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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339596/health-warning-labels-for-smokeless-tobacco-the-impact-of-graphic-images-on-attention-recall-and-craving
#1
Elizabeth G Klein, Amanda J Quisenberry, Abigail B Shoben, Sarah Cooper, Amy K Ferketich, Micah Berman, Ellen Peters, Mary Ellen Wewers
Introduction: Little research has examined the impacts of graphic health warnings on the users of smokeless tobacco products. Methods: A convenience sample of past-month, male smokeless tobacco users (n = 142; 100% male) was randomly assigned to view a smokeless tobacco advertisement with a graphic health warning (GHW) or a text-only warning. Eye-tracking equipment measured viewing time, or dwell time, in milliseconds. Following the advertisement exposure, participants self-reported smokeless tobacco craving and recalled any content in the health warning message (unaided recall)...
January 28, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333122/differences-in-the-bacteriome-of-smokeless-tobacco-products-with-different-oral-carcinogenicity-compositional-and-predicted-functional-analysis
#2
Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi, Fahd Ali Alharbi, Mohammed Mahri, Tsute Chen
Smokeless tobacco (ST) products vary significantly in their oral carcinogenicity. Much is known about the differences in the chemical, but not the bacterial, constituents of these products. In this study, we explored the composition and function of the bacteriome in ST products from four countries using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA-based next generation sequencing. The bacterial load (16S rRNA copies/gram) was lowest in Swedish snus (3.4 × 10⁶) and highest in Yemeni shammah (6...
March 23, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332500/cardiovascular-effects-of-electronic-cigarettes
#3
REVIEW
Neal L Benowitz, Joseph B Fraiman
Cardiovascular safety is an important consideration in the debate on the benefits versus the risks of electronic cigarette (EC) use. EC emissions that might have adverse effects on cardiovascular health include nicotine, oxidants, aldehydes, particulates, and flavourants. To date, most of the cardiovascular effects of ECs demonstrated in humans are consistent with the known effects of nicotine. Pharmacological and toxicological studies support the biological plausibility that nicotine contributes to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318902/flavored-tobacco-product-use-in-youth-and-adults-findings-from-the-first-wave-of-the-path-study-2013-2014
#4
Andrea C Villanti, Amanda L Johnson, Bridget K Ambrose, K Michael Cummings, Cassandra A Stanton, Shyanika W Rose, Shari P Feirman, Cindy Tworek, Allison M Glasser, Jennifer L Pearson, Amy M Cohn, Kevin P Conway, Raymond S Niaura, Maansi Bansal-Travers, Andrew Hyland
INTRODUCTION: The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act banned characterizing flavors other than menthol in cigarettes but did not restrict their use in other forms of tobacco (e.g., smokeless, cigars, hookah, e-cigarettes). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of Wave 1 data from 45,971 U.S. adults and youth, aged ≥12 years in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study collected in 2013-2014, was conducted in 2016. This study examined (1) the prevalence and reasons for use of flavored tobacco products; (2) the proportion of ever tobacco users reporting that their first product was flavored; and (3) correlates of current flavored tobacco product use...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292008/smokeless-tobacco-paan-and-gutkha-consumption-and-its-prevalence-contributing-toward-oral-cancer
#5
Kamal Niaz, Faheem Maqbool, Fazlullah Khan, Haji Bahadar, Fatima Ismail Hassan, Mohammad Abdollahi
OBJECTIVES: Smokeless tobacco consumption leads to oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) condition, which is a long-lasting devastating condition of oral cavity having the potential of malignancy across the world. In this review, we mainly focus on smokeless tobacco such as paan and gutkha consumption, and their role in the induction of OSMF and finally oral cancer. METHODS: The list of articles to be examined was established using citation discovery tools provided by PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar...
