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Smokeless tobacco

Ruchika Gupta, Sanjay Gupta, Shashi Sharma, Dhirendra N Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
Background: Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products has been linked to multiple adverse effects, especially precancer and cancer of oral cavity. However, the association of SLT use with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is shrouded with controversy due to conflicting results in the literature. The present meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the risk of CHD among adult ever-users of SLT products along with subgroup analysis. Methods: The analysis included studies retrieved from a systematic literature search for published articles assessing risk of CHD with SLT use...
January 9, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Satomi Odani, Israel T Agaku, Corinne M Graffunder, Michael A Tynan, Brian S Armour
In 2015, an estimated 18.8 million U.S. adults were military veterans (1). Although the prevalence of tobacco-attributable conditions is high among veterans (2), there is a paucity of data on use of tobacco products, other than cigarettes, in this population. To monitor tobacco product use among veterans, CDC analyzed self-reported current (i.e., past 30-day) use of five tobacco product types (cigarettes, cigars [big cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars], roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco [chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, or snus]) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Christopher W Wheldon, Annette R Kaufman, Karin A Kasza, Richard P Moser
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize lifetime tobacco use across two measures of sexual orientation and six types of tobacco products. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (Wave 1, 2013-2014, USA) to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, pipes, hookah, and smokeless) stratified by gender (men/women), age (< 25/≥ 25 years old), and sexual orientation...
January 2018: LGBT Health
Jungmi Jun, Xiaoli Nan
INTRODUCTION: This research examined (1) smokeless tobacco users' comparative optimism in assessing the health and addiction risks of their own product in comparison with cigarettes, and (2) the effects of comparative optimism on cessation information-seeking. METHODS: A nationally-representative sample from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)-FDA was employed. RESULTS: The analyses revealed the presence of comparative optimism in assessing both health and addiction risks among smokeless tobacco users...
December 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Bijaya Nanda Naik, Marie Gilbert Majella, S Parthibane, Sitanshu Sekhar Kar
Context: Successful tobacco quit by the tobacco users can avoid millions of premature death. However, the physical dependence on tobacco use results in frequent relapse most commonly due to withdrawal symptoms. Aims: The aim of this study was to study the level of tobacco dependence among tobacco users in an urban slum of Puducherry. Materials and Methods: This facility-based descriptive pilot study was conducted among patients aged 15 years or above attending an urban health and training center in an urban slum of Puducherry...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Abigail R Norris, Jan Estes Miller
CLINICAL QUESTION: In adults and adolescents using cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco, is motivational interviewing (MI) more effective compared to counseling, medical therapies or no intervention for improving tobacco cessation? ANSWER: yes. Evidence is modest but conclusive that using MI alone or in conjunction with other therapies results in greater rates of tobacco cessation compared to interventions that did not include MI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE OF THE ANSWER: A. DATE SEARCH WAS CONDUCTED: September 2015...
March 2017: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
Shannon Lea Watkins, Stanton A Glantz, Benjamin W Chaffee
Importance: Approximately 90% of adult smokers first tried a cigarette by 18 years of age, and even infrequent smoking in adolescence is associated with established adult smoking. Noncigarette tobacco use is increasing and could stimulate subsequent conventional cigarette smoking in youths. Objective: To estimate the longitudinal association between noncigarette tobacco use and subsequent cigarette smoking initiation among US youth. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective cohort study of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) waves 1 (September 12, 2013, to December 14, 2014) and 2 (October 23, 2014, to October 30, 2015), a nationally representative sample of youths who never smoked a conventional cigarette at baseline and completed wave 2 follow-up (N = 10 384) was studied...
January 2, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Angom Ranjana Devi, Mahuya Sengupta, Yashmin Choudhury
The effect of smokeless tobacco (gutkha) was investigated by treating male and female Swiss Albino mice with an aqueous extract of smokeless tobacco (AEST). AEST was administered at a dose of 25 mg kg-1 body weight per day for different time periods (6, 12, 16, and 24 weeks), and control animals were provided only drinking water without AEST for the same period. Control and AEST-treated mice were observed for different oxidative stress parameters, nitric oxide (NO) release, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release, and they were evaluated for alterations in tumor suppressor and DNA repair responses in the liver and spleen...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Rizwan Abdulkader Suliankatchi, Dhirendra N Sinha, Ramashankar Rath, Krishna K Aryal, Mostafa M Zaman, Prakash C Gupta, Khem Bahadur Karki, Deneshkumar Venugopal
Background: The sustained anti-tobacco campaign initiated in response to the mounting evidence against tobacco smoking has driven tobacco companies and smokers to look for alternative choices, such as smokeless tobacco (SLT) products. If this strategy advances it could undermine several gains made by the campaign over the years. Our objective was to examine the trends in the prevalence of different tobacco types in three countries (Bangladesh, India and Nepal) of South-East Asia. Methods: Data from national surveys was used to estimate the trends of weighted and age standardized prevalence (along with 95% CI) of different tobacco products...
December 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Zohaib Akram, Fahim Vohra, Ishfaq A Bukhari, Saeed A Sheikh, Fawad Javed
BACKGROUND: It is postulated that clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters are worse and levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) are higher in cigarette-smokers (CS) and smokeless-tobacco users (STU) compared with nontobacco user (NTU). PURPOSE: The present study aimed to compare clinical and radiographic peri-implant inflammatory parameters and levels of IL-1β and MMP-9 levels among CS, STU, and NTU...
