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Relative Age effect in sports

Simona Hosp, Robert Csapo, Dieter Heinrich, Michael Hasler, Werner Nachbauer
BACKGROUND: Maintaining balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities, particularly in older adults to prevent falls and associated injuries. Kinesiology tape has gained great popularity in sports and is frequently used as a tool for performance enhancement. However, there is little research investigating its influence on balance. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Kinesiology tape on dynamic balance, postural stability and knee proprioception after physical activity in healthy, older adults...
March 10, 2018: Gait & Posture
Marsha Tijssen, Igor Tak, Janine Stubbe, Daniel Haverkamp, Enrico de Visser, Maria Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Robert van Cingel
Study Design Prospective cohort. Background The International Hip Outcome Tool 33 (iHOT-33), developed in English, has been shown to be a valid and reliable questionnaire for young physically active individuals with symptomatic hip joint pathology. Objectives Translate and validate the iHOT-33 in Dutch (iHOT-33 NL) in the target population. Methods Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the iHOT-33 was performed following existing guidelines. Young to middle-aged (18-50 years), active (Tegner score ≥ 3) individuals presenting with symptomatic hip joint related pain (Numeric Pain Rating Score (NPRS) ≥ 1) in primary healthcare/hospital setting were included...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Krzysztof Karpowicz, Katarzyna Krych, Małgorzata Karpowicz, Witold Nowak, Piotr Gronek
The map of candidate genes that can potentially affect physical fitness becomes larger every year, and they are associated with such aspects as respiratory and cardiovascular stability; body build and composition - especially muscle mass and strength; carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; response to training; and exercise intolerance.The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the CA repeat polymorphism of the P1 promoter of the IGF1 gene and the structure of motor skills in the two groups of Polish young athletes in 2011-2013...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Kristy L Smith, Patricia L Weir, Kevin Till, Michael Romann, Stephen Cobley
BACKGROUND: Subtle differences in chronological age within sport (bi-) annual-age groupings can contribute to immediate participation and long-term attainment discrepancies; known as the relative age effect. Voluminous studies have examined relative age effects in male sport; however, their prevalence and context-specific magnitude in female sport remain undetermined. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and magnitude of relative age effects in female sport via examination of published data spanning 1984-2016...
March 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Martin K Erikstad, Rune Høigaard, Bjørn Tore Johansen, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Tommy Haugen
Childhood sport participation is argued to be important to understand differences in self-regulation and performance level in adolescence. This study sought to investigate if football-specific activities in childhood (6-12 years of age) is related to self-regulatory skills and national under 14- and 15-team selection in Norwegian elite youth football. Data of practice histories and self-regulatory skills of 515 youth football players selected at Norwegian regional level were collected and further analysed using multilevel analyses...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Philip E Kearney, Philip R Hayes, Alan Nevill
The relative age effect (RAE) is a common phenomenon in youth sport, whereby children born early in the selection year are more likely to experience success and to sustain participation. There is a lack of research investigating variables which influence RAEs within track and field athletics. Such information is vital to guide policies in relation to competition structure, youth development squads and coach education. A database of competition results was analysed to determine the extent to which RAEs were present in track and field athletics in the United Kingdom...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Piergiorgio Francia, Sonia Toni, Giulia Iannone, Giuseppe Seghieri, Barbara Piccini, Alessandro Vittori, Ugo Santosuosso, Emilio Casalini, Massimo Gulisano
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: It is known that patients with diabetes can develop limited joint mobility (LJM) and that this can depend on the metabolic control maintained and the duration of the disease. The aims of this study were to verify the presence of ankle joint mobility (AJM) deficits in both plantar and dorsiflexion in young type 1 diabetic patients (T1D) considering also the possible role of sport practiced as a further factor, able to modify AJM. METHODS: AJM was evaluated by an inclinometer in 82 T1D patients (M/F: 48/34), mean age 12...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
David Robert Howell, Thomas Buckley, Robert C Lynall, William Meehan
Prior studies suggest that concussion may lead to an increased risk of a subsequent time-loss sport-related injury, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. We measured the symptom and dual-task gait outcomes for athletes initially post-concussion and after clinical recovery. Participants then self-reported any additional injuries incurred in the year after their concussion. Forty-two athletes (52% female, mean age=16.8±3.2 years) completed the study. They underwent a dual-task gait evaluation and symptom inventory within 21 days post-concussion, and again after they were deemed clinically recovered...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Christoph Gräni, Dominik C Benz, Dominik A Steffen, Andreas A Giannopoulos, Michael Messerli, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Oliver Gaemperli, Cathérine Gebhard, Christian Schmied, Philipp A Kaufmann, Ronny R Buechel
OBJECTIVES: Recommendations regarding sports restriction are lacking for middle-aged athletes with anomalous coronary arteries originating from the opposite sinus of Valsalva (ACAOS). METHODS: Sixty-three patients with ACAOS were subdivided into ACAOS with (n = 38) or without (n = 25) an interarterial course (IAC). Sports behavior, either competitive (COMP) or recreational (REC), was evaluated at the time of diagnosis and after a median follow-up of 4.2 years. RESULTS: Mean age was 56 ± 11 years and 48 (76...
