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Ego states

Åshild Bjørnerem, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Xiaofang Wang, Minh Bui, Susan P Walker, Roger Zebaze, Ego Seeman
Estrogen deficiency associated with menopause is accompanied by an increase in the rate of bone remodeling and the appearance of a remodeling imbalance; each of the greater number of remodeling transactions deposits less bone than was resorbed resulting in microstructural deterioration. The newly deposited bone is also less completely mineralized than the older bone resorbed. We examined whether breastfeeding, an estrogen deficient state, compromises bone microstructure and matrix mineral density. Distal tibial and distal radial microarchitecture were quantified using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in 58 women prior, during and after breastfeeding, and in 48 controls during one to five years follow-up...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Matthias E Liechti, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid
RATIONALE: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. Acute mystical-type experiences that are acutely induced by hallucinogens are thought to contribute to their potential therapeutic effects. However, no data have been reported on LSD-induced mystical experiences and their relationship to alterations of consciousness. Additionally, LSD dose- and concentration-response functions with regard to alterations of consciousness are lacking. METHODS: We conducted two placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of 100 and 200 μg LSD in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively...
October 7, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Montse C Ruiz, Saara Haapanen, Asko Tolvanen, Claudio Robazza, Joan L Duda
This study examined the relationships between perceptions of the motivational climate, motivation regulations, and the intensity and functionality levels of athletes' pleasant and unpleasant emotional states. Specifically, we examined the hypothesised mediational role of motivation regulations in the climate-emotion relationship. We also tested a sequence in which emotions were assumed to be predicted by the motivational climate dimensions and then served as antecedents to variability in motivation regulations...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Georg Northoff, Niall W Duncan
Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with a variety of symptoms that include sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social changes. The exact neuronal mechanisms underlying these symptoms remain unclear though. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's spontaneous activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity...
August 12, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Audrey E Parrish, Ishara D Emerson, Mattea S Rossettie, Michael J Beran
The ego-depletion hypothesis states that self-control diminishes over time and with exertion. Accordingly, the glucose hypothesis attributes this depletion of self-control resources to decreases in blood glucose levels. Research has led to mixed findings among humans and nonhuman animals, with limited evidence for such a link between glucose and self-control among closely-related nonhuman primate species, but some evidence from more distantly related species (e.g., honeybees and dogs). We tested this hypothesis in capuchin monkeys by manipulating the sugar content of a calorie-matched breakfast meal following a nocturnal fast, and then presenting each monkey with the accumulation self-control task...
August 3, 2016: Behavioral Sciences
G Maupome, W R McConnell, B L Perry, R Marino, E R Wright
OBJECTIVES: We used data from the TalaSurvey study to examine associations between dental health experiences, social network characteristics, and levels of behavioral and psychological acculturation in one location in the American Midwest. METHODS: Starting in parishes and community organizations, we identified adults of Mexican origin living in Indianapolis, who were 1st- or 2nd-generation immigrants from Tala, Mexico. Using a social networks methodology and following extensive formative research, we created an egocentric social network survey and administered it via face-to-face interviews...
August 1, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Martin S Hagger, Nikos L D Chatzisarantis
Good self-control has been linked to adaptive outcomes such as better health, cohesive personal relationships, success in the workplace and at school, and less susceptibility to crime and addictions. In contrast, self-control failure is linked to maladaptive outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms by which self-control predicts behavior may assist in promoting better regulation and outcomes. A popular approach to understanding self-control is the strength or resource depletion model. Self-control is conceptualized as a limited resource that becomes depleted after a period of exertion resulting in self-control failure...
July 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Cynthia Foronda, Brent MacWilliams, Erin McArthur
The link between miscommunication and poor patient outcomes has been well documented. To understand the current state of knowledge regarding interprofessional communication, an integrative review was performed. The review suggested that nurses and physicians are trained differently and they exhibit differences in communication styles. The distinct frustrations that nurses and physicians expressed with each other were discussed. Egos, lack of confidence, lack of organization and structural hierarchies hindered relationships and communications...
July 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Wolfgang Milch
First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships...
2016: Luzifer-Amor: Zeitschrift Zur Geschichte der Psychoanalyse
Marlies A E Marissen, Marlies E Brouwer, Annemarie M F Hiemstra, Mathijs L Deen, Ingmar H A Franken
The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on non-clinical participants and data derived from patients diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) remain scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to test the mask model hypothesis of narcissism among patients with NPD...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Brian O'Connor
Freud's notion of the death drive is complex and arguably ambiguous. This paper, however, proposes that Freud's thoughts on our organic dynamic towards tensionlessness provide us with a cohesive path through the diverse characteristics that are attributed to the death drive. The paper shows that Freud is interested in giving expression to a kind of disavowal of personhood that may present itself symptomatically. A tensionless state can be gained by a dynamic release of the individual from the pressures of the ego...
