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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923417/mechanisms-of-memory-dysfunction-during-high-altitude-hypoxia-training-in-military-aircrew
#1
Daniel A Nation, Mark W Bondi, Ellis Gayles, Dean C Delis
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction from high altitude exposure is a major cause of civilian and military air disasters. Pilot training improves recognition of the early symptoms of altitude exposure so that countermeasures may be taken before loss of consciousness. Little is known regarding the nature of cognitive impairments manifesting within this critical window when life-saving measures may still be taken. Prior studies evaluating cognition during high altitude simulation have predominantly focused on measures of reaction time and other basic attention or motor processes...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896315/altered-oscillatory-dynamics-of-ca1-parvalbumin-basket-cells-during-theta-gamma-rhythmopathies-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Diego Lopez-Pigozzi, François Laurent, Jorge R Brotons-Mas, Mario Valderrama, Manuel Valero, Ivan Fernandez-Lamo, Elena Cid, Daniel Gomez-Dominguez, Beatriz Gal, Liset Menendez de la Prida
Recent reports in human demonstrate a role of theta-gamma coupling in memory for spatial episodes and a lack of coupling in people experiencing temporal lobe epilepsy, but the mechanisms are unknown. Using multisite silicon probe recordings of epileptic rats engaged in episodic-like object recognition tasks, we sought to evaluate the role of theta-gamma coupling in the absence of epileptiform activities. Our data reveal a specific association between theta-gamma (30-60 Hz) coupling at the proximal stratum radiatum of CA1 and spatial memory deficits...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888018/1400w-ameliorates-acute-hypobaric-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-cognitive-deficits-by-suppressing-the-induction-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-rat-cerebral-cortex-microglia
#3
Qinghai Shi, Xin Liu, Ning Wang, Xinchuan Zheng, Jihua Ran, Zhengxiang Liu, Jianfeng Fu, Jiang Zheng
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in neuronal modifications, and overproduction of NO contributes to memory deficits after acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation. This study investigated the ability of the iNOS inhibitor 1400W to counteract spatial memory deficits following acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation, and to affect expression of NOS, NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and apoptosis in rat cerebral cortex. We also used primary rat microglia to investigate the effect of 1400W on expression of NOS, NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and apoptosis...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877044/increased-mir-132-level-is-associated-with-visual-memory-dysfunction-in-patients-with-depression
#4
Ye Liu, Xiao Yang, Liansheng Zhao, Jian Zhang, Tao Li, Xiaohong Ma
BACKGROUND: Impaired visual memory seems to be a core feature of depression, while increased microRNA-132 (miR-132) levels have been widely reported in depression patients. The authors aimed to explore the relationship between miR-132 changes and visual memory deficits in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 62 medication-free MDD patients and 73 matched healthy controls (HCs) were tested for miR-132 expression level in peripheral blood using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873505/hyperbaric-oxygen-pretreatment-improves-cognition-and-reduces-hippocampal-damage-via-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-in-a-rat-model
#5
Baisong Zhao, Yongying Pan, Zixin Wang, Haiping Xu, Xingrong Song
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) pretreatment on cognitive decline and neuronal damage in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups: normal saline (NS), AD, and HBO+AD. In the AD group, amyloid β peptide (Aβ)₁₋₄₀ was injected into the hippocampal CA1 region of the brain. NS rats received NS injection. In the HBO+AD group, rats received 5 days of daily HBO therapy following Aβ₁₋₄₀ injection...
January 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855371/cerebral-mast-cells-participate-in-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-by-promoting-astrocyte-activation
#6
Xiang Zhang, Hao Yao, Qingqing Qian, Nana Li, Wenjie Jin, Yanning Qian
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes, the major glial cell type that has been increasingly recognized as contributing to neuroinflammation, are critical in the occurrence and development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Although emerging evidence showed that brain mast cells (MCs) are the "first responders" in neuroinflammation, little is known about the functional communication between MCs and astrocytes. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the potential regulation of astrocyte activation by MCs...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847314/luteinizing-hormone-acts-at-the-hippocampus-to-dampen-spatial-memory
#7
Veronica Burnham, Christopher Sundby, Abigail Laman-Maharg, Janice Thornton
Luteinizing hormone (LH) rises dramatically during and after menopause, and has been correlated with an increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease and decreased memory performance in humans and animal models. To test whether LH acts directly on the dorsal hippocampus to affect memory, ovariectomized female rats were infused with either the LH-homologue human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or the LH receptor antagonist deglycosylated-hCG (dg-hCG).Infusion of hCG into either the lateral ventricle or the dorsal hippocampus caused significant memory impairments in ovariectomized estradiol-treated females...
