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Neurological soft signs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717382/neurological-soft-signs-in-tunisian-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-and-relation-with-cannabis-use
#1
Ahmed Mhalla, Bochra Ben Mohamed, Christoph U Correll, Badii Amamou, Anouar Mechri, Lotfi Gaha
BACKGROUND: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are minor non-localizing neurological abnormalities that are conceptualized as neurodevelopmental markers that mediate the biological risk for psychosis. We aimed to explore the relationship between NSS and cannabis use, an environmental risk factor of psychosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in consecutively admitted patients hospitalized for first-episode psychosis. NSS were assessed by the NSS scale (23 items exploring motor coordination, motor integrative function, sensory integration, involuntary movements or posture, quality of lateralization)...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711662/the-clinical-and-prognostic-value-of-motor-abnormalities-in-psychosis-and-the-importance-of-instrumental-assessment
#2
REVIEW
Peter N van Harten, Sebastian Walther, Jerillyn S Kent, Scott R Sponheim, Vijay A Mittal
Motor abnormalities comprise several clinical signs intrinsic to psychosis. Critically, these features are of prognostic value in individuals at-risk for psychosis, and for those in early stages of psychotic disorders. Motor abnormalities such as tremor, rigidity, and neurological soft signs often go unrecognized. Currently, advances in this area are limited by a paucity of theoretical conceptions categorizing or linking these behaviors to underlying neurobiology affected in psychosis. However, emerging technological advances have significantly improved the ability to detect and assess motor abnormalities with objective instruments in a timely and reliable manner...
July 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628794/neurological-soft-signs-but-not-theory-of-mind-and-emotion-recognition-deficit-distinguished-children-with-adhd-from-healthy-control
#3
Mariabernarda Pitzianti, Clementina Grelloni, Livia Casarelli, Elisa D'Agati, Simonetta Spiridigliozzi, Paolo Curatolo, Augusto Pasini
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with social cognition impairment, executive dysfunction and motor abnormalities, consisting in the persistence of neurological soft signs (NSS). Theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition (ER) deficit of children with ADHD have been interpreted as a consequence of their executive dysfunction, particularly inhibitory control deficit. To our knowledge, there are not studies that evaluate the possible correlation between the ToM and ER deficit and NSS in the population with ADHD, while this association has been studied in other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia...
June 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615755/role-of-electroencephalography-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-neuropsychiatric-border-zone-syndromes
#4
REVIEW
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, A Asheeb, Santhosh Dash, Nikhil Retna, Karu Venkata Ravi Teja, Thomas Gregor Issac
Border zone disorders involve neurological disorders with psychiatric symptoms and signs as well as psychiatric disorders with soft neurological features. This becomes a cause for great diagnostic and therapeutic concerns. We, in this paper, analyzed some of the imitators such as epilepsy, dementia, some forms of encephalitis, and pure psychiatric diseases which produce problems in decision making due to soft neurological features and the utility of electroencephalography (EEG) as a simple diagnostic tool in differentiating some of these conditions from each other as well as the therapeutic role of EEG in some of these disorders...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429448/white-matter-microstructure-variations-contribute-to-neurological-soft-signs-in-healthy-adults
#5
Dusan Hirjak, Philipp A Thomann, Robert C Wolf, Katharina M Kubera, Caspar Goch, Jan Hering, Klaus H Maier-Hein
OBJECTIVE: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are core features of psychiatric disorders with significant neurodevelopmental origin. However, it is unclear whether NSS correlates are associated with neuropathological processes underlying the disease or if they are confounded by medication. Given that NSS are also present in healthy persons (HP), investigating HP could reveal NSS correlates, which are not biased by disease-specific processes or drug treatment. Therefore, we used a combination of diffusion MRI analysis tools to provide a framework of specific white matter (WM) microstructure variations underlying NSS in HP...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262175/a-qualititative-study-of-neurological-soft-signs-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-effect-of-comorbid-psychotic-spectrum-disorders-and-familiality-on-its-expression-in-indian-population
#6
Dr Sonia Malhotra, Dr Pankaj B Borade, Dr Pradeep Sharma, Dr Yogesh Satija, Dr Gunjan
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, with lifetime prevalence of 2%-3% and is known to lie on a spectrum continuous with Schizophrenia and other affective psychosis. Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) have been reported to be higher in both Schizophrenia and affective psychosis, like bipolar disorder, and their first degree relatives but in OCD, the results have been inconsistent. It remains unclear if NSS occur at even higher rates in individuals who have a co-morbidity for OCD and either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, as it might be expected if a broader neurodevelopmental hit underlies the pathophysiology of both OCD and these disorders...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253561/the-neurology-of-acutely-failing-respiratory-mechanics
#7
REVIEW
Eelco F M Wijdicks
Forces involved in breathing-which effectively pull in air-are the diaphragmatic, intercostal, spine, and neck muscles. Equally important is the bulbar musculature maintaining the architecture of a patent airway conduit and abdominal wall and internal intercostal muscles providing cough. Acute injury along a neural trajectory from brainstem to muscle will impair the coordinated interaction between these muscle groups. Acutely failing respiratory mechanics can be caused by central and peripheral lesions. In central lesions, the key lesion is in the nucleus ambiguus innervating the dilator muscles of the soft palate, pharynx, and larynx, but abnormal respiratory mechanics rarely coincide with abnormalities of the respiratory pattern generator...