June 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
Arreed Barabasz, Marianne Barabasz, Ciara Christensen
The purpose of this article is to shed light on the psychodynamic complexities of the resistance encountered in treating the wounded self. Conceptualized on the basis of ego state therapy it offers a rationale for the use of precision-targeted abreactive hypnosis to treat these patients. Grounded in evidence-based efficacy research, the authors also briefly explain how to target treatment in wounded-self patients.
July 2016: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Melike Yonder Ertem, Ayla Kececi
OBJECTIVE: An effective interpersonal communication is an essential nursing skill required to help provide quality health care and meet the treatment objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the communication between the psychiatric nurses and the patients in terms of Transactional Analysis Theory ego states. METHODS: The quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. The descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation) were used in the data analysis and Kendall's Tau-c coefficient was used to assess the agreement among the observers...
March 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
A V Lebedev, M Kaelen, M Lövdén, J Nilsson, A Feilding, D J Nutt, R L Carhart-Harris
Personality is known to be relatively stable throughout adulthood. Nevertheless, it has been shown that major life events with high personal significance, including experiences engendered by psychedelic drugs, can have an enduring impact on some core facets of personality. In the present, balanced-order, placebo-controlled study, we investigated biological predictors of post-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) changes in personality. Nineteen healthy adults underwent resting state functional MRI scans under LSD (75µg, I...
September 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Wanja Wolff, Sebastian Schindler, Christoph Englert, Ralf Brand, Johanna Kissler
BACKGROUND: Deception can distort psychological tests on socially sensitive topics. Understanding the cerebral processes that are involved in such faking can be useful in detection and prevention of deception. Previous research shows that faking a brief implicit association test (BIAT) evokes a characteristic ERP response. It is not yet known whether temporarily available self-control resources moderate this response. We randomly assigned 22 participants (15 females, 24.23 ± 2.91 years old) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Ian M MacFarlane, Pat McCarthy Veach, Janelle E Grier, Derek J Meister, Bonnie S LeRoy
Supervised clinical experiences with patients comprise a critical component of genetic counseling student education. Previous research has found genetic counseling students tend to be more anxiety prone than the general population, and anxiety related to supervision has been found in genetic counseling and related fields. The present study investigated how anxiety affects the experience of supervision for genetic counseling students. Second year genetic counseling students were invited to participate through email invitations distributed via training directors of the 33 programs accredited at the time of the study by the American Board of Genetic Counseling...
August 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Robin L Carhart-Harris, Suresh Muthukumaraswamy, Leor Roseman, Mendel Kaelen, Wouter Droog, Kevin Murphy, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Eduardo E Schenberg, Timothy Nest, Csaba Orban, Robert Leech, Luke T Williams, Tim M Williams, Mark Bolstridge, Ben Sessa, John McGonigle, Martin I Sereno, David Nichols, Peter J Hellyer, Peter Hobden, John Evans, Krish D Singh, Richard G Wise, H Valerie Curran, Amanda Feilding, David J Nutt
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality...
April 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sara Alfieri, Paolo Guiddi, Elena Marta, Vincenzo Saturni
BACKGROUND: The economic crisis has exasperated people's feelings of loneliness; job instability often does not allow people to commit to voluntary work. The present work proposes to examine whether the motivations to donate blood have changed before and during the period of economic crisis, taking into consideration donors' gender. We adopted Omoto & Snyder's functionalist approach, which states that blood donation serves different functions for any one person, who may have different motivations from those held by other people...
March 29, 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Claire Frederick
Therapy with seriously dissociated patients requires the transformation and integration of malevolent ego states that produce a wide assortment of negative experiences and behaviors in the patient. During the course of therapy, they can present dangers to both patient and therapist, as well as to the therapeutic process (Watkins & Watkins, 1984). Perhaps the greatest challenges for therapists in this work are the development and the maintenance of empathy for these personality aspects. Without some degree of empathy, a healing therapeutic alliance cannot be formed, and absent a secure, healing, intersubjective experience, it is unlikely that malevolent ego states can undergo sufficient transformation for integration...
April 2016: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Paul Elvers
This paper outlines a theoretical account of musical self-enhancement. I claim that listening to music serves as a resource for actively manipulating affective states so that a positive self-view is maintained and a sense of optimism is provided. Self-enhancement-the process by which individuals modify their self-worth and gain self-esteem-typically takes place in social interactions. I argue that experiencing music may serve as a unique "esthetic surrogate" for interaction, which equally enables self-enhancement...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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