was to investigate serum telomerase levels in smokers and MPUs. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out with 98 patients (36 MPUs, 32 smokers and 30 non-smokers). Blood samples were collected, and after having measured the serum telomerase and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the patients, comparison were made between the groups...
September 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
Kathryn R Koller, Christie A Flanagan, Gretchen E Day, Christi Patten, Jason G Umans, Melissa A Austin, Scarlett E Hopkins, Cheryl Raindl, Bert B Boyer
Tobacco use prevalence among Alaska Native (AN) people living in Alaska is greater than the general population prevalence statewide and nationally. Better understanding of regional tobacco use is needed to improve cessation efforts and reduce prevalence. Using self-reported baseline data from the Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health study, we describe tobacco use patterns among AN people in two western Alaska regions. Data were stratified by age group and sex. Dual- and multi-product use in the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) region was stratified by concurrent vs sequential use...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Joanne T Chang, David T Levy, Rafael Meza
Introduction: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in the US has remained constant or even increased slightly in recent years, while smoking has continuously decreased. Characterization of transitions between tobacco products is critical to understand the reasons behind the continuing use of smokeless tobacco. Methods: Two longitudinal cohorts of Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS), 2002-2003 (n=14,996) and 2010-2011 (n=18,226) were used to examine transitions between cigarette and SLT use over one-year periods...
November 8, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
LaTisha L Marshall, Lei Zhang, Ann M Malarcher, Nathan H Mann, Brian A King, Robert L Alexander
Introduction: State quitlines provide free telephone-based cessation services and are available in all states. However, quitlines presently reach 1% of US cigarette smokers. We assessed variations in quitline reach by race/ethnicity across 45 US states included in the National Quitline Data Warehouse, a repository on non-identifiable data reported by state quitlines. Methods: During 2011 to 2013, we analyzed 1 220 171 records from the National Quitline Data Warehouse...
November 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Elyse Phillips, Teresa W Wang, Corinne G Husten, Catherine G Corey, Benjamin J Apelberg, Ahmed Jamal, David M Homa, Brian A King
Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1). Despite declining cigarette smoking prevalence among U.S. adults, shifts in the tobacco product landscape have occurred in recent years (2,3). Previous estimates of tobacco product use among U.S. adults were obtained from the National Adult Tobacco Survey, which ended after the 2013-2014 cycle. This year, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assessed the most recent national estimates of tobacco product use among adults aged ≥18 years using, for the first time, data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an annual, nationally representative, in-person survey of the noninstitutionalized U...
November 10, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Elizabeth T Couch, Ellen F Darius, Margaret M Walsh, Benjamin W Chaffee
Although smoking declines in the United States, the prevalence of male adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST; moist snuff and chewing tobacco) use remains unchanged. ST product characteristics, such as flavoring, packaging, and branding, could influence adolescents' ST initiation and continued use. This qualitative study examines the potential role of product characteristics in shaping ST-related perceptions and behaviors among rural adolescent males. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at three California rural high schools...
November 3, 2017: Health Education Research
Vardhaman Mulchand Jain, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Gaurao Vasant Mali
BACKGROUND: Due to consumption of various forms of tobacco in large amounts by Indian population, it has become a cause of concern for major oral diseases. In 2008, the WHO named tobacco as the world's single greatest cause of preventable death. It is also known that certain amount of carbohydrates are incorporated in processed tobacco to make it acceptable for consumption. Thus, its role in oral diseases becomes an important question at this point of time. Through this study, it is attempted to find out the carbohydrate content of various forms of tobacco by phenol-sulfuric acid method...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Rahul Gaikwad, Rahul Bhowate, Payal Bajad, Amol R Gadbail, Shailesh Gondivkar, Sachin C Sarode, Gargi S Sarode, Shankargouda Patil
AIM: Our study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of tobacco use among factory workers and identify the predicting factors for quitting tobacco use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 640 factory workers were included and divided into the quitter group and who had never quit the tobacco habit in the past. Data were collected by standardized and validated questionnaire pro forma, which comprised the demographic profile, smoking history, and Fagerstrom scale to check the nicotine dependence...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Jacques Philip, Tove K Ryman, Scarlett E Hopkins, Diane M O'Brien, Andrea Bersamin, Jeremy Pomeroy, Kenneth E Thummel, Melissa A Austin, Bert B Boyer, Kirk Dombrowski
Alaska Native people experience disparities in mortality from heart disease and stroke. This work attempts to better understand the relationships between socioeconomic, behavioral, and cardiometabolic risk factors among Yup'ik people of southwestern Alaska, with a focus on the role of the socioeconomic, and cultural components. Using a cross-sectional sample of 486 Yup'ik adults, we fitted a Partial Least Squares Path Model (PLS-PM) to assess the associations between components, including demographic factors [age and gender], socioeconomic factors [education, economic status, Yup'ik culture, and Western culture], behavioral factors [diet, cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use, and physical activity], and cardiometabolic risk factors [adiposity, triglyceride-HDL and LDL lipids, glycemia, and blood pressure]...
