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Relative age effect in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230619/population-pharmacokinetics-of-topiramate-in-japanese-pediatric-and-adult-patients-with-epilepsy-using-routinely-monitored-data
#1
Masato Takeuchi, Ikuko Yano, Satoko Ito, Mitsuhiro Sugimoto, Shota Yamamoto, Atsushi Yonezawa, Akio Ikeda, Kazuo Matsubara
BACKGROUND: Topiramate is a second-generation antiepileptic drug used as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in adults and children with partial seizures. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to improve the topiramate dosage adjustment for individualized treatment. METHODS: Patients whose steady-state serum concentration of topiramate was routinely monitored at Kyoto University Hospital from April 2012 to March 2013 were included in the model-building data...
February 20, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229239/same-day-discharge-after-incision-and-drainage-of-soft-tissue-abscess-in-diaper-age-children-is-safe-and-effective
#2
Ian C Glenn, Nicholas E Bruns, Domenic Craner, Alexander T Gibbons, Danial Hayek, Neil L McNinch, Oliver S Soldes, Todd A Ponsky
PURPOSE: Many pediatric centers admit patients following incision and drainage (I&D) of soft-tissue abscesses. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of the same-day discharge following I&D. METHODS: Retrospective review was performed of children aged 3 months-4 years who underwent operative I&D of an abscess followed by same-day discharge. Patients receiving antibiotics within 2 weeks of presentation were excluded. Treatment failure was defined as readmission or repeat procedure related to the initial abscess...
February 22, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229060/vitamin-d-levels-in-children-with-adenotonsillar-hypertrophy-and-otitis-media-with-effusion
#3
Alimohamad Asghari, Zohreh Bagheri, Maryam Jalessi, Mohammad Mahdi Salem, Elahe Amini, Sahand GhalehBaghi, Sepideh Bakhti
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D has been suggested to play a considerable role in the function of the immune system in various infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune conditions. Otitis media with effusion (OME), defined as the presence of non-purulent fluid within the middle ear without signs or symptoms of suppurative otitis media, has a number of inflammatory predisposing factors. This study was designed to explore the association between vitamin D deficiency and OME. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 74 children aged 2-7 years with an obstructive indication for adenotonsillectomy were included...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228842/worldwide-malaria-incidence-and-cancer-mortality-are-inversely-associated
#4
Li Qin, Changzhong Chen, Lili Chen, Ran Xue, Ming Ou-Yang, Chengzhi Zhou, Siting Zhao, Zhengxiang He, Yu Xia, Jianxing He, Pinghua Liu, Nanshan Zhong, Xiaoping Chen
BACKGROUND: Investigations on the effects of malaria infection on cancer mortality are limited except for the incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) in African children. Our previous murine lung cancer model study demonstrated that malaria infection significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. This study aims to assess the possible associations between malaria incidence and human cancer mortality. METHODS: We compiled data on worldwide malaria incidence and age-standardized mortality related to 30 types of cancer in 56 countries for the period 1955-2008, and analyzed their longitudinal correlations by a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM), adjusted for a nonlinear year effect and potential confounders such as country's income levels, life expectancies and geographical locations...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226227/protective-and-harmful-immunity-to-rsv-infection
#5
Peter J M Openshaw, Chris Chiu, Fiona J Culley, Cecilia Johansson
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an exceptional mucosal pathogen. It specializes in infection of the ciliated respiratory epithelium, causing disease of variable severity with little or no direct systemic effects. It infects virtually all children by the age of three years and then repeatedly infects throughout life; this it does despite relatively slight variations in antigenicity, apparently by inducing selective immunological amnesia. Inappropriate or dysregulated responses to RSV can be pathogenic, causing disease-enhancing inflammation that contributes to short- and long-term effects...
February 6, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225747/effect-of-methylphenidate-on-emotional-dysregulation-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-oppositional-defiant-disorder-conduct-disorder
#6
Ayse Kutlu, Ulku Akyol Ardic, Eyup Sabri Ercan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a frequent feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be observed as a dysregulation profile or a deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) profile. Oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) comorbidity is prevalent in ADHD and known to be related with ED. The first-line treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, but their effects on ED are not well studied. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on ED in ADHD + ODD/CD cases...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225638/laparoscopic-resection-of-pancreatic-tumors-in-children-results-of-a-multicentric-survey
#7
Ciro Esposito, Pascal De Lagausie, Maria Escolino, Amulya Saxena, George W Holcomb, Alessandro Settimi, Francois Becmeur, David van der Zee
AIM: This study aimed to report the results of a multicentric survey about laparoscopic treatment of pancreatic tumors in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of patients operated using minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for a pancreatic tumor in 5 International centers of Pediatric Surgery in the last 5 years were retrospectively reviewed. We recorded data relating to the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, surgical technique, and outcome. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (average age 2...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225374/characterizing-the-toxicity-and-dose-effect-profile-of-tramadol-ingestions-in-children
#8
Gina L Stassinos, Lawrence Gonzales, Wendy Klein-Schwartz
OBJECTIVES: Tramadol can cause life-threatening toxicity in overdose; however, data on its toxicity in children are lacking. This study investigates toxicity associated with tramadol ingestions in children. The hypothesis is that children will experience dose-related central nervous system and respiratory depression and seizures. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of cases from the National Poison Center Data System between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013, was performed...
