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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235936/ego-involvement-increases-doping-likelihood
#1
Christopher Ring, Maria Kavussanu
Achievement goal theory provides a framework to help understand how individuals behave in achievement contexts, such as sport. Evidence concerning the role of motivation in the decision to use banned performance enhancing substances (i.e., doping) is equivocal on this issue. The extant literature shows that dispositional goal orientation has been weakly and inconsistently associated with doping intention and use. It is possible that goal involvement, which describes the situational motivational state, is a stronger determinant of doping intention...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186726/-death-anxiety-and-its-importance-for-psychiatry
#2
Georg Juckel, Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou
Inner dealing with the question of death as well as death anxiety accompany human beings from the beginning, which is reflected by the different philosophical and religious positions. It is obvious that work on this issue is sparse in the field of psychiatric disorders. Due to the few literatures it can however be assumed that death anxiety plays a greater role within the changed thoughts and feelings of psychiatric patients, whose intensity we probably determine and assess in non-sufficient manner yet. The terms are defined and the problematic of ego destruction in patients with schizophrenia as expression of death anxiety is specifically discussed...
November 29, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115858/forgiveness-and-late-life-functioning-the-mediating-role-of-finding-ego-integrity
#3
Elke Derdaele, Loren Toussaint, Evalyne Thauvoye, Jessie Dezutter
OBJECTIVES: This study seeks (1) to replicate previous findings on the mediating effect of integrity/despair in the relation between forgiveness and depression in an elderly population and (2) to extend these findings to other aspects of functioning, namely life satisfaction and subjective health. Both aims were studied in a sample of residential elderly. METHODS: Residential elderly (n = 329, M = 87 years) filled out questionnaires on forgivingness, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, subjective health and the developmental task of integrity/despair...
November 8, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071464/investigating-the-impact-of-overnight-fasting-on-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-a-double-blind-fmri-study
#4
Stelios Orfanos, Timur Toygar, Mark Berthold-Losleben, Natalya Chechko, Annette Durst, Zacharias G Laoutidis, Sebastian Vocke, Caren Weidenfeld, Frank Schneider, Wolfram Karges, Christian F Beckmann, Ute Habel, Nils Kohn
The human brain depends mainly on glucose supply from circulating blood as an energy substrate for its metabolism. Most of the energy produced by glucose catabolism in the brain is used to support intrinsic communication purposes in the absence of goal-directed activity. This intrinsic brain function can be detected with fMRI as synchronized fluctuations of the BOLD signal forming functional networks. Here, we report results from a double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study addressing changes in intrinsic brain activity in the context of very low, yet physiological, blood glucose levels after overnight fasting...
October 25, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059708/self-restraint-spill-over-inhibitory-control-disrupts-appetite-regulation-among-ruminators
#5
Caroline Schlinkert, Sander L Koole
OBJECTIVES: People can use inhibitory control to temporarily inhibit their personal preferences to achieve their long-term goals. According to the ego fixation model (Koole et al., 2014), ruminators have difficulties relaxing inhibitory control, leading them to continue inhibiting their personal needs, even when this is no longer required by the situation. Inhibitory control may thus disrupt healthy appetite regulation among ruminators. METHODS: Among 324 Dutch undergraduate students (218 women; Mage = 21...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966038/depletion-moral-identity-and-unethical-behavior-why-people-behave-unethically-after-self-control-exertion
#6
Yan Wang, Guosen Wang, Qiuju Chen, Lin Li
Self-control enables people to resist short-term temptations in the service of long-term goals. Previous exertion of self-control leads to a state of ego depletion. Three studies demonstrated that ego depletion leads to a high level of unethical behavior. These studies also hypothesized and confirmed that depleted individuals behave unethically because of low moral identity. Study 1 found that depleted participants were more likely to over-report their performance than non-depleted participants. Study 2 revealed that depletion reduced people's moral identity, which in turn increased their propensity to engage in unethical behavior...
