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Relative Age effect in sports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928206/doping-attitudes-and-covariates-of-potential-doping-behaviour-in-high-level-team-sport-athletes-gender-specific-analysis
#1
Damir Sekulic, Enver Tahiraj, Milan Zvan, Natasa Zenic, Ognjen Uljevic, Blaz Lesnik
Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919521/unsolved-forgotten-and-ignored-features-of-the-placebo-response-in-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Paul Enck, Sibylle Klosterhalfen, Katja Weimer
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify topics of research that have been neglected, undervalued, or overseen in the past 2 decades of placebo/nocebo research. METHODS: A highly specialized literature database containing >3200 articles on the placebo or nocebo effects or response was screened for articles covering placebo effects in nutrition, sports medicine, physical therapy, and psychotherapy; for article covering gender, age, and culture as influencing factors; for articles dealing with long-term outcome, multimodality; and for articles related to technical (eHealth, mHealth) aspects of placebo effects...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918661/how-does-a-short-interrupted-recovery-break-affect-performance-and-how-is-it-assessed-a-study-on-acute-effects
#3
Maximilian Pelka, Alexander Ferrauti, Tim Meyer, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann
A recovery process with optimal prerequisites, which is interrupted, is termed disrupted recovery. Whether this process has an influence on performance-related factors needs to be investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine how a short disturbance of a recovery phase is assessed and whether subsequent repeated sprint performance is affected by it. A quasi-experimental 2x2-factors cross-over design with 34 sport science undergraduate students (age 20.3 ± 2.1) was applied. Factors were the type of intervention (power nap vs...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900180/pursuit-of-performance-excellence-a-population-study-of-norwegian-adolescent-female-cross-country-skiers-and-biathletes-with-disordered-eating
#4
Ingvild Pettersen, Erik Hernæs, Finn Skårderud
AIM: To examine the prevalence of disordered eating (DE) among the total population of Norwegian female cross-country skiers and biathletes at the junior level, and to determine whether sociodemographic characteristics predict DE among athletes. METHODS: A cross-sectional population study of Norwegian female junior cross-country skiers and biathletes (n=262), with a response rate of 86%. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses explored the prevalence of DE and its relation to sports, competitive age groups, competitive status and education...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893472/correspondence-between-physical-self-concept-and-participation-in-and-fitness-change-after-bi-weekly-body-conditioning-classes-in-sedentary-women
#5
Ulrika Aasa, Johan Paulin, Guy Madison
The aims of the study were (1) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (2) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11-weeks of bi-weekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890486/towards-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-understand-and-manage-obesity-and-related-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Stephan C Bischoff, Yves Boirie, Tommy Cederholm, Michael Chourdakis, Cristina Cuerda, Nathalie M Delzenne, Nicolaas E Deutz, Denis Fouque, Laurence Genton, Carmen Gil, Berthold Koletzko, Miguel Leon-Sanz, Raanan Shamir, Joelle Singer, Pierre Singer, Nanette Stroebele-Benschop, Anders Thorell, Arved Weimann, Rocco Barazzoni
Overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle result in overweight or obesity defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. According to the WHO, the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008. In 2008, over 50% of both men and women in the WHO European Region were overweight, and approximately 23% of women and 20% of men were obese. Comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches should include nutritional treatment to favor the best metabolic and nutritional outcome, as well as to induce potential disease-specific benefits from selected nutritional regimens...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882607/fear-of-failure-psychological-stress-and-burnout-among-adolescent-athletes-competing-in-high-level-sport
#7
H Gustafsson, S S Sagar, A Stenling
The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19 years (M = 17.4 years, SD = 1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment...
November 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882605/placebo-in-sports-nutrition-a-proof-of-principle-study-involving-caffeine-supplementation
#8
B Saunders, L F de Oliveira, R P da Silva, V de Salles Painelli, L S Gonçalves, G Yamaguchi, T Mutti, E Maciel, H Roschel, G G Artioli, B Gualano
We investigated the effects of supplement identification on exercise performance with caffeine supplementation. Forty-two trained cyclists (age 37 ± 8 years, body mass [BM] 74.3 ± 8.4 kg, height 1.76 ± 0.06 m, maximum oxygen uptake 50.0 ± 6.8 mL/kg/min) performed a ~30 min cycling time-trial 1 h following either 6 mg/kgBM caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA) supplementation and one control (CON) session without supplementation. Participants identified which supplement they believed they had ingested ("caffeine", "placebo", "don't know") pre- and post-exercise...