December 15, 2017: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Olivia A Wackowski, Michelle T Bover Manderski, M Jane Lewis, Cristine D Delnevo
Little research exists on the impact of risk information comparing smokeless tobacco (SLT) use, particularly snus, to cigarette smoking. This study explored this topic using a communication channel where smokers may be exposed to such information-the news media. We randomly assigned 1008 current smokers to read one of three constructed news stories or to a control group (no article). The "favorable" story framed snus as a "safer" smoking alternative while the "cautious" story described snus risks. The "mixed" version described potential risks and harm-reduction benefits...
December 13, 2017: Health Communication
Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Seth M Noar, Erin L Sutfin
The Food and Drug Administration, which now has regulatory authority over all tobacco products meeting the statutory definition, is tasked with communicating the risks of these products to the public through health warnings and public education. However, there have been no attempts to summarize what is known about non-cigarette tobacco product (NCTP) health messaging. We conducted a systematic review to examine the existing literature on health communication for NCTPs and identify key research gaps. A total of 45 unique studies were retrieved and coded, with the majority focused on messaging for smokeless tobacco (SLT, k = 32, 71...
December 13, 2017: Health Communication
Adam G Cole, Ryan David Kennedy, Ashok Chaurasia, Scott T Leatherdale
Introduction: Within tobacco prevention programming, it is useful to identify youth that are at risk for experimenting with various tobacco products and e-cigarettes. The susceptibility to smoking construct is a simple method to identify never-smoking students that are less committed to remaining smoke-free. However, the predictive validity of this construct has not been tested within the Canadian context or for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes. Methods: This study used a large, longitudinal sample of secondary school students that reported never using tobacco cigarettes and non-current use of alternative tobacco products or e-cigarettes at baseline in Ontario, Canada...
December 6, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Judi Azevedo Sgambato, Bobbette A Jones, John W Caraway, G L Prasad
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The aim of this study is to investigate the inflammatory alterations due to the use of smokeless tobacco and dual use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes, relative to smoking. SUBJECTS: Plasma and saliva samples were collected from healthy smokers (SMK-100 subjects), moist snuff users (MSC-89 subjects), the dual users (DUSMK-49 subjects), and non-tobacco consumers (NTC-99 subjects) from two cross-sectional studies. METHODS: Luminex Human InflammationMAP® 1...
December 4, 2017: Cytokine
Kelvin Choi, Naomi Taylor, Jean Forster
PURPOSE: To examine the sources of tobacco coupons and their influence on susceptibility to snus use. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study. SUBJECTS: A population-based sample of US Midwest young adults in 2011 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013 (aged 22-28; n = 2384). MEASURES: Exposure to coupons for various tobacco products through various sources in the past 6 months, susceptibility to snus use...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Kamran Siddiqi, Aishwarya Lakshmi Vidyasagaran, Anne Readshaw, Ray Croucher
Background: Globally, over 300 million people consume diverse smokeless tobacco (ST) products. They are addictive, cause cancer, increased cardiovascular mortality risks and poor pregnancy outcomes. Purpose of Review: To identify gaps in implementing key ST demand-reduction measures, focused literature reviews were conducted and findings synthesized according to relevant WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Articles. Recent Findings: The literature supports implementation of ST demand-reduction measures...
2017: Current Addiction Reports
Satomi Odani, Kevin O'Flaherty, Nichole Veatch, Michael Tynan, Israel T Agaku
Policies prohibiting smokeless tobacco (SLT) use at sports venues have been enacted in California and nine U.S. cities. We measured opposition toward SLT use at all public sports venues and its correlates among U.S. adults. Data were from the 2016 SummerStyles, a web-based survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18years (n=4203). Weighted estimates of opposition ("strongly" or "somewhat") SLT use were computed overall and by selected characteristics. Multivariable Poisson regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of opposition toward SLT use overall and among current tobacco product users...
November 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
Patricia E Bunney, Mylissa Hansen, Mark LeSage
The ability of smoking to reduce body weight serves as motivation for continued smoking. It is unclear to what extent non-nicotine constituents in cigarettes are contributing to the weight-reducing effect of smoking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of nicotine and four minor tobacco alkaloids (nornicotine, cotinine, anatabine, and anabasine) on food intake, one of the key regulators of body weight. In addition, a smokeless tobacco extract (STE) and e-cigarette (EC) refill liquid were used to model the effects of actual tobacco product exposure on food intake...
November 28, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Azmina Hussain, Sidra Zaheer, Kashif Shafique
BACKGROUND: With 600 million people using betel quid (BQ) globally, and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use being more wide-spread; the duo is an uphill public health concern in South Asian countries. SLT and/or BQ use increases the risk for morbidity and mortality from oral cancer. Because SLT and/or BQ use is initiated during adolescence, it renders this group more vulnerable; and particular attention is needed to curb SLT and/or BQ use to reduce related disease burden. We aimed to observe the differential individual, social and environmental features amongst SLT and/or BQ users to determine the key influencers of its use in adolescents...
November 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
Sadeq A Al-Maweri, Aisha Al-Jamaei, Rajan Saini, Denise M Laronde, Amany Sharhan
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of white oral mucosal lesions among Yemeni adults; in particular, those who chew khat and tobacco. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study included 1052 dental patients aged 15 years and older. A detailed oral examination was performed by a single examiner in accordance with standard international criteria. RESULTS: Overall, 25.2% of the study participants presented with one or more white lesions...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
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