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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339984/the-link-between-phenotype-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Dan-Qian Chen, Hua Chen, Lin Chen, Nosratola D Vaziri, Ming Wang, Xiang-Ri Li, Ying-Yong Zhao
Background.: The kidney plays a central role in elimination of metabolic waste products and regulation of low-molecular weight metabolites via glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and reabsorption. Disruption of these processes results in profound changes in the biochemical milieu of the body fluids, which contribute to complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by inducing cytotoxicity and inflammation. Insight into the changes of the composition of metabolites and dysregulation of target genes and proteins enhances the understanding of the pathophysiology of CKD and its complications, and the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339939/developmental-morphology-study-on-the-stomach-of-african-ostrich-chicks
#2
J X Wang, P Li, X T Zhang, L X Ye
This study investigates the developmental morphology changes on the proventriculus and gizzard of African ostrich chicks using gross anatomy, and light and transmission electronic microscopy. The body weight; the weight of the proventriculus and gizzard; the thickness of simple tubular glands, muscularis mucosae, compound tubular glands, and muscular layer of the proventriculus; and the thickness of the gizzard glands and muscularis mucosae were measured on postnatal d one, 45, 90, and 334. Under transmission electronic microscopy, the oxynticopeptic cells, mucous cells, and endocrine cells were observed in the proventriculus on postnatal d one, 45, and 90...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339909/il-17-and-cd40-ligand-synergistically-stimulate-the-chronicity-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#3
Huey-Liang Kuo, Chiu-Ching Huang, Tze-Yi Lin, Ching-Yuang Lin
Background.: Early stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN) are characterized by an influx of inflammatory cells. Interactions between infiltrating T cells and podocytes may play an important role in the ongoing inflammatory response and remodelling. The aim of this study was to explore the role of IL-17 and CD40 ligand (CD40L) in DN. Methods.: The study design involved a case series. Kidney biopsy samples of 69 patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed for the presence of CD4 +  IL-17 +  T cells...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339906/interstitial-fibrosis-scored-on-whole-slide-digital-imaging-of-kidney-biopsies-is-a-predictor-of-outcome-in-proteinuric-glomerulopathies
#4
Laura H Mariani, Sebastian Martini, Laura Barisoni, Pietro A Canetta, Jonathan P Troost, Jeffrey B Hodgin, Matthew Palmer, Avi Z Rosenberg, Kevin V Lemley, Hui-Ping Chien, Jarcy Zee, Abigail Smith, Gerald B Appel, Howard Trachtman, Stephen M Hewitt, Matthias Kretzler, Serena M Bagnasco
Background.: Interstitial fibrosis (IF), tubular atrophy (TA) and interstitial inflammation (II) are known determinants of progression of renal disease. Standardized quantification of these features could add value to current classification of glomerulopathies. Methods.: We studied 315 participants in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) study, including biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD = 98), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS = 121), membranous nephropathy (MN = 59) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN = 37)...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339780/adverse-kidney-effects-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibitors
#5
Hassan Izzedine, Mark A Perazella
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is implicated in various malignancies. The past decade has seen the development and widespread use of EGFR inhibitors for the successful treatment of such cancers. Available EGFR inhibitors include small molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Class-related renal adverse events result in dual toxicity including tubular/electrolyte disorders and glomerulopathies. Tubular injury is common and mainly due to monoclonal antibodies while glomerulopathy is rare and related to various anti-EGFR agents...
February 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339347/the-aging-kidney-and-the-nephrotoxic-effects-of-mercury
#6
Christy C Bridges, Rudolfs K Zalups
Owing to advances in modern medicine, life expectancies are lengthening and leading to an increase in the population of older individuals. The aging process leads to significant alterations in many organ systems, with the kidney being particularly susceptible to age-related changes. Within the kidney, aging leads to ultrastructural changes such as glomerular and tubular hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which may compromise renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339082/effects-of-autophagy-and-endocytosis-on-the-activity-of-matrix-metalloproteinase%C3%A2-2-in-human-renal-proximal-tubular-cells-under-hypoxia
#7
Wenmin Yu, Zhi Wang, Yiping Li, Lei Liu, Jing Liu, Fenggan Ding, Xiaoyi Zhang, Zhengyuan Cheng, Pingsheng Chen
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is characterized by tubular atrophy with basement membrane thickening and accumulation of interstitial extracellular matrix (ECM). A decrease in the activity of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 (MMP‑2) may promote this process. Although proximal tubular cells are sensitive to oxygen deprivation, whether cellular autophagy or endocytosis induced by hypoxia can alter the activity of MMP‑2 remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether autophagy and endocytosis induced by hypoxia can have an effect on the activity of MMP‑2 in HK‑2 cells...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338651/dichotomy-in-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinomas-based-on-histologic-similarities-to-hilar-cholangiocarcinomas
#8
Masayuki Akita, Kohei Fujikura, Tetsuo Ajiki, Takumi Fukumoto, Kyoko Otani, Takeshi Azuma, Tomoo Itoh, Yonson Ku, Yoh Zen
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas were classified into two types based on their microscopic appearance. Tumors with histologic similarities to hilar cholangiocarcinomas (predominantly ductal adenocarcinomas with minor tubular components, if present, restricted to the invasive front) were defined as the perihilar type, whereas the others were classified as peripheral cholangiocarcinomas. Among the 47 cases examined in the present study, 26 (55%) were classified as the perihilar type, whereas 21 (45%) were the peripheral type...