November 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881009/late-cardiac-effect-of-anthracycline-therapy-in-physically-active-breast-cancer-survivors-a-prospective-study
#9
A C Nagy, P GulAcsi-BArdos, Z CserEp, L Hangody, T Forster
The late-onset cardiotoxic effect of anthracycline is known, however the early detection and prevention of subclinical myocardial damage has not been fully understood yet. Besides medical therapy regular physical activities may also play a role in the prevention and reduction of side effects of chemotherapy. The aim of our present study was to detect the effect of regular physical activities on the diastolic function and on the symptoms of late heart failure in case of anthracycline chemotherapy. The prospective study included 55 female patients (age 31-65 year, average 49...
November 24, 2016: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865722/effect-of-sex-and-sporting-discipline-on-lv%C3%A2-adaptation-to-exercise
#10
Gherardo Finocchiaro, Harshil Dhutia, Andrew D'Silva, Aneil Malhotra, Alexandros Steriotis, Lynne Millar, Keerthi Prakash, Rajay Narain, Michael Papadakis, Rajan Sharma, Sanjay Sharma
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the effect of different types of exercise on left ventricular (LV) geometry in a large group of female and male athletes. BACKGROUND: Studies assessing cardiac adaptation in female and male athletes indicate that female athletes reveal smaller increases in LV wall thickness and cavity size compared with male athletes. However, data on sex-specific changes in LV geometry in athletes are scarce. METHODS: A total of 1,083 healthy, elite, white athletes (41% female; mean age 21...
November 11, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862560/noninvasive-assessment-of-age-gender-and-exercise-effects-on-skeletal-muscle-initial-experience-with-t1-%C3%AF-mri-of-calf-muscle
#11
Xin-Gui Peng, Yuancheng Wang, Shijun Zhang, Yingying Bai, Hui Mao, Gao-Jun Teng, Shenghong Ju
PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate age- and gender-related changes in the fast-twitch (tibialis anterior, TA) and slow-twitch (soleus, SOL) skeletal muscle of healthy rats and volunteers and to compare the exercise-related difference in health volunteers with T1 ρ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 18 rats and 70 humans were involved in this study. For the animal study, T1 ρ relaxation times were measured in the TA and SOL rat muscle with a 3...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842463/do-cognitive-training-strategies-improve-motor-and-positive-psychological-skills-development-in-soccer-players-insights-from-a-systematic-review
#12
Maamer Slimani, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, David Tod, Alexandre Dellal, Olivier Hue, Foued Cheour, Lee Taylor, Karim Chamari
Soccer players are required to have well-developed physical, technical and cognitive abilities. The present systematic review, adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, examined the effects of cognitive training strategies on motor and positive psychological skills development in soccer performance and identified the potential moderators of the "cognitive training-soccer performance" relationship. Thirteen databases were systematically searched using keywords related to psychological or cognitive training in soccer players...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835960/parent-child-associations-for-changes-in-diet-screen-time-and-physical-activity-across-two-decades-in-modernizing-china-china-health-and-nutrition-survey-1991-2009
#13
Fei Dong, Annie Green Howard, Amy H Herring, Amanda L Thompson, Linda S Adair, Barry M Popkin, Allison E Aiello, Bing Zhang, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: While the household context is important for lifestyle behavior interventions, few studies have examined parent-child associations for diet and physical activity (PA) changes over time in a rapidly urbanizing country. We aimed to investigate changes in diet, screen time, and PA behaviors over time in children and their parents living in the same household, and examine the parent-child association for these behaviors. METHODS: We studied dietary, screen time, and PA behaviors in 5,201 parent-child pairs (children aged 7-17y) using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2009)...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834609/a-treatment-based-classification-algorithm-to-treat-achilles-tendinopathy-an-exploratory-case-series
#14
Patti Syvertson, Emily Dietz, Monica Matocha, Janet McMurray, Russell Baker, Alan Nasypany, Don Reordan, Michael Paddack
CONTEXT: Achilles tendinopathy is relatively common in both the general and athletic populations. The current gold standard for the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy is eccentric exercise, which can be painful and time consuming. While there is limited research on indirect treatment approaches, it has been proposed that tendinopathy patients do respond to indirect approaches in fewer treatments without provoking pain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of utilizing a Treatment Based Classification (TBC) algorithm as a strategy for classifying and treating patients diagnosed with Achilles tendinopathy...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820924/aging-of-cloned-animals-a-mini-review
#15
Jörg Patrick Burgstaller, Gottfried Brem
The number of species for which somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) protocols are established is still increasing. Due to the high number of cloned farm, companion, and sport animals, the topic of animal cloning never ceases to be of public interest. Numerous studies cover the health status of SCNT-derived animals, but very few cover the effects of SCNT on aging. However, only cloned animals that reach the full extent of the species-specific lifespan, doing so with only the normal age-related afflictions and diseases, would prove that SCNT can produce completely healthy offspring...