February 21, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224687/children-remember-words-from-ignorant-speakers-but-do-not-attach-meaning-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#9
Haykaz Mangardich, Mark A Sabbagh
Although we know much about the conditions under which children demonstrate selective social learning, we have a limited understanding of the cognitive mechanisms by which children's selectivity manifests. Here, we report findings from a brain electrophysiological (ERP) study designed to determine the extent to which words presented by ignorant speakers were later both familiar to children and associated with semantic meaning. Forty-eight children (mean age = 6.5 years) first experienced novel word training from either a knowledgeable or an ignorant speaker...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224092/language-and-cognitive-outcome-for-high-risk-neonates-at-the-age-of-2-3-years-experience-from-an-arab-country
#10
Tamer Abou-Elsaad, Hesham Abdel-Hady, Hemmat Baz, Doaa ElShabrawi
AIM: To investigate the effect of different neonatal risk factors on different language parameters as well as cognitive abilities among Arabic speaking Egyptian children at the age of two to three years of life and to find out which risk factor(s) had the greatest impact on language and cognitive abilities. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 103 children with age range of 2-3 years (median age 31 mo). They were 62 males and 41 females who were exposed to different high-risk factors in the perinatal period, with exclusion of metabolic disorders, sepsis/meningitis, congenital anomalies and chromosomal aberrations...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223810/factors-associated-with-caregiver-burden-among-pharmacotherapy-treated-children-adolescents-with-adhd-in-the-caregiver-perspective-on-pediatric-adhd-survey-in-europe
#11
Moshe Fridman, Tobias Banaschewski, Vanja Sikirica, Javier Quintero, M Haim Erder, Kristina S Chen
BACKGROUND: Burden on caregivers of children/adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is multidimensional, but incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To analyze caregiver burden across the concepts of work, social/family life, and parental worry/stress, in relation to selected contributing factors. METHODS: The online Caregiver Perspective on Pediatric ADHD survey was fielded in ten European countries. Analysis included children/adolescents (6-17 years) who were receiving/had received ADHD pharmacotherapy in the previous 6 months...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222232/dietary-total-antioxidant-capacity-in-early-school-age-and-subsequent-allergic-disease
#12
Anna Gref, Susanne Rautiainen, Olena Gruzieva, Niclas Håkansson, Inger Kull, Göran Pershagen, Magnus Wickman, Alicja Wolk, Erik Melén, Anna Bergström
BACKGROUND: Dietary antioxidant intake has been hypothesized to influence the development of allergic diseases, however, few prospective studies have investigated this association. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the association between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet at age 8 years and the subsequent development of asthma, rhinitis and sensitization to inhalant allergens between 8 and 16 years, and to assess potential effect modification by known risk factors...
February 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221731/identifying-a-conceptual-shift-in-child-and-adolescent-reported-treatment-decision-making-having-a-say-as-i-need-at-this-time
#13
Katherine Patterson Kelly, Catriona Mowbray, Kimberly Pyke-Grimm, Pamela S Hinds
BACKGROUND: Professional organizations and governments recommend child and adolescent involvement in cancer treatment decision making (TDM) despite minimal evidence that children prefer involvement, how best to include them, and the result of doing so. PROCEDURE: Using descriptive qualitative research methods, we interviewed 20 children ages 9-17 years about their TDM preferences and experiences. We shifted our conceptualizations as findings emerged about how children with cancer viewed their decisional experiences...
April 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220714/is-maternal-education-a-social-vaccine-for-childhood-malaria-infection-a-cross-sectional-study-from-war-torn-democratic-republic-of-congo
#14
Cary Ma, Kasereka Masumbuko Claude, Zacharie Tsongo Kibendelwa, Hannah Brooks, Xiaonan Zheng, Michael Hawkes
In zones of violent conflict in the tropics, social disruption leads to elevated child mortality, of which malaria is the leading cause. Understanding the social determinants of malaria transmission may be helpful to optimize malaria control efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children aged 2 months to 5 years attending well-child and/or immunization visits in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Six hundred and forty-seven children were tested for malaria antigenemia by rapid diagnostic test and the accompanying parent or legal guardian simultaneously completed a survey questionnaire related to demographics, socioeconomic status, maternal education, as well as bednet use and recent febrile illness...