November 12, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836585/neuroprotective-effects-of-sildenafil-against-oxidative-stress-and-memory-dysfunction-in-mice-exposed-to-noise-stress
#8
Hu Erxidan Sikandaner, So Young Park, Min Jung Kim, Shi Nae Park, Dong Won Yang
Noise exposure has been well characterized as an environmental stressor, and is known to have auditory and non-auditory effects. Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors affect memory and hippocampus plasticity through various signaling cascades which are regulated by cGMP. In this study, we investigated the effects of sildenafil on memory deficiency, neuroprotection and oxidative stress in mice caused by chronic noise exposure. Mice were exposed to noise for 4h every day up to 14days at 110dB SPL of noise level...
November 9, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835716/targeting-treatments-to-improve-cognitive-function-in-mood-disorder-suggestions-from-trials-using-erythropoietin
#9
Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak, A John Rush, Thomas A Gerds, Maj Vinberg, Lars V Kessing
OBJECTIVE: There is no established efficacious treatment for cognitive dysfunction in unipolar and bipolar disorder. This may be partially due to lack of consensus regarding the need to screen for cognitive impairment in cognition trials or which screening criteria to use. We have demonstrated in 2 randomized placebo-controlled trials that 8 weeks of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment has beneficial effects on verbal memory across unipolar and bipolar disorder, with 58% of EPO-treated patients displaying a clinically relevant memory improvement as compared to 15% of those treated with placebo...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829983/melatoninergic-system-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-neuroprotection-to-the-management-of-motor-and-nonmotor-symptoms
#10
REVIEW
Josiel Mileno Mack, Marissa Giovanna Schamne, Tuane Bazanella Sampaio, Renata Aparecida Nedel Pértile, Pedro Augusto Carlos Magno Fernandes, Regina P Markus, Rui Daniel Prediger
Melatonin is synthesized by several tissues besides the pineal gland, and beyond its regulatory effects in light-dark cycle, melatonin is a hormone with neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Melatonin acts as a free-radical scavenger, reducing reactive species and improving mitochondrial homeostasis. Melatonin also regulates the expression of neurotrophins that are involved in the survival of dopaminergic neurons and reduces α-synuclein aggregation, thus protecting the dopaminergic system against damage...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815174/comparative-biodistribution-and-safety-profiling-of-olmesartan-medoxomil-oil-in-water-oral-nanoemulsion
#11
Bapi Gorain, Hira Choudhury, Rakesh Kumar Tekade, Saumen Karan, P Jaisankar, Tapan Kumar Pal
Poor aqueous solubility and unfavourable de-esterification of olmesartan medoxomil (a selective angiotensin II receptor blocker), results in low oral bioavailability of less than 26%. Improvement of oral bioavailability with prolonged pharmacodynamics activity of olmesartan in Wistar rats had been approached by nanoemulsification strategy in our previous article [Colloid Surface B, 115, 2014: 286]. In continuation to that work, we herewith report the biodistribution behaviour and 28-day repeated dose sub-chronic toxicity of olmesartan medoxomil nanoemulsion in Wistar rats following oral administration...
December 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807596/nerolidol-loaded-nanospheres-prevent-behavioral-impairment-via-ameliorating-na-k-atpase-and-ache-activities-as-well-as-reducing-oxidative-stress-in-the-brain-of-trypanosoma-evansi-infected-mice
#12
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Thirssa H Grando, Karen L S Moreira, Andressa S Schafer, Luciana F Cossetin, Ana P T da Silva, Marcelo L da Veiga, Maria Izabel U M da Rocha, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro S da Silva, Silvia G Monteiro
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nerolidol-loaded nanospheres (N-NS) on the treatment of memory impairment caused by Trypanosoma evansi in mice, as well as oxidative stress, and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in brain tissue. Animals were submitted to behavioral tasks (inhibitory avoidance task and open-field test) 4 days postinfection (PI). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities were measured on the fifth-day PI...