April 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245174/cognitive-control-deficit-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-is-associated-with-complex-deviations-of-early-brain-development
#8
Olivier Gay, Marion Plaze, Catherine Oppenheim, Raphael Gaillard, Jean-Pierre Olié, Marie-Odile Krebs, Arnaud Cachia
BACKGROUND: Several clinical and radiological markers of early neurodevelopmental deviations have been independently associated with cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of our study was to test the cumulative and/or interactive effects of these early neurodevelopmental factors on cognitive control (CC) deficit, a core feature of schizophrenia. METHODS: We recruited patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, who underwent structural MRI...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156189/feline-glioma-a-retrospective-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Daniel R Rissi, Andrew D Miller
Case series summary This study aimed to evaluate the pathologic and diagnostic features of 13 cases of feline glioma diagnosed at two veterinary diagnostic institutions over 16 years. A retrospective search was conducted using the laboratory information system. Selected cases were reviewed, tumors were classified according to the 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System, and tissue sections were submitted to an immunohistochemistry panel for further characterization...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130002/neurological-soft-signs-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-state-and-trait-related-relationships-to-psychopathology-cognition-and-antipsychotic-medication-effects
#10
Robin Emsley, Bonginkosi Chiliza, Laila Asmal, Sanja Kilian, M Riaan Olivier, Lebogang Phahladira, Akinsola Ojagbemi, Freda Scheffler, Jonathan Carr, Martin Kidd, Paola Dazzan
BACKGROUND: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are proposed to represent both state- and trait-related features of schizophrenia. METHOD: We assessed the course of NSS with the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) over 12months of standardised treatment in 126 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder, and evaluated their state- and trait-related associations with psychopathology, functionality, cognition and antipsychotic treatment...
January 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095336/psychiatric-symptoms-mediate-the-effects-of-neurological-soft-signs-on-functional-outcomes-in-patients-with-chronic-schizophrenia-a-longitudinal-path-analytic-study
#11
Ted C T Fong, Rainbow T H Ho, Adrian H Y Wan, Friendly S W Au-Yeung
Neurological soft signs (NSS) in motor coordination and sequencing occur in schizophrenia patients and are an intrinsic sign of the underlying neural dysfunctions. The present longitudinal study explored the relationships among NSS, psychiatric symptoms, and functional outcomes in 151 Chinese patients with chronic schizophrenia across a 6-month period. The participants completed neurological assessments at baseline (Time 1), psychiatric interviews at Time 1 and 3-month follow-up (Time 2), and self-report measures on daily functioning at 6-month follow-up (Time 3)...
March 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052777/from-neurological-soft-signs-to-functional-outcome-in-young-individuals-in-treatment-with-secondary-services-for-non-psychotic-disorders-a-path-analysis
#12
A Minichino, M Francesconi, R E Carrión, R Delle Chiaie, A Bevilacqua, M Parisi, S Rullo, F S Bersani, M Biondi, K Cadenhead
BACKGROUND: Functional decline among patients with mental illness is not unique to individuals with psychotic disorders. Despite this, research on early predictors of functional outcome mainly focused on individuals thought to have an 'at risk mental state' (ARMS) for psychosis. There is evidence suggesting that certain early vulnerability markers, such as neurological soft signs (NSS), may explain variability in functional outcomes independent of the level of psychosis risk and the traditional diagnostic classification...
January 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041918/prediction-of-functional-outcome-in-young-patients-with-a-recent-onset-psychiatric-disorder-beyond-the-traditional-diagnostic-classification-system
#13
Amedeo Minichino, Marta Francesconi, Ricardo E Carrión, Arturo Bevilacqua, Maurizio Parisi, Santo Rullo, Agata Ando', Massimo Biondi, Roberto Delle Chiaie, Kristin Cadenhead
A critical research goal is to identify modifiable risk factors leading to functional disabilities in young psychiatric patients. The authors developed a multidimensional trans-diagnostic predictive model of functional outcome in patients with the recent-onset of a psychiatric illness. Baseline clinical, psychosis-risk status, cognitive, neurological-soft-signs measures, and dopamine-related-gene polymorphisms (DRD1-rs4532, COMT-rs165599, and DRD4-rs1800955) were collected in 138 young non-psychotic outpatients...