September 28, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928700/implementing-the-target-model-in-physical-education-effects-on-perceived-psychobiosocial-and-motivational-states-in-girls
#7
Laura Bortoli, Maurizio Bertollo, Edson Filho, Selenia di Fronso, Claudio Robazza
Grounded in achievement goal and self-determination theories, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mastery and performance climate interventions on students' psychobiosocial (PBS) states and self-determined motivation. A first study was conducted to determine the validity of the measures. In a second study, two groups of female students (N = 65, 14-15 years of age) took part in the investigation. A mastery-performance group participated in eight task-involving lessons and then in another set of eight ego-involving lessons...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891370/countering-the-consequences-of-ego-depletion-the-effects-of-self-talk-on-selective-attention
#8
Jón Gregersen, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Evangelos Galanis, Nikos Comoutos, Athanasios Papaioannou
This study examined the effects of a self-talk intervention on selective attention in a state of ego depletion. Participants were 62 undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.02 years (SD = 1.17). The experiment was conducted in four consecutive sessions. Following baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. A two-session training was conducted for the two groups, with the experimental group using self-talk. In the final assessment, participants performed a selective attention test, including visual and auditory components, following a task inducing a state of ego depletion...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836298/a-qualitative-examination-of-patients-experiences-of-dietitians-consultation-engagement-styles-within-nephrology
#9
A Morris, T Herrmann, C Liles, C Roskell
BACKGROUND: Dietitians provide individuals with tailored, practical nutritional advice. For this reason, skills in effective interpersonal communication are essential. In the case of chronic kidney disease, the specifics of dietary advice may change according to renal function. The conveyance of accurate dietary advice and compliance is critical and requires full engagement with the service. The effect of communication styles on patients ' engagement experiences with renal dietetics is unknown...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813329/ego-depletion-in-sports-highlighting-the-importance-of-self-control-strength-for-high-level-sport-performance
#10
REVIEW
Chris Englert
Athletes are constantly confronted with self-control demands, but previous research has delivered sound empirical evidence that athletes are not always capable of dealing with these demands. According to the strength model of self-control, individuals have a limited amount of self-control strength, which can become temporarily depleted following self-control demands (e.g., attention regulation). When self-control strength is depleted, that is, in a state of ego depletion, athletes are less persistent during strenuous physical exercise, are less likely to follow their exercise regimens, and tend to perform worse under pressure...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790963/too-exhausted-to-perform-at-the-highest-level-on-the-importance-of-self-control-strength-in-educational-settings
#11
REVIEW
Chris Englert, Alafia Zavery, Alex Bertrams
In order to perform at the highest level in educational settings (e.g., students in testing situations), individuals often have to control their impulses or desires (e.g., to study for an upcoming test or to prepare a course instead of spending time with the peer group). Previous research suggests that the ability to exert self-control is an important predictor of performance and behavior in educational contexts. According to the strength model, all self-control acts are based on one global energy pool whose capacity is assumed to be limited...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716395/-it-ruined-my-life-the-effects-of-the-war-on-drugs-on-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-in-rural-puerto-rico
#12
R Abadie, C Gelpi-Acosta, C Davila, A Rivera, M Welch-Lazoritz, K Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: The War on Drugs has raised the incarceration rates of racial minorities for non-violent drug-related crimes, profoundly stigmatized drug users, and redirected resources from drug prevention and treatment to militarizing federal and local law enforcement. Yet, while some states consider shifting their punitive approach to drug use, to one based on drug treatment and rehabilitation, nothing suggests that these policy shifts are being replicated in Puerto Rico. METHODS: This paper utilizes data from 360 PWID residing in four rural towns in the mountainous area of central Puerto Rico...
July 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629141/graph-based-cooperative-localization-using-symmetric-measurement-equations
#13
Dhiraj Gulati, Feihu Zhang, Daniel Clarke, Alois Knoll
Precise localization is a key requirement for the success of highly assisted or autonomous vehicles. The diminishing cost of hardware has resulted in a proliferation of the number of sensors in the environment. Cooperative localization (CL) presents itself as a feasible and effective solution for localizing the ego-vehicle and its neighboring vehicles. However, one of the major challenges to fully realize the effective use of infrastructure sensors for jointly estimating the state of a vehicle in cooperative vehicle-infrastructure localization is an effective data association...
June 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613132/the-wheel-and-the-ladder-freudian-and-loewaldian-accounts-of-individuation
#14
Linus Recht
In this paper, I use comparisons of Freud, Loewald, and Plato to explore what it means to individuate and to desire in a world of frustration, pain, and loss. The metaphors of the "wheel" versus the "ladder" present basic images for Freud's tragic conception of a person's emerging into a world of pain, transience and loss, in contrast to Loewald's sense of individuation as an increasing attainment of individual ego and world enrichment, constructed from metabolized grieved objects. I then argue that Plato's Symposium offers comparable visions of the possibilities of love, and that the juxtaposition of Freud and Loewald can be connected to ancient philosophical considerations...