November 8, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813685/physical-activity-and-intermittent-postconcussion-symptoms-after-a-period-of-symptom-limited-physical-and-cognitive-rest
#16
Quinton Sawyer, Brian Vesci, Tamara C Valovich McLeod
: Reference: Schneider KJ, Iverson GL, Emery CA, McCrory P, Herring SA, Meeuwisse WH. The effects of rest and treatment following sport-related concussion: a systematic review of the literature. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47(5):304-307. CLINICAL QUESTION: After concussion and a period of symptom-limited physical and cognitive rest, do athletes who experience intermittent symptoms return to asymptomatic condition more quickly with physical activity than with prolonged physical rest? DATA SOURCES: One investigator performed an individual search for each research question using the following databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registers, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, ProQuest, PsychInfo, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796198/effects-of-age-on-strength-and-morphology-of-toe-flexor-muscles
#17
Karen J Mickle, Salih Angin, Gillian Crofts, Christopher J Nester
Study Design Descriptive, cross-sectional. Background Age-related muscle atrophy is common in lower-limb muscles. We therefore speculated that foot muscles may also diminish with age. However, there is a paucity of literature characterizing foot muscle strength and morphology, and any relationship between these 2, in older people. Objective To compare the strength and size of the toe flexor muscles of older adults relative to their younger counterparts. Methods Seventeen young adults with a normal foot type were matched by sex and body mass index to 17 older adults with a normal foot type, from an available sample of 41 younger (18 to 50 years of age) and 44 older (60 or more years of age) adults...
December 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789472/a-positive-vestibular-ocular-motor-screening-voms-is-associated-with-increased-recovery-time-after-sports-related-concussion-in-youth-and-adolescent-athletes
#18
Anthony J Anzalone, Damond Blueitt, Tami Case, Tiffany McGuffin, Kalyssa Pollard, J Craig Garrison, Margaret T Jones, Robert Pavur, Stephanie Turner, Jonathan M Oliver
BACKGROUND: Vestibular and ocular motor impairments are routinely reported in patients with sports-related concussion (SRC) and may result in delayed return to play (RTP). The Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment has been shown to be consistent and sensitive in identifying concussion when used as part of a comprehensive examination. To what extent these impairments or symptoms are associated with length of recovery is unknown. PURPOSE: To examine whether symptom provocation or clinical abnormality in specific domains of the VOMS results in protracted recovery (time from SRC to commencement of RTP protocol)...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789471/the-effect-of-the-zero-tolerance-for-head-contact-rule-change-on-the-risk-of-concussions-in-youth-ice-hockey-players
#19
Maciej P Krolikowski, Amanda M Black, Luz Palacios-Derflingher, Tracy A Blake, Kathryn J Schneider, Carolyn A Emery
BACKGROUND: Ice hockey is a popular winter sport in Canada. Concussions account for the greatest proportion of all injuries in youth ice hockey. In 2011, a policy change enforcing "zero tolerance for head contact" was implemented in all leagues in Canada. PURPOSE: To determine if the risk of game-related concussions and more severe concussions (ie, resulting in >10 days of time loss) and the mechanisms of a concussion differed for Pee Wee class (ages 11-12 years) and Bantam class (ages 13-14 years) players after the 2011 "zero tolerance for head contact" policy change compared with players in similar divisions before the policy change...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788163/the-impact-of-leisure-and-social-activities-on-activities-of-daily-living-of-middle-aged-adults-evidence-from-a-national-longitudinal-survey-in-japan
#20
Takafumi Monma, Fumi Takeda, Haruko Noguchi, Hideto Takahashi, Nanako Tamiya
This study investigated the effects of leisure and social activities on the ability of middle-aged adults to maintain activities of daily living (ADL), and whether performing these activities alone or with others contributed to the ability to perform ADL. The study used nationally representative longitudinal data of 22,770 adults in Japan, aged 50-59 years, who did not have limitations in performing ADL at the beginning of the 5-year survey period. The study considered six activity categories: two leisure activities ("hobbies or cultural activities" and "exercise or sports") and four social activities ("community events," "support for children," "support for elderly individuals," and "other social activities")...
2016: PloS One
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