March 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283125/money-gone-up-in-smoke-the-tobacco-use-and-malnutrition-nexus-in-bangladesh
#6
Muhammad Jami Husain, Mandeep Virk-Baker, Mark Parascandola, Bazlul Haque Khondker, Indu B Ahluwalia
BACKGROUND: The tobacco epidemic in Bangladesh is pervasive. Expenditures on tobacco may reduce money available for food in a country with a high malnutrition rate. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study are to quantify the opportunity costs of tobacco expenditure in terms of nutrition (ie, food energy) forgone and the potential improvements in the household level food-energy status if the money spent on tobacco were diverted for food consumption. METHOD: We analyzed data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted among 12,240 households...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258268/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-women-in-slums-of-pimpri-chinchwad-pune-maharashtra-india-regarding-usage-of-mishri
#7
Roshani M Chawla, Pranjan Mitra, Sahana H Shetiya, Deepti R Agarwal, D Satya Narayana, Nikhil Bomble
INTRODUCTION: Mishri is one of the form of smokeless tobacco, which is a roasted, powdered preparation made by baking tobacco on a hot metal plate until it is uniformly black, after which it is powdered. It is noted that mishri use is more commonly used by the women of low socioeconomic status, hence the need was felt to conduct this study among women mishri users of slums. Also, the consequences of mishri use are little known, hence an effort is made to find out its ill-effect on oral health...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245899/comparison-of-mineral-contents-in-three-different-tobacco-formulations
#8
Ikram Houas, Hassen Teyeb, Arancha Rochina-Marco, Wahiba Douki, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar, Lotfi Gaha, Maria Luisa Cervera, Miguel DE LA Guardia
We identified and quantified a variety of mineral elements in 18 tobacco samples purchased from a Tunisian market. In total, 25 mineral elements have been measured in cigarettes, water pipe tobacco, and smokeless tobacco using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy following microwave-assisted digestion. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSSTM, version 18.0. The lowest concentrations of all studied elements were observed in water pipe tobacco. Significantly higher concentrations of Al, Fe, Mg, Na, Ca, Cr, and Co were found in smokeless tobacco, while cigarettes brands contained the highest concentrations of K, Mn, Ni, Ba, and Sr...
January 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239627/self-administration-of-smokeless-tobacco-products-in-rats
#9
Mark G LeSage, Danielle Burroughs, Peter Muelken, Andrew C Harris
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical abuse liability assessment is an essential component of tobacco regulatory science. The goal of this project was to evaluate the relative abuse liability of smokeless tobacco products in rats using aqueous extracts of those products. These extracts provide exposure to an extensive range of nicotine and non-nicotine tobacco constituents as occurs in humans. METHODS: Rats were trained to self-administer either nicotine alone or extracts of Camel Snus or Kodiak smokeless tobacco at an equivalent nicotine unit dose...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238347/liver-and-kidney-toxicity-induced-by-afzal-smokeless-tobacco-product-in-oman
#10
Nawal Al-Mukhaini, Taher Ba-Omar, Elsadig Eltayeb, Aisha Al-Shihi, Nafila Al-Riyami, Jamila Al-Belushi, Kawthar Al-Adawi
Afzal, the common smokeless tobacco product (STP) in Oman, is believed to contain toxins that may impair the function of some organs such as liver and kidney. An aqueous extract from Afzal was added to drinking water to be administrated orally to Wistar albino rats (n=72) young and adult from both genders weighing between 60-80g and 150-240g respectively for 8 weeks. Animals were divided into three groups: control (distilled water instead of Afzal extract), low-dose (3mgnicotine/kgbodyweight/day) and high-dose (6mgnicotine/kgbodyweight/day)...
February 6, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217721/point-of-sale-tobacco-advertising-remains-prominent-in-mumbai-india
#11
Samir S Khariwala, Apurva Garg, Irina Stepanov, Prakash C Gupta, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Vikram Gota, Pankaj Chaturvedi
OBJECTIVES: In India, a 2003 law ("COPTA") banned tobacco advertising with the exception of "point of sale" and "on-pack" advertising. Given substantial evidence regarding the impact of point of sale advertising (PoS), we analyzed the prevalence of encountering such advertising in Mumbai, India. METHODS: A survey was conducted of 199 current and recent former tobacco users recruited at the Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai). Enrollees were queried regarding their exposure to tobacco advertising in the last 30 days through multiple media sources...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217541/urban-and-rural-disparity-in-tobacco-use-and-knowledge-about-oral-cancer-among-adolescents-an-epidemiological-survey-on-12-and-15-year-school-going-students
#12
Rajesh Sabnis, Kamtaram Sahu, Deepak Thakur, Sanidhya Surana, Heena Mazhar, Soumy Pandey
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the tobacco use prevalence; to understand and compare attitudes and knowledge related to tobacco use and its health impact among urban and rural students; and to assess urban and rural disparity in the use of tobacco among 12 and 15-year-old adolescents in the urban and rural schools in Chhattisgarh, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 12 and 15-year-old and urban and rural school going children in Durg District...