November 2, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807170/converging-synergistic-actions-of-multiple-stress-hormones-mediate-enduring-memory-impairments-after-acute-simultaneous-stresses
#13
Yuncai Chen, Jenny Molet, Julie C Lauterborn, Brian H Trieu, Jessica L Bolton, Katelin P Patterson, Christine M Gall, Gary Lynch, Tallie Z Baram
: Stress influences memory, an adaptive process crucial for survival. During stress, hippocampal synapses are bathed in a mixture of stress-released molecules, yet it is unknown whether or how these interact to mediate the effects of stress on memory. Here, we demonstrate novel synergistic actions of corticosterone and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on synaptic physiology and dendritic spine structure that mediate the profound effects of acute concurrent stresses on memory. Spatial memory in mice was impaired enduringly after acute concurrent stresses resulting from loss of synaptic potentiation associated with disrupted structure of synapse-bearing dendritic spines...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803716/learning-and-memory-performance-after-withdrawal-of-agent-abuse-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Bahareh Amin, Sasan Andalib, Golnaz Vaseghi, Azadeh Mesripour
CONTEXT: Agent abuse is a dire predicament worldwide. Learning and memory deficits stemming from the withdrawal of such agents is an increasingly burning issue for researchers. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The present review revisits the literature generated by far pertaining to the research on memory and cognition deficiencies after withdrawal of agent abuse and corresponding mechanisms. RESULTS: Deficiency on spatial memory, episodic memory and working memory are common after withdrawal of agent abuse...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787813/the-influence-of-fluorine-on-the-disturbances-of-homeostasis-in-the-central-nervous-system
#15
REVIEW
K Dec, A Łukomska, D Maciejewska, K Jakubczyk, I Baranowska-Bosiacka, D Chlubek, A Wąsik, I Gutowska
Fluorides occur naturally in the environment, the daily exposure of human organism to fluorine mainly depends on the intake of this element with drinking water and it is connected with the geographical region. In some countries, we can observe the endemic fluorosis-the damage of hard and soft tissues caused by the excessive intake of fluorine. Recent studies showed that fluorine is toxic to the central nervous system (CNS). There are several known mechanisms which lead to structural brain damage caused by the excessive intake of fluorine...
October 27, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776476/targeting-no-cgmp-signaling-in-the-cns-for-neurodegeneration-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Manel Ben Aissa, Sue H Lee, Brian M Bennett, Gregory R J Thatcher
cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) plays a central role in various aspects of central nervous system (CNS) function, ranging from the developmental stages to neuronal plasticity and survival in adult brain. Activation of CREB plays a crucial role in learning and memory and is at the convergence of multiple intracellular signaling cascades including CAMKII and MAPK. This review focuses on the important functions of nitric oxide (NO) in activating CREB via the NO receptor, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and production of the second messenger, cGMP...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765516/effects-of-gintonin-enriched-fraction-on-hippocampal-cell-proliferation-in-wild-type-mice-and-an-appswe-psen-1-double-tg-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Dae-Joong Kim, Eun-Ju Shin, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
We previously showed that gintonin, an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, attenuated β-amyloid plaque formation in the cortex and hippocampus, and restored β-amyloid-induced memory dysfunction. Both endogenous LPA and LPA receptors play a key role in embryonic brain development. However, little is known about whether gintonin can induce hippocampal cell proliferation in adult wild-type mice and an APPswe/PSEN-1 double Tg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we examined the effects of gintonin on the proliferation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro and its effects on the hippocampal cell proliferation in wild-type mice and a transgenic AD mouse model...
December 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763550/age-and-brain-region-specific-changes-of-glucose-metabolic-disorder-learning-and-memory-dysfunction-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease-assessed-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-using-18-f-fdg-pet
#18
Xue-Yuan Li, Wei-Wei Men, Hua Zhu, Jian-Feng Lei, Fu-Xing Zuo, Zhan-Jing Wang, Zhao-Hui Zhu, Xin-Jie Bao, Ren-Zhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using (18)F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755058/fragmented-sleep-enhances-postoperative-neuroinflammation-but-not-cognitive-dysfunction
#19
Susana Vacas, Vincent Degos, Mervyn Maze
BACKGROUND: Sleep is integral to biologic function, and sleep disruption can result in both physiological and psychologic dysfunction including cognitive decline. Surgery activates the innate immune system, inducing neuroinflammatory changes that interfere with cognition. Because surgical patients with sleep disorders have an increased likelihood of exhibiting postoperative delirium, an acute form of cognitive decline, we investigated the contribution of perioperative sleep fragmentation (SF) to the neuroinflammatory and cognitive responses of surgery...
October 11, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737797/toxicogenomic-profile-of-apoptotic-and-necrotic-sn56-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neuronal-loss-after-acute-and-long-term-chlorpyrifos-exposure
#20
Paula Moyano, Javier Del Pino, María José Anadon, María Jesús Díaz, Gloria Gómez, María Teresa Frejo
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide reported to induce, both after acute and repeated exposure, learning and memory dysfunctions, although the mechanism is not completely known. CPF produces basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal loss, involved on learning and memory regulation, which could be the cause of such cognitive disorders. This effect was reported to be induced through apoptotic process, partially mediated by AChE overexpression, although neuronal necrosis was also described after CPF exposure...
October 10, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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