March 24, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338200/glioma-cells-promote-angiogenesis-through-the-release-of-exosomes-containing-long-non-coding-rna-pou3f3
#9
H-L Lang, G-W Hu, Y Chen, Y Liu, W Tu, Y-M Lu, L Wu, G-H Xu
OBJECTIVE: Angiogenesis is a key event in the progression of gliomas, and emerging evidence suggests that exosomes are signaling extracellular organelles that modulate the tumor microenvironment and promote angiogenesis and tumor progression. This study aimed to explore the mechanism by which glioma-derived exosomes affect angiogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR was used to determine the expression level of linc-POU3F3 in glioma tissue as well as glioma cell lines...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337739/intraductal-neoplasms-of-the-bile-duct-a-new-challenge-to-biliary-tract-tumor-pathology
#10
REVIEW
Yasuni Nakanuma, Katsuhiko Uesaka, Shiro Miyayama, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Masayuki Ohtsuka
Invasive biliary tract carcinomas are usually tubular adenocaricnomas with abundant desmoplastic reactions and frequent ductal and periductal invasion at the time of the diagnosis. Recently, several intraductal neoplasms of the bile duct, particularly at a pre-invasive stage, have been recognized. They include intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB), biliary intraepithelial neoplasm (BilIN), and others, such as intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) of the bile duct. IPNBs are grossly visible predominantly intraductal-growing papillary neoplasms covered by well-differentiated neoplastic epithelium with fine fibrovascular cores in the dilated bile ducts...
March 24, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337443/urethral-reconstruction-using-mesothelial-cell-seeded-autogenous-granulation-tissue-tube-an-experimental-study-in-male-rabbits
#11
Shiwei Jiang, Zhonghua Xu, Yuanyuan Zhao, Lei Yan, Zunlin Zhou, Gangli Gu
Objective. This study was to evaluate the utility of the compound graft for tubularized urethroplasty by seeding mesothelial cells onto autogenous granulation tissue. Methods. Silastic tubes were implanted subcutaneously in 18 male rabbits, of which nine underwent omentum biopsies simultaneously for in vitro expansion of mesothelial cells. The granulation tissue covering the tubes was harvested 2 weeks after operation. Mesothelial cells were seeded onto and cocultured with the tissue for 7 days. A pendulous urethral segment of 1...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337366/natural-history-of-early-gastric-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Tomohiro Iwai, Masao Yoshida, Hiroyuki Ono, Naomi Kakushima, Kohei Takizawa, Masaki Tanaka, Noboru Kawata, Sayo Ito, Kenichiro Imai, Kinichi Hotta, Hirotoshi Ishiwatari, Hiroyuki Matsubayashi
Early detection and treatment decrease the mortality rate associated with gastric cancer (GC). However, the natural history of GC remains unclear. An 85-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a gastric tumor. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy identified a 6 mm, flat-elevated lesion at the lesser curvature of the antrum. A biopsy specimen showed a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. The depth of the lesion was estimated to be intramucosal. Although the lesion met the indications for endoscopic resection, periodic endoscopic follow-up was performed due to the patient's advanced age and comorbidities...