February 27, 2018: Cardiology
Junxin Li, Binbin Yang, Miranda Varrasse, Xiaopeng Ji, MaoChun Wu, Manman Li, Kun Li
This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe physical activity and sleep in 290 community-dwelling Chinese older adults and to examine the association between physical activity and poor sleep outcomes. Almost half of the sample were poor sleepers. The majority of the sample regularly participated in walking, some household activity and light sports; yet, only a small portion were involved in work-related activity or in strenuous sports. A greater level of overall physical activity [Odds Ratio (OR) =0...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Haneul Lee, Jerrold Petrofsky
CONTEXT:   Although much attention has been paid to the effect of estrogen on the knee ligaments, little has been done to examine the ligaments in the foot, such as the plantar fascia and how they may be altered during the menstrual cycle. OBJECTIVE:   To (1) examine sex differences in plantar fascia thickness and laxity and postural sway and (2) identify any menstrual cycle effects on plantar fascia laxity, postural sway, and neuromuscular tremor between menstruation and the ovulation phase...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Kathryn Iammarino, James Marrie, Mitchell Selhorst, Linda P Lowes
Background: Ankle injuries account for up to 40% of all sport related injuries. These injuries can result in weeks to months of missed sport or work. The PRICE (Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) treatment is standard care for most acute ankle sprains. Recently, early mobilization in adults has been shown to decrease time off from sport or work, and the likelihood of developing chronic instability. To date, no research has been performed assessing the effectiveness of early mobilization in pediatric patients (<18 years)...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Jacobien H F Oosterhoff, Rens Bexkens, Ana-Maria Vranceanu, Luke S Oh
BACKGROUND: Although a parent's perception of his or her child's physical and emotional functioning may influence the course of the child's medical care, including access to care and decisions regarding treatment options, no studies have investigated whether the perceptions of a parent are concordant with that of an adolescent diagnosed with a sports-related orthopaedic injury. Identifying and understanding the potential discordance in coping and emotional distress within the athlete adolescent-parent dyads are important, because this discordance may have negative effects on adolescents' well-being...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Marie Overbye
BACKGROUND: The zero-tolerance approach to doping in sport has long been criticised. Legalising 'doping' under medical supervision has been proposed as a better way of protecting both athletes' health and fair competition. This paper investigates how elite athletes might react if specific doping substances were permitted under medical supervision and explore athletes' considerations about side-effects in this situation. The results are interpreted using a framework, which views elite sport as an exceptional and risky working environment...
February 22, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Julia Kathrin Baumgart, Berit Brurok, Øyvind Sandbakk
BACKGROUND: Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in Paralympic sitting sports athletes represents their maximal ability to deliver energy aerobically in an upper-body mode, with values being influenced by sex, disability-related physiological limitations, sport-specific demands, training status and how they are tested. OBJECTIVES: To identify VO2peak values in Paralympic sitting sports, examine between-sports differences and within-sports variations in VO2peak and determine the influence of sex, age, body-mass, disability and test-mode on VO2peak...
2018: PloS One
Louise M Burke, Peter Peeling
Many expert sporting bodies now support a pragmatic acceptance of the use of performance supplements which have passed a risk:benefit analysis of being safe, effective, and permitted for use, while also being appropriate to the athlete's age and maturation in their sport. However, gaining evidence of the performance benefits of these supplements is a process challenged by the scarcity of research in relation to the number of available products, and the limitations of the poor quality of some studies. While meta-analyses and systematic reviews can help to provide information about the general use of performance supplements, the controlled scientific trial provides the basis on which these reviews are undertaken, as well as an opportunity to address more specific questions about supplement applications...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Alexander D Wright, Jonathan D Smirl, Kelsey Bryk, Michael Jakovac, Paul van Donkelaar
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of repetitive subconcussive head trauma on neurovascular coupling (NVC) responses. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study collected between September 2013 and December 2016. SETTING: University laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred seventy-nine elite, junior-level (age, 19.6 ± 1.5 years) contact sport (ice hockey, American football) athletes recruited for preseason testing. Fifty-two nonconcussed athletes returned for postseason testing...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Mindy Galleher, Briana Crowe, Mitchell Selhorst
Objectives: The purposes of this study were to: (1) assess the benefit of adding manual therapy (MT) to physical therapy care in pediatric patients with anterior hip pain; (2) assess the relative risk of adverse reactions when MT is used; and (3) report the types of MT used. Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review of patients treated in a hospital-based sports medicine clinic. The charts of 201 patients (mean age = 14.23 ± 2.15 years) met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed...
December 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
Christian Dippmann, Otto Kraemer, Bent Lund, Michael Krogsgaard, Per Hölmich, Martin Lind, Karen Briggs, Marc Philippon, Bjarne Mygind-Klavsen
INTRODUCTION: Hip arthroscopy has become a standard procedure in the treatment of hip joint pain not related to osteoarthritis or dysplasia in the young and active patient. There has been increasing focus on the contribution of the hip capsule to function and on stability following hip arthroscopy. It has been suggested that capsular closure after hip arthroscopy may prevent microinstability and macroinstability of the hip joint and reduce revision rate. However, it remains unknown whether capsular closure should be performed as a standard procedure when performing hip arthroscopies, especially in patients without additional risk factors for instability such as hypermobility or dysplasia of the hip...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Jaclyn A Stephens, Martha B Denckla, Teri McCambridge, Beth S Slomine, E Mark Mahone, Stacy J Suskauer
Sensitive examination tools are needed to optimize evaluation after sport-related concussion (SRC). We preliminarily examined the Physical and Neurological Examination of Subtle Signs (PANESS) for sensitivity to motor changes in a pilot cohort of adolescents aged 13-17 with SRC. 15 Adolescents (5 females) with SRC were evaluated up to 3 times: within 2 weeks of injury, approximately 1 month later (mean 35 days between visits), and for those not recovered at the second visit, again following clinical recovery (mean 70 days between first and last visits for all participants)...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
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