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"Memory dysfunction"

Manel Ben Aissa, Sue H Lee, Brian M Bennett, Gregory R J Thatcher
cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) plays a central role in various aspects of central nervous system (CNS) function, ranging from the developmental stages to neuronal plasticity and survival in adult brain. Activation of CREB plays a crucial role in learning and memory and is at the convergence of multiple intracellular signaling cascades including CAMKII and MAPK. This review focuses on the important functions of nitric oxide (NO) in activating CREB via the NO receptor, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and production of the second messenger, cGMP...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Dae-Joong Kim, Eun-Ju Shin, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
We previously showed that gintonin, an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, attenuated β-amyloid plaque formation in the cortex and hippocampus, and restored β-amyloid-induced memory dysfunction. Both endogenous LPA and LPA receptors play a key role in embryonic brain development. However, little is known about whether gintonin can induce hippocampal cell proliferation in adult wild-type mice and an APPswe/PSEN-1 double Tg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we examined the effects of gintonin on the proliferation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro and its effects on the hippocampal cell proliferation in wild-type mice and a transgenic AD mouse model...
October 17, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Xue-Yuan Li, Wei-Wei Men, Hua Zhu, Jian-Feng Lei, Fu-Xing Zuo, Zhan-Jing Wang, Zhao-Hui Zhu, Xin-Jie Bao, Ren-Zhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using (18)F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Susana Vacas, Vincent Degos, Mervyn Maze
BACKGROUND: Sleep is integral to biologic function, and sleep disruption can result in both physiological and psychologic dysfunction including cognitive decline. Surgery activates the innate immune system, inducing neuroinflammatory changes that interfere with cognition. Because surgical patients with sleep disorders have an increased likelihood of exhibiting postoperative delirium, an acute form of cognitive decline, we investigated the contribution of perioperative sleep fragmentation (SF) to the neuroinflammatory and cognitive responses of surgery...
October 11, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Paula Moyano, Javier Del Pino, María José Anadon, María Jesús Díaz, Gloria Gómez, María Teresa Frejo
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide reported to induce, both after acute and repeated exposure, learning and memory dysfunctions, although the mechanism is not completely known. CPF produces basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal loss, involved on learning and memory regulation, which could be the cause of such cognitive disorders. This effect was reported to be induced through apoptotic process, partially mediated by AChE overexpression, although neuronal necrosis was also described after CPF exposure...
October 10, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Chihiro Tohda
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a recognized incurable neurodegenerative disorder. Clinically prescribed medicines for AD are expected to bring about only slight symptomatic improvement or a delay of its progression. Another strategy, amyloid β (Aβ) lowing agents, has not been successful at memory improvement. We have hypothesized that an improvement in cognitive function requires the construction of neuronal networks, including neurite regeneration and synapse formation; therefore, we have been exploring candidates for radical anti-AD drugs that can restore Aβ-induced neurite atrophy and memory impairment...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Toru Takahashi, Kazuhiro Nakaso, Yosuke Horikoshi, Takehiko Hanaki, Miho Yamakawa, Masato Nakasone, Yoshinori Kitagawa, Taisuke Koike, Tatsuya Matsura
BACKGROUND: Vitamin E (VE, α-tocopherol) is a fat-soluble vitamin and is well known as an antioxidant. A deficiency in VE induces oxidative stress in the brain and causes motor and memory dysfunction. The consumption of a VE-rich diet has been given much attention in recent years, in regards to anti-aging and the prevention of age-related neuronal disorders. METHODS: A VE-deficient mouse model was prepared by feeding the animals a diet lacking VE. In addition, to evaluate the effect of VE-containing rice bran (RB) on VE deficiency, a diet including RB was also provided...
September 2016: Yonago Acta Medica
Ah Young Lee, Ji Myung Choi, Jaemin Lee, Myoung Hee Lee, Sanghyun Lee, Eun Ju Cho
In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of three kinds of vegetable oils with different fatty acid compositions against cognitive impairment in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. After intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid beta25-35 (Aβ25-35) into the brain of institute of cancer research mice, olive oil (rich in oleic acid, C18:1), corn oil (rich in linoleic acid, C18:2), and perilla oil (rich in α-linolenic acid [ALA], C18:3) were administered at the oral dose of 500 mg/kg/day for 14 days...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Jun Qiao, Guixing Jin, Licun Lei, Lan Wang, Yaqiang Du, Xueyi Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on memory, and its correlation with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind sham-controlled trial, alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled and randomized into two groups: the experimental group (rTMS, 10 Hz, on right DLPFC, 20 sessions) and the control group (sham stimulation)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Saurabh Kumar Jha, Niraj Kumar Jha, Dhiraj Kumar, Renu Sharma, Abhishek Shrivastava, Rashmi K Ambasta, Pravir Kumar
The communication between neurons at synaptic junctions is an intriguing process that monitors the transmission of various electro-chemical signals in the central nervous system. Albeit any aberration in the mechanisms associated with transmission of these signals leads to loss of synaptic contacts in both the neocortex and hippocampus thereby causing insidious cognitive decline and memory dysfunction. Compelling evidence suggests that soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau serve as toxins in the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity and aberrant neurotransmitter (NT) release at synapses consequently causing a cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ying Luo, Shengnan Kuang, Lai Xue, Junqing Yang
OBJECTIVES: To examine the mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in the learning and memory dysfunction in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). METHODS: Eighty rats were divided into eight groups: the 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution (NaCMC)-treated group, empty vector (LV-Mock)-treated group, CUMS+NaCMC-treated group, CUMS+sertraline-treated group, CUMS+caffeic acid (10mg/kg)-treated group, CUMS+caffeic acid (30mg/kg)-treated group, CUMS+LV-Mock-treated group, and CUMS+5-LO-silencers lentiviral vectors (LV-si-5-LO)-treated group, n=10...