December 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215231/use-of-varenicline-in-smokeless-tobacco-cessation-influences-sleep-quality-and-dream-recall-frequency-but-not-dream-affect
#13
Francesca Polini, Rosastella Principe, Serena Scarpelli, Francesca Clementi, Luigi De Gennaro
OBJECTIVE: Varenicline (VCL) treatment has become popular as a part of smoking-cessation therapies, even though its possible implications in neuropsychiatric adverse events include abnormal sleep and nightmares. Our study is the first aimed at prospectively investigating changes in sleep and dream measures across such treatment by using a one week sleep diary and collecting dream recall (DR). METHODS: Thirty-eight smokers participated in two different effective smoking-cessation programs: 25 subjects received VCL, 13 subjects received nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214708/evaluating-the-role-of-smokeless-tobacco-use-indices-as-brief-measures-of-dependence
#14
Nasir Mushtaq, Laura A Beebe
INTRODUCTION: There is considerable interest in using brief measures of dependence for evaluation and treatment of tobacco dependence. The Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) is a validated measure of dependence among cigarette smokers. However, a similar index has not been studied among ST users. The aim of this study is to develop similar ST use indices and evaluate their utility as concise dependence measures. Time to first chew/dip of the day (TTFD), number of cans of ST used per week (CPW), and number of dips/chews per day (DPD) were used to create three ST use indices; heaviness of ST use index (HSTI), ST dependence index (STDI), and ST quantity frequency index (ST-QFI)...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180905/smokeless-tobacco-use-among-adolescents-in-global-perspective
#15
Dhirendra N Sinha, Amit Kumar, Deeksha Bhartiya, Shashi Sharma, Prakash C Gupta, Harpreet Singh, Ravi Mehrotra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169257/estimation-of-serum-lactate-dehydrogenase-in-smokeless-tobacco-consumers
#16
Abinaya Chari, P Rajesh, S Prabhu
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Salivary and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels have been correlated with potentially malignant lesions. Salivary LDH levels require special testing and can be expensive. The need for a simple and cost-effective analysis tool is essential to detect the oral malignant lesions to benefit rural populations. AIM: The aim of this study is to estimate the serum LDH in patients with oral lesions due to the consumption of smokeless tobacco. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with lesions were selected for this study while twenty patients served as a control...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164394/smokeless-tobacco-snus-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-results-from-five-pooled-cohorts
#17
S Carlsson, T Andersson, M Araghi, R Galanti, A Lager, M Lundberg, P Nilsson, M Norberg, N L Pedersen, Y Trolle-Lagerros, C Magnusson
BACKGROUND: Smoking and nicotine exposure increase insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Swedish smokeless tobacco (snus) is high in nicotine, and its use is prevalent in Scandinavian countries, but few studies have investigated snus use in relation to diabetes risk. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between snus use and risk of type 2 diabetes using pooled data from five cohorts. METHODS: Analyses were based on prospective studies conducted between 1990 and 2013 including 54 531 never-smoking men and 2441 incident cases of type 2 diabetes identified through screening, self-reporting and hospital and prescription registries...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160661/measuring-youth-beliefs-about-the-harms-of-e-cigarettes-and-smokeless-tobacco-compared-to-cigarettes
#18
Alexander Persoskie, Erin Keely O'Brien, Anh B Nguyen, Cindy Tworek
This study examined validity of direct and indirect measures of perceived harm of e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT) compared to cigarettes. On direct measures, people compare one product to another, whereas on indirect measures, people rate each product separately and the researcher compares these ratings. Data from youth in Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study (2013-2014) were analyzed (N=13,651 youth aged 12-17years). The study included direct measures of perceived harm of e-cigarettes and SLT compared to cigarettes, and indirect measures were created by comparing ratings of the products...
July 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151705/biomarkers-of-tobacco-exposure-summary-of-an-fda-sponsored-public-workshop
#19
REVIEW
Cindy M Chang, Selvin H Edwards, Aarthi Arab, Arseima Y Del Valle-Pinero, Ling Yang, Dorothy K Hatsukami
Since 2009, the FDA Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) has had the authority to regulate the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products in order to reduce the death and disease caused by tobacco use. Biomarkers of exposure pertain to actual human exposure to chemicals arising from tobacco use and could play an important role across a number of FDA regulatory activities, including assessing new and modified-risk tobacco products and identifying and evaluating potential product standards. On August 3-4, 2015, FDA/CTP hosted a public workshop focused on biomarkers of exposure with participants from government, industry, academia, and other organizations...
March 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148394/young-or-adult-users-of-multiple-tobacco-nicotine-products-urgently-need-to-be-informed-of-meaningful-differences-in-product-risks
#20
Lynn T Kozlowski, David T Sweanor
Previously, it has been argued that health information efforts need to inform the public about meaningful differential risks from tobacco/nicotine products. The fact of multiple product use by the same individual further supports this need. When the majority of youth, for example, who use smokeless tobacco are also current tobacco smokers, it makes little sense to mount a smokeless prevention campaign that fails to include clear messages about the much greater risks from smoking. In April 2016, The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) announced a $36 million campaign for youth that "smokeless doesn't mean harmless...
January 25, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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