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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758617/channel-optimization-of-high-intensity-laser-beams-in-millimeter-scale-plasmas
#1
L Ceurvorst, A Savin, N Ratan, M F Kasim, J Sadler, P A Norreys, H Habara, K A Tanaka, S Zhang, M S Wei, S Ivancic, D H Froula, W Theobald
Channeling experiments were performed at the OMEGA EP facility using relativistic intensity (>10^{18}W/cm^{2}) kilojoule laser pulses through large density scale length (∼390-570 μm) laser-produced plasmas, demonstrating the effects of the pulse's focal location and intensity as well as the plasma's temperature on the resulting channel formation. The results show deeper channeling when focused into hot plasmas and at lower densities, as expected. However, contrary to previous large-scale particle-in-cell studies, the results also indicate deeper penetration by short (10 ps), intense pulses compared to their longer-duration equivalents...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629398/simulation-of-spiral-waves-and-point-sources-in-atrial-fibrillation-with-application-to-rotor-localization
#2
Prasanth Ganesan, Kristina E Shillieto, Behnaz Ghoraani
Cardiac simulations play an important role in studies involving understanding and investigating the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias. Today, studies of arrhythmogenesis and maintenance are largely being performed by creating simulations of a particular arrhythmia with high accuracy comparable to the results of clinical experiments. Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia in the United States and many other parts of the world, is one of the major field where simulation and modeling is largely used...
June 2017: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613935/the-use-of-emergency-physicians-to-deliver-anesthesia-for-orthopaedic-surgery-in-austere-environments-the-expansion-of-the-emergency-physician-s-general-anesthesia-syllabus-to-orthopaedic-surgery
#3
Ogedad Pierre, John F Lovejoy, Robert Stanton, Richard Skupski, Harold Previl, Jerry Bernard, Lia Losonczy, Mark Walsh
BACKGROUND: Five billion people, primarily in low-income and middle-income countries, cannot access safe, affordable surgical and anesthesia care, particularly for orthopaedic trauma. The rate-limiting step for many orthopaedic surgical procedures performed in the developing world is the absence of safe anesthesia. Even surgical mission teams providing surgical care are limited by the availability of anesthesiologists. Emergency physicians, who are already knowledgeable in airway management and procedural sedation, may be able to help to fulfill the need for anesthetists in disaster relief and surgical missions...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493361/decision-support-in-diabetes-care-the-challenge-of-supporting-patients-in-their-daily-living-using-a-mobile-glucose-predictor
#4
Carmen Pérez-Gandía, Gema García-Sáez, David Subías, Agustín Rodríguez-Herrero, Enrique J Gómez, Mercedes Rigla, M Elena Hernando
BACKGROUND: In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), patients play an active role in their own care and need to have the knowledge to adapt decisions to their daily living conditions. Artificial intelligence applications can help people with type 1 diabetes in decision making and allow them to react at time scales shorter than the scheduled face-to-face visits. This work presents a decision support system (DSS), based on glucose prediction, to assist patients in a mobile environment. METHODS: The system's impact on therapeutic corrective actions has been evaluated in a randomized crossover pilot study focused on interprandial periods...
March 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411116/-anticancer-therapy-for-symptom-relief-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-trials-in-oncology
#5
REVIEW
B Alt-Epping, A-L Haas, M Jansky, F Nauck
BACKGROUND: When patients suffer from incurable cancer, drug-based, systemic anticancer therapy is usually used with the aim of longer survival, while minimizing toxicity and ensuring a tolerable quality of life. It is unclear to what extent and with what degree of success systemic tumor therapy can be used to specifically improve pre-existing pain and an already compromised quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Therefore, a systematic review of oncological therapy studies (PubMed) was conducted...
April 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314654/exercise-program-for-children-and-adolescents-with-leukemia-and-lymphoma-during-treatment-a-comprehensive-review
#6
REVIEW
Giulia Zucchetti, Francesca Rossi, Carolina Chamorro Vina, Nicoletta Bertorello, Franