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Cardio vascular

Leticia Gomez-Sanchez, Luis Garcia-Ortiz, M Carmen Patino-Alonso, Jose I Recio-Rodriguez, Rigo Fernando, Ruth Marti, Cristina Agudo-Conde, Emiliano Rodriguez-Sanchez, Jose A Maderuelo-Fernandez, Rafel Ramos, Manuel A Gomez-Marcos
BACKGROUND: The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) can reflect both central and peripheral arterial stiffness. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components may increase arterial stiffness and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the correlation of MetS and its components with arterial stiffness is still not clear. The primary aim of this study is thus the relationship using baPWV and CAVI in Caucasian adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk...
October 24, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Monica L Castro-Acosta, Leanne Smith, Rosalind J Miller, Danielle I McCarthy, Jonathan A Farrimond, Wendy L Hall
Blackcurrants are rich in polyphenolic glycosides called anthocyanins, which may inhibit postprandial glycemia. The aim was to determine the dose-dependent effects of blackcurrant extract on postprandial glycemia. Men and postmenopausal women (14M, 9W, mean age 46 years, S.D.=14) were enrolled into a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Low sugar fruit drinks containing blackcurrant extract providing 150-mg (L-BE), 300-mg (M-BE) and 600-mg (H-BE) total anthocyanins or no blackcurrant extract (CON) were administered immediately before a high-carbohydrate meal...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
M Ayyub, A K Najmi, M Akhtar
Objective: Oxidative stress and alternation of renin-angiotensin system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various cardio vascular, endocrine including mood and anxiety disorders. The present study evaluated the role of irbesartan in stress induced different models of depression. Materials and method: Mice were treated with irbesartan (40 mg/kg), fluoxetine (25 mg/kg) alone in combination orally. Drugs treatment started after 2 weeks from the beginning of the unpredictable mild stress (UCMS) protocol...
October 18, 2016: Drug Research
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mao Takahashi, Tomoaki Shiba, Yuuiti Hori, Kenji Suzuki, Kohji Shirai
OBJECTIVE: Cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI) represents arterial stiffness of the aorta, femoral artery and tibial artery. We investigated whether annual change of CAVI is related to the onset of retinal abnormality on optic fundus. DESIGN AND METHOD: Subjects were 1,148 (male 47.4%) urban residents who participated in cardiovascular disease (CVD) screening in Japan during 2005- 2011. All subjects had normal finding of optic fundus at first health check and had not received medical treatment for CVD risk factor during this study...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Chikao Miyazaki, Mao Takahashi, Kazuhiro Shimizu, Tatsuo Chiba, Takenori Morisita, Tomoyuki Yamamoto, Nobuo Sugo, Akira Takahara, Kohji Shirai
OBJECTIVE: Cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI) is reflecting stiffness of the arterial tree from the origin of aorta to the ankles. We observed elevated CAVI in patients who suffered from apoplexy attack. To clarify the role and the mechanism by which arterial stiffness elevated just after apoplexy attack, the effect of enhanced intracranial pressure (ICP) by injecting saline into the cisterna magna of the rabbit on blood pressure, CAVI and cervical blood flow, were studied. Furthermore the role of sympathetic nerve was studied...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Daiji Nagayama, Rena Watanabe, Yasuhiro Watanabe, Haruki Imamura, Yuta Sato, Takashi Yamaguchi, Noriko Ban, Hidetoshi Kawana, Masahiro Ohira, Atsuhito Saiki, Kohji Shirai, Ichiro Tatsuno
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) with cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). DESIGN AND METHOD: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 23,257 healthy Japanese subjects (12,729 males and 10528 females) without past history of heart disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes and nephritis between 20 and 74 (47.1 ± 12.5) years of age who underwent health screening during 2004 to 2006 in Japan. RESULTS: Male showed markedly higher BMI, CAVI, TG and lower HDL-C...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yusuke Kobayashi, Hideo Kobayashi, Hiroaki Ishiguro, Keisuke Yatsu, Tetsuya Fujikawa, Satoshi Umemura
OBJECTIVE: Though both carotid bulb and aortic arch are known to play important roles in regulation of blood pressure through modulation in baroreflex function, few studies have investigated the association of carotid bulb atherosclerosis and large arterial stiffness and orthostatic blood pressure change. DESIGN AND METHOD: Patients with metabolic disorder such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus underwent measurement of segment-specific carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (as an index of atherosclerosis of carotid bulb), cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) (as an index for large arterial stiffness), heart rate variability (HRV) (as an index of baroreflex function) and sit-to-stand orthostatic blood pressure change (as a simple method for detecting orthostatic hypotension)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kohji Shirai
BACKGROUND: The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new arterial stiffness index of the arterial tree from the origin of the aorta to the ankle, and was essentially derived from the stiffness parameterβtheory proposed by Hayashi. The conspicuous feature of CAVI is independency from blood pressure at the time of measurement. AIM: The purpose is to clarify the meaning of CAVI as a surrogate marker of arteriosclerosis, and also the role of CAVI in the blood pressure control system...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Madhumita Chatterjee, Meinrad Gawaz
Platelet membrane bedecked with a wide array of receptors offers a platform to regulate platelet responsiveness, thrombotic propensity, inflammatory disposition, and immune reactivity under diverse pathophysiological conditions. Ectopic proteolytic cleavage of such receptors irreversibly inactivates receptor-mediated intracellular signaling governing cellular functions, further releases soluble fragments into circulation which might modulate functions of target cells. Glycoprotein VI-(GPVI) is a membrane glycoprotein expressed in platelets and megakaryocytes...
October 18, 2016: Platelets
K E Zaborska, M Wareing, C Austin
The endothelium is an established modulator of vascular tone; however the recent discovery of the anti-contractile nature of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) suggests that the fat which surrounds many blood vessels can also modulate vascular tone. Both the endothelium and PVAT secrete vasoactive substances, which regulate vascular function. Many of these factors are common to both the endothelium and PVAT; therefore, this review will highlight the potential shared mechanisms in modulation of vascular tone...
October 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Tomoaki Shiba, Mao Takahashi, Tadashi Matsumoto, Kohji Shirai, Yuichi Hori
PROPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were significant correlations between the pulse waveform in the capillary area of the optic nerve head (ONH) microcirculation shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) and parameters of the systemic condition, especially the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). METHOD: We studied 130 men (ages 60.5 ± 10.9 years) who visited the Vascular Function Section of the Department of Cardiovascular Center of Toho University Sakura Medical Center...
October 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Kevin D Burns, Yuliya Lytvyn, Farid H Mahmud, Denis Daneman, Livia Deda, David B Dunger, John E Deanfield, R Neil Dalton, Yesmino Elia, Ronnie Har, Julie A D Van, Timothy J Bradley, Cameron Slorach, Wei Hui, Fengxia Xiao, Joseph Zimpelmann, Luc Mertens, Rahim Moineddin, Heather N Reich, Etienne B Sochett, James W Scholey, David Z I Cherney
AIMS: The relationship between the renal renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and cardiorenal pathophysiology is unclear. Our aims were to assess (1) levels of urinary RAAS components and (2) the association between RAAS components and HbA1c, urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and blood pressure in otherwise healthy adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (TID) vs. healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Urinary angiotensinogen and ACE2 levels, activity of ACE and ACE2, blood pressure (BP), HbA1c, ACR and eGFR were measured in 65 HC and 194 T1D from the Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes Cardio-Renal Intervention Trial (AdDIT)...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Ferdinando Carlo Sasso, Nadia Lascar, Antonella Ascione, Ornella Carbonara, Luca De Nicola, Roberto Minutolo, Teresa Salvatore, Maria Rosaria Rizzo, Plinio Cirillo, Giuseppe Paolisso, Raffaele Marfella
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies and metanalysis have shown the beneficial effect of statin therapy in CVD secondary prevention, there is still controversy such the use of statins for primary CVD prevention in patients with DM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of total major adverse cardio-vascular events (MACE) in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by nephropathy treated with statins, in order to verify real life effect of statin on CVD primary prevention...
October 13, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Naohisa Tomosugi, Shoko Yamamoto, Masayoshi Takeuchi, Hideto Yonekura, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Noriaki Numata, Shogo Katsuda, Yasuo Sakai
AIM: Collagen tripeptide (CTP) is a functional food with a high content of Gly-X-Y tripeptides derived from collagen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CTP administration on the development of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals. METHODS: The present study was conducted in the form of an open-label, single-dose trial for 6 months. All subjects ingested CTP twice daily: at breakfast and supper (total intake per day: 16 g). The effect of CTP on atherosclerosis was verified by measuring several indices, including serum lipid levels, toxic advanced glycation end-products (TAGE), and the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), at baseline and 6 months...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Jason R Cuomo, Gyanendra K Sharma, Preston D Conger, Neal L Weintraub
Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease (RICVD) is the most common nonmalignant cause of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors who have undergone mediastinal radiation therapy (RT). Cardiovascular complications include effusive or constrictive pericarditis, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, and coronary/vascular disease. These are pathophysiologically distinct disease entities whose prevalence varies depending on the timing and extent of radiation exposure to the heart and great vessels. Although refinements in RT dosimetry and shielding will inevitably limit future cases of RICVD, the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, including those treated with older higher-dose RT regimens, will ensure a steady flow of afflicted patients for the foreseeable future...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
Sergey N Samsonov, Veronika I Manykina, Natalia G Kleimenova, Svetlana S Parshina, Alena A Strekalovskaya, Palmira G Petrova
INTRODUCTION: cardiovascular impairment remains one of the most current problems of today's life and the definition of the connection between its development and the state of heliogeophysical storminess is currently important. The results of long-term researches of communication between cardiovascular catastrophes (myocardial infarction) and heliogeophysical storminess in the middle and high latitudes are shown in this work. AIM: to study the influence of space weather parameters on human cardio-vascular system in the high and middle latitudes...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Cristina Căpuşa, Gabriel Stefan, Simona Stancu, Andrea Ilyes, Nicoleta Dorobanţu, Gabriel Mircescu
INTRODUCTION: Since 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency has been linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the hemodialysis population, we aimed to determine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D level and markers of subclinical CVD in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional, single-center study prospectively enrolled 87 clinically stable CKD patients (median age: 61 (57-66) years, 51% male, median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 32 (27-37) ml/min)...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
I Schulze, E M Poos, H Meyer, A K List, S B R Kaestner, J Rehage
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preoperative carprofen on the cardiorespiratory, hormonal and metabolic stress response during umbilical surgery under isoflurane anaesthesia combined with local anaesthesia, in calves. A randomised, blinded experimental study was conducted in 24 calves. Carprofen (n = 12; 1.4 mg/kg) or physiological saline solution (controls; n = 12) was administered 1 h prior to surgery. Anaesthesia was induced with xylazine (0.1 mg/kg, IM) and, after the onset of sedation (i...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
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