February 21, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219963/overdose-risk-in-young-children-of-women-prescribed-opioids
#15
Yaron Finkelstein, Erin M Macdonald, Alejandro Gonzalez, Marco L A Sivilotti, Muhammad M Mamdani, David N Juurlink
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Over the past 20 years, the prescribing of opioids has increased dramatically in North America, with parallel increases in opioid addiction, overdose, and associated deaths. We examined whether young children of women prescribed opioids were at increased risk of opioid overdose. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, nested case control study in Ontario, Canada, between 2002 and 2015. We identified children aged ≤10 years, whose mothers received publicly funded prescriptions for an opioid or a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (comparator analgesic) in the preceding year...
February 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219411/using-the-hierarchical-ordinal-regression-model-to-analyse-the-intensity-of-urinary-schistosomiasis-infection-in-school-children-in-lusaka-province-zambia
#16
Christopher Simoonga, Lawrence N Kazembe
BACKGROUND: Urinary schistosomiasis has been a major public health problem in Zambia for many years. However, the disease profile may vary in different locale due to the changing ecosystem that contributes to the risk of acquiring the disease. The objective of this study was to quantify risk factors associated with the intensity of urinary schistosomiasis infection in school children in Lusaka Province, Zambia, in order to better understand local transmission. METHODS: Data were obtained from 1 912 school children, in 20 communities, in the districts of Luangwa and Kafue in Lusaka Province...
February 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219042/educational-video-and-story-as-effective-interventions-reducing-epilepsy-related-stigma-among-children
#17
Dana Brabcová, Jiří Kohout, Veronika Weberová, Vladimír Komárek
Stigma has been related to epilepsy since ancient times. Despite the importance of this issue, only a few interventions focusing on the reduction of epilepsy-related stigma may be found in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two interventions focused on the reduction of epilepsy-related stigma in children aged 9-11years. The first group of children involved in the study (n1=89) completed the 23-item Czech version of the SSE (Stigma Scale of Epilepsy) questionnaire and an 11-item multiple-choice knowledge test, then watched a video and completed the same questionnaire and test immediately after the intervention...
February 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218785/inhibition-of-shh-pathway-mechanisms-by-arsenic-trioxide-in-pediatric-medulloblastomas-a-comprehensive-literature-review
#18
P H S Klinger, A F Andrade, L E A Delsin, R G P Queiroz, C A Scrideli, L G Tone, E T Valera
Recent innovations in the genomic understanding of medulloblastomas have provided new ways to explore this highly invasive malignant brain cancer arising from the cerebellum. Among the four different medulloblastoma subgroups described to date, the sonic hedgehog (SHH) genetic pathway is the pathway activated in the tumorigenesis of medulloblastoma. SHH-related medulloblastomas are usually of nodular/desmoplastic histology and frequently occur in children under the age of three, an age group highly susceptible to the acute and long-term effects of treatment...
February 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217944/longitudinal-relations-between-children-s-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-with-reactive-and-proactive-aggression
#19
Gina Austin, Rebecca Bondü, Birgit Elsner
Aggression may be performed for different reasons, such as defending oneself (reactive aggression) or to reach egoistic aims (proactive aggression). It is a widely accepted notion that a lack of theory of mind (ToM) as a basic social competence should be linked to higher aggression, but findings on the developmental links between ToM and different functions of aggression have been inconsistent. One reason for this may be the failure of taking the bi-dimensionality of both ToM (cognitive vs. affective) and aggression (reactive vs...
February 20, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217451/erectile-dysfunction-masculinity-and-psychosocial-outcomes-a-review-of-the-experiences-of-men-after-prostate-cancer-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Suzanne K Chambers, Eric Chung, Gary Wittert, Melissa K Hyde
Prostate cancer (PC) treatment side-effects such as erectile dysfunction (ED) can impact men's quality of life (QoL), psychosocial and psycho-sexual adjustment. Masculinity (i.e., men's identity or sense of themselves as being a man) may also be linked to how men respond to PC treatment and ED however the exact nature of this link is unclear. This review aims to provide a snapshot of the current state of evidence regarding ED, masculinity and psychosocial impacts after PC treatment. Three databases (Medline/PsycINFO, CINHAL, and EMBASE) were searched January 1st 1980 to January 31st 2016...
February 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
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