June 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610578/sub-national-assessment-of-aid-effectiveness-a-case-study-of-post-conflict-districts-in-uganda
#15
Freddie Ssengooba, Justine Namakula, Vincent Kawooya, Suzanne Fustukian
BACKGROUND: In post-conflict settings, many state and non-state actors interact at the sub-national levels in rebuilding health systems by providing funds, delivering vital interventions and building capacity of local governments to shoulder their roles. Aid relationships among actors at sub-national level represent a vital lever for health system development. This study was undertaken to assess the aid-effectiveness in post-conflict districts of northern Uganda. METHOD: This was a three district cross sectional study conducted from January to April 2013...
June 13, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540522/the-role-of-ego-resiliency-as-mediator-of-the-longitudinal-relationship-between-family-socio-economic-status-and-school-grades
#16
Guido Alessandri, Antonio Zuffianò, Nancy Eisenberg, Concetta Pastorelli
Family socio-economic status (SES) represents one of the major determinants of youth's scholastic achievement, and thus it is important to unravel the psychological factors underlining this relation. In this article, we examined youth's ability to flexibly adapt and, thus, cope with harsh environmental conditions-assessed by the construct of ego-resiliency-as a mediating mechanism in the across-time association between family SES and academic achievement. The longitudinal sample was composed of 265 (56% females) Italian students who were about 13 years old at Time 1 (T1) and about 18 years old at Time 2 (T2)...
October 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537369/dental-problems-and-familismo-social-network-discussion-of-oral-health-issues-among-adults-of-mexican-origin-living-in-the-midwest-united-states
#17
G Maupome, W R McConnell, B L Perry
Objective: To examine the influence of collectivist orientation (often called familismo when applied to the Latino sub-group in the United States) in oral health discussion networks. Basic Research Design: Through respondent-driven sampling and face-to-face interviews, we identified respondents' (egos) personal social network members (alters). Egos stated whom they talked with about oral health, and how often they discussed dental problems in the preceding 12 months...
December 2016: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510059/deforestation-and-carbon-loss-in-southwest-amazonia-impact-of-brazil-s-revised-forest-code
#18
Pedro Augusto Costa Roriz, Aurora Miho Yanai, Philip Martin Fearnside
In 2012 Brazil's National Congress altered the country's Forest Code, decreasing various environmental protections in the set of regulations governing forests. This suggests consequences in increased deforestation and emissions of greenhouse gases and in decreased protection of fragile ecosystems. To ascertain the effects, a simulation was run to the year 2025 for the municipality (county) of Boca do Acre, Amazonas state, Brazil. A baseline scenario considered historical behavior (which did not respect the Forest Code), while two scenarios considered full compliance with the old Forest Code (Law 4771/1965) and the current Code (Law 12,651/2012) regarding the protection of "areas of permanent preservation" (APPs) along the edges of watercourses...
September 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379394/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-insufficiency-in-search-of-a-bone-disease
#19
Sonali Shah, Cherie Chiang, Ken Sikaris, Zhong Lu, Minh Bui, Roger Zebaze, Ego Seeman
Context: Vitamin D "insufficiency" and "deficiency" are defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels <75 and <30 nmol/L, respectively. We aimed to determine whether these values signal hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, high bone remodeling, low areal bone mineral density (aBMD), microstructural deterioration, or reduced matrix mineralization density (MMD) and so suggest whether bone fragility is present. Methods: Concentrations of 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured in 11,855 participants...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277947/dissociation-in-families-experiencing-intimate-partner-violence
#20
Alison Miller
This paper, using an illustrative case study, presents the hypothesis that cyclical spouse abusers suffer from a dissociative condition (or perhaps a personality disorder in which dissociation is a prominent feature) that results from disorganized attachment. The partner of the spouse abuser tries various unsuccessful strategies to appease her spouse in order to change his behavior. If the relationship lasts for years, she adapts by developing a milder but parallel dissociative process, developing chains of state-dependent memory and resultant ego states for the different phases of the domestic abuse cycle...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
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