2017: PloS One
Patricia Simon, Deepa R Camenga, Grace Kong, Christian M Connell, Meghan E Morean, Dana A Cavallo, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and adolescent polytobacco use profiles (including e-cigarettes and blunts). METHODS: Adolescents (N = 1932) completed surveys conducted in 2014 in 3 Connecticut high schools. Within a Latent Class Analysis (LCA) framework, logistic regressions examined associations between SES and polytobacco use profiles comprising never, ever, and current e-cigarette, blunt, cigarette, cigar, cigarillo, hookah, and smokeless tobacco use...
January 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Hemantha Amarasinghe, Sajeeva Ranaweera, Thushara Ranasinghe, Nadeeka Chandraratne, Dinesh Ruwan Kumara, Montarat Thavorncharoensap, Palitha Abeykoon, Amala de Silva
INTRODUCTION: Cancer has a high mortality rate and morbidity burden in Sri Lanka. This study estimated the economic cost of smoking and smokeless tobacco (ST) related to cancers in Sri Lanka in 2015. METHODS: Prevalence-based cost of illness is calculated according to the guidelines of the WHO (2011). The direct costs are costs of curative care (costs of inward patients and outpatient care borne by the state and out of pocket expenditure by households) for tobacco-related cancers, weighted by the attributable fractions for these cancers...
October 27, 2017: Tobacco Control
Girija Syamlal, Brian A King, Jacek M Mazurek
Cigarette smoking has declined considerably among U.S. adults over several decades (1); however, increases have occurred in the use of noncigarette tobacco products in recent years, and the use of multiple tobacco products has become common among current users of noncigarette tobacco products (2,3). Differences in tobacco use have also been observed across population subgroups, including among working adults (2,4). CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2014-2016 to describe the most recent prevalence estimates of current (every day or some days) tobacco product use among working U...
October 27, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Manish Kumar, Shilpee Srivastava, Seram Anil Singh, Anup Kumar Das, Ganesh Chandra Das, Bishal Dhar, Sankar Kumar Ghosh, Rosy Mondal
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. The lifestyle, food habits, and customary practices manifest the Northeast Indian population toward higher susceptibility to develop head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we have investigated the association of smoke and smokeless tobacco, and alcohol with copy number variation of cell-free mitochondrial DNA and cell-free nuclear DNA in cases and controls. Cell-free DNA from plasma was isolated from 50 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cases and 50 controls with informed written consent using QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Zohaib Akram, Tariq Abduljabbar, Mervyn Hosain, Zeyad H Al-Sowygh, Nawwaf Al-Hamoudi, Fahim Vohra, Fawad Javed
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present split-mouth retrospective study was to compare the clinical periodontal parameters among gutka-chewers and naswar-dippers. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was used to record demographic information. Jaw quadrant in which, gutka or naswar were placed were defined as "test-sites". The remaining jaw quadrants were designated as "control-sites". Clinical [plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL)] and radiographic [alveolar bone loss (ABL)] parameters were compared among gutka-chewers and naswar-dippers in the test- and control sites...
October 26, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Keryn E Pasch, Nicole E Nicksic, Samuel C Opara, Christian Jackson, Melissa B Harrell, Cheryl L Perry
Introduction: While research has documented associations between recall of point-of sale tobacco marketing and youth tobacco use, much of the research is cross-sectional and focused on cigarettes. The present longitudinal study examined recall of tobacco marketing at the point-of-sale and multiple types of tobacco use six months later. Methods: The Texas Adolescent Tobacco Advertising and Marketing Surveillance System (TATAMS) is a large-scale, representative study of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders in 79 middle and high schools in five counties in Texas...
October 23, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Dawei Qi, Ting Fei, Hong Liu, Heming Yao, Da Wu, Baizhan Liu
The combination of multiple heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography (MHC-LC/LC) and quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for simultaneous determination of the aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in snus is presented in this work. A C18 capillary column was used as the first dimension (1D) to isolate the aflatoxins and ochratoxin A from the complex matrices; then, a 2-position/10-port high-pressure valve equipped with two 60 μL loops was employed to transfer the heart-cuts of 1D-LC into a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column for the second dimension (2D) separation...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Gerhard Gmel, Carole Clair, Ansgar Rougemont-Bücking, Véronique S Grazioli, Jean-Bernard Daeppen, Meichun Mohler-Kuo, Joseph Studer
Introduction: There are few recent longitudinal studies on smokeless tobacco products (SLT) and smoking outside the United States or European Nordic countries. The present longitudinal study tests whether Swedish type snus and nasal snuff use decreases smoking incidence and prevalence in a central European country. Methods: The sample consisted of 5,198 Swiss men (around 20 years of age). Retention rate was 91.5% over 15 months. Regression models, adjusting for a variety of psychosocial, smoking-related, and other risk factors, assessed whether no, low (<weekly) and high (weekly+) use baseline groups showed changes or maintenance in snus and snuff use related to smoking initiation, cessation, and reduction...
September 27, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Patricia Escobedo, Tess Boley Cruz, Kai-Ya Tsai, Jon-Patrick Allem, Daniel W Soto, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Monica Pattarroyo, Jennifer B Unger
Introduction: Limited information exists about strategies and methods used on brand marketing websites to transmit pro-tobacco messages to tobacco users and potential users. This study compared age verification methods, themes, interactive activities and links to social media across tobacco brand websites. Methods: This study examined 12 tobacco brand websites representing four tobacco product categories: cigarettes, cigar/cigarillos, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes...
September 11, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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