September 14, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Genevieve Rayner, Graeme D Jackson, Sarah J Wilson
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to uncover distinct antecedents of autobiographic memory dysfunction in patients with epilepsy with early (childhood/adolescence) vs late (adulthood) disease onset. METHODS: One hundred sixty-six adults participated: 92 patients with focal epilepsy, whose cognitive and psychiatric functioning were compared to that of 74 healthy controls. Predictors of autobiographic memory deficit were contrasted between patients with early-onset (n = 47) vs late-onset (n = 45) epilepsy...
October 18, 2016: Neurology
Anja Baenninger, Laura Diaz Hernandez, Kathryn Rieger, Judith M Ford, Mara Kottlow, Thomas Koenig
[This corrects the article on p. 29 in vol. 7, PMID: 27047395.].
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
P Grewe, A Nikstat, O Koch, S Koch-Stoecker, C G Bien
While objective memory dysfunctions have been thoroughly investigated in patients with epilepsy, assessment of subjective memory complaints (SMC) remains challenging. Former studies have demonstrated an impact of patients' depressive mood on SMC. However, the impact of more general psychological distress and cognitive functioning in non-memory domains on SMC has only received little attention so far. We therefore sought to determine the factors which may particularly predict SMC in a sample of patients with focal epilepsy (n=99) who accomplished (1) a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, (2) a subjective memory questionnaire, and (3) scales of self-rated depressive mood and psychological distress...
August 18, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Patrick D Gajewski, Michael Falkenstein, Jan G Hengstler, Klaus Golka
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread infections in humans. Recent studies give evidence for memory deficits in infected older adults. To investigate working memory dysfunction in infected elderly, a double-blinded electrophysiological study was conducted. 84 persons derived from a sample of 131 healthy participants with the mean age of 70 years were assigned to two groups of 42 non-infected and 42 infected individuals. The outcome measures were behavioral performance, target and response-related ERPs, and time-frequency wavelets during performance in a n-back working-memory task...
October 2016: Biological Psychology
M W Williams, A M Kueider, N O Dmitrieva, J J Manly, C F Pieper, S P Verney, L E Gibbons
BACKGROUND: Older adults with anxiety and/or depression experience additional memory dysfunction beyond that of the normal aging process. However, few studies have examined test bias in memory assessments due to anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. The current study investigated the influence of self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression on the measurement equivalence of memory tests in older adults. METHOD: This is a secondary analysis of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly dataset, a randomized controlled trial of community-dwelling older adults...
August 9, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Fabiana Morroni, Giulia Sita, Andrea Tarozzi, Roberto Rimondini, Patrizia Hrelia
Neuronal and synaptic loss are the best pathological correlates for memory decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Soluble beta-amyloid oligomers (AβO) are considered to putatively play a crucial role in the early synapse loss and cognitive impairment observed in AD. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress and apoptosis are involved in the mechanism of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and AD pathogenesis. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the early memory deficits induced by intracerebroventricular injection of AβO in mice...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi, Princess Kamsy Okonkwo, Opeyemi Ayodeji Faboya, Sunday Amos Onikanni, Adewale Fadaka, Israel Olayide, Elizabeth Olufisayo Akinyemi, Ganiyu Oboh
Curcumin, the main polyphenolic component of turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes has been reported to exert cognitive enhancing potential with limited scientific basis. Hence, this study sought to evaluate the effect of curcumin on cerebral cortex acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in cadmium (Cd)-induced memory impairment in rats. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 6): saline/vehicle, saline/curcumin 12.5 mg/kg, saline/curcumin 25 mg/kg, Cd/vehicle, Cd/curcumin 12...
August 5, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Chao-Yan Ou, Yi-Ni Luo, Sheng-Nan He, Xiang-Fa Deng, Hai-Lan Luo, Zong-Xiang Yuan, Hao-Yang Meng, Yu-Huan Mo, Shao-Jun Li, Yue-Ming Jiang
Excessive intake of manganese (Mn) may cause neurotoxicity. Sodium para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS-Na) has been used successfully in the treatment of Mn-induced neurotoxicity. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is related with learning and memory abilities. However, the mechanism of PAS-Na on improving Mn-induced behavioral deficits is unclear. The current study was aimed to investigate the effects of PAS-Na on Mn-induced behavioral deficits and the involvement of ultrastructural alterations and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in the basal ganglia of rats...
August 5, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
William A Schraegle, Nancy L Nussbaum, Arianna K Stefanatos
Findings of material-specific influences on memory performance in pediatric epilepsy are inconsistent and merit further investigation. This study compared 90 children (aged 6years to 16years) with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to determine whether they displayed distinct list-learning and verbal memory profiles on the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's Version (CVLT-C). Group comparison identified greater risk of memory impairment in children with TLE and FLE syndromes but not for those with CAE...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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