December 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992839/psychosis-prediction-in-secondary-mental-health-services-a-broad-comprehensive-approach-to-the-at-risk-mental-state-syndrome
#14
M Francesconi, A Minichino, R E Carrión, R Delle Chiaie, A Bevilacqua, M Parisi, S Rullo, F Saverio Bersani, M Biondi, K Cadenhead
BACKGROUND: Accuracy of risk algorithms for psychosis prediction in "at risk mental state" (ARMS) samples may differ according to the recruitment setting. Standardized criteria used to detect ARMS individuals may lack specificity if the recruitment setting is a secondary mental health service. The authors tested a modified strategy to predict psychosis conversion in this setting by using a systematic selection of trait-markers of the psychosis prodrome in a sample with a heterogeneous ARMS status...
December 16, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893647/cervical-spine-mri-in-patients-with-negative-ct-a-prospective-multicenter-study-of-the-research-consortium-of-new-england-centers-for-trauma-reconect
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Adrian A Maung, Dirk C Johnson, Kimberly Barre, Thomas Peponis, Tomaz Mesar, George C Velmahos, Daniel McGrail, George Kasotakis, Ronald I Gross, Michael S Rosenblatt, Kristen C Sihler, Robert J Winchell, Walter Cholewczynski, Kathryn L Butler, Stephen R Odom, Kimberly A Davis
BACKGROUND: Although cervical spine CT (CSCT) accurately detects bony injuries, it may not identify all soft tissue injuries. Although some clinicians rely exclusively on a negative CT to remove spine precautions in unevaluable patients or patients with cervicalgia, others use MRI for that purpose. The objective of this study was to determine the rates of abnormal MRI after a negative CSCT. METHODS: Blunt trauma patients who either were unevaluable or had persistent midline cervicalgia and underwent an MRI of the C-spine after a negative CSCT were enrolled prospectively in eight Level I and II New England trauma centers...
February 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863935/association-of-sflt-1-and-worsening-psychopathology-in-relatives-at-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-longitudinal-study
#16
Paulo L Lizano, Jeffrey K Yao, Neeraj Tandon, Suraj Sarvode Mothi, Debra M Montrose, Matcheri S Keshavan
BACKGROUND: Angiogenic dysfunction and abnormalities in psychopathology and brain structure have been reported in schizophrenia, but their relationships are mostly unknown. We recently demonstrated that sFlt-1, anti-angiogenic factor, was significantly elevated in patients at familial high-risk for psychosis (FHR). We hypothesized that elevated sFlt-1 correlates with baseline and longitudinal changes in psychopathology, cognition, and brain structure. METHODS: Plasma sFlt-1 in FHR (n=35) and HC (n=39) was obtained at baseline...
May 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833222/a-study-of-soft-neurological-signs-and-its-correlates-in-drug-naive-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#17
Vanishree Gunasekaran, V Mathan Kumar Venkatesh, T V Asokan
BACKGROUND: Soft neurological signs are minor, non localizing, objective abnormalities, thought to reflect damage in cortical and sub-cortical connections or connections within different cortical regions. Regional structural grey matter anomalies have already been observed and correlated with the presence of cognitive deficits and presence of soft neurological signs in schizophrenic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Drug naive patients presenting with first episode of psychosis (FEP)were clinically evaluated for soft neurological signs using the Cambridge Neurological Inventory...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805731/cranioplasty-using-titanium-mesh-after-skull-tumor-resection-in-five-dogs
#18
Desiree D Rosselli, Simon R Platt, Courtenay Freeman, Jeremy O'Neill, Marc Kent, Shannon P Holmes
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical details, surgery, postoperative imaging, and short to mid-term outcome after cranioplasty with titanium mesh in dogs with large skull tumors. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs with skull tumors (n=5). METHODS: All tumors were removed via craniectomy and a sheet of titanium mesh was contoured to reconstruct the calvarial defect and sutured to surrounding musculature...
January 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801772/cranial-nerve-vi-palsy-as-the-main-clinical-manifestation-of-neurosarcoidosis
#19
Zaid A Al-Qudah, Hussam A Yacoub, Nizar Souayah
INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder that is characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. Patients may present with cranial nerve palsy, paresthesia, paresis, pyramidal signs, progressive cognitive decline, urinary retention, seizures, or hypothalamic-pituitary syndrome. Although the diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis can be challenging, neurological manifestations of sarcoidosis occur more frequently than previously described. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old African American man presented to our emergency department with diplopia, which was worsened on left horizontal gaze...
November 2016: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776367/transoral-atlantoaxial-release-and-posterior-reduction-by-occipitocervical-plate-fixation-for-the-treatment-of-basilar-invagination-with-irreducible-atlantoaxial-dislocation
#20
Qingde Wang, Kezheng Mao, Chunli Wang, Wei Mei
Background Prior studies have mainly assessed transoral odontoidectomy for basilar invagination with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation. However, studies evaluating transoral release and posterior reduction with occipitocervical fixation in this setting are scarce. Methods From 2008 to 2013, 11 patients (6 men and 5 women; 23-67 years of age) with basilar invagination and irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation underwent surgery. They presented signs and symptoms of myelopathy or significant spinal cord injury, and were treated by transoral soft tissue release without odontoidectomy, under skull traction with heavy weight and by posterior reduction with occipitocervical plate fixation...
July 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
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