March 2017: Journal of Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337272/cold-preservation-with-hyperbranched-polyglycerol-based-solution-improves-kidney-functional-recovery-with-less-injury-at-reperfusion-in-rats
#13
Shadan Li, Bin Liu, Qiunong Guan, Irina Chafeeva, Donald E Brooks, Christopher Yc Nguan, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Caigan Du
Minimizing donor organ injury during cold preservation (including cold perfusion and storage) is the first step to prevent transplant failure. We recently reported the advantages of hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) as a novel substitute for hydroxyethyl starch in UW solution for both cold heart preservation and cold kidney perfusion. This study evaluated the functional recovery of the kidney at reperfusion after cold preservation with HPG solution. The impact of HPG solution compared to conventional UW and HTK solutions on tissue weight and cell survival at 4°C was examined using rat kidney tissues and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), respectively...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336924/rtn1a-mediated-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-podocyte-injury-and-diabetic-nephropathy
#14
Ying Fan, Jing Zhang, Wenzhen Xiao, Kyung Lee, Zhengzhe Li, Jiejun Wen, Li He, Dingkun Gui, Rui Xue, Guihua Jian, Xiaohua Sheng, John Cijiang He, Niansong Wang
We previously reported a critical role of reticulon (RTN) 1A in mediating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in kidney tubular cells and the expression of RTN1A correlates with the renal function and the severity of kidney injury in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Here, we determined the roles of RTN1A and ER stress in podocyte injury and DN. We used db/db mice with early unilateral nephrectomy (Unx) as a murine model of progressive DN and treated mice with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a specific inhibitor of ER stress...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336887/sio2-zno-composite-hollow-sub-micron-fibers-fabrication-from-facile-single-capillary-electrospinning-and-their-photoluminescence-properties
#15
Guanying Song, Zhenjiang Li, Kaihua Li, Lina Zhang, Alan Meng
In this work, SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers were fabricated by a facile single capillary electrospinning technique followed by calcination, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ZnO nanoparticles as raw materials. The characterization results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra indicated that the asprepared composite hollow fibers consisted of amorphous SiO2 and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO...
February 24, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336824/-the-functions-of-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-regulating-mineral-metabolism
#16
Yuka Kinoshita
Calcium-sensing receptor(CaSR)which belongs to a G protein-coupled receptor family is one of the key elements in regulating calcium homeostasis. CaSR has been identified as a receptor to control parathyroid hormone(PTH)secretion in parathyroid glands according to serum calcium ion(Ca2+)levels. It has also been shown that CaSR controls reabsorption of water and several cations including Ca2+and magnesium ion(Mg2+)in renal tubular cells. This review summarizes the functions and roles of CaSR in mineral metabolism that are exerted in parathyroid glands, kidney, and intestine...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336721/tubule-derived-wnts-are-required-for-fibroblast-activation-and-kidney-fibrosis
#17
Dong Zhou, Haiyan Fu, Lu Zhang, Ke Zhang, Yali Min, Liangxiang Xiao, Lin Lin, Sheldon I Bastacky, Youhua Liu
Cell-cell communication via Wnt ligands is necessary in regulating embryonic development and has been implicated in CKD. Because Wnt ligands are ubiquitously expressed, the exact cellular source of the Wnts involved in CKD remains undefined. To address this issue, we generated two conditional knockout mouse lines in which Wntless (Wls), a dedicated cargo receptor that is obligatory for Wnt secretion, was selectively ablated in tubular epithelial cells or interstitial fibroblasts. Blockade of Wnt secretion by genetic deletion of Wls in renal tubules markedly inhibited myofibroblast activation and reduced renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335679/puerarin-attenuates-renal-fibrosis-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-induced-epithelial-cell-apoptosis-via-mapk-signal-pathways-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#18
Xiangjun Zhou, Chen Bai, Xinbo Sun, Xiaoxin Gong, Yong Yang, Congbo Chen, Guang Shan, Qisheng Yao
Puerarin (PR) is an isoflavonoid isolated from the root of the plant Pueraria lobata and has been widely used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Oxidative stress and epithelial cell apoptosis play important roles in the renal fibrotic process. The present study aimed to determine whether or not PR inhibits renal fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress induced-epithelial cell apoptosis. In vivo, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) induced renal fibrosis, and epithelial cell apoptosis...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335665/calcium-oxalate-crystals-induces-tight-junction-disruption-in-distal-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-by-activating-ros-akt-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#19
Lei Yu, Xiuguo Gan, Xukun Liu, Ruihua An
Tight junction plays important roles in regulating paracellular transports and maintaining cell polarity. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the major crystalline composition of kidney stones, have been demonstrated to be able to cause tight junction disruption to accelerate renal cell injury. However, the cellular signaling involved in COM crystal-induced tight junction disruption remains largely to be investigated. In the present study, we proved that COM crystals induced tight junction disruption by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK pathway...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334695/how-the-embryonic-chick-brain-twists
#20
Zi Chen, Qiaohang Guo, Eric Dai, Nickolas Forsch, Larry A Taber
During early development, the tubular embryonic chick brain undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion, one of the earliest organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Existing evidence suggests that bending is caused by differential growth, but the mechanism for the predominantly rightward torsion of the embryonic brain tube remains poorly understood. Here, we show through a combination of in vitro experiments, a physical model of the embryonic morphology and mechanics analysis that the vitelline membrane (VM) exerts an external load on the brain that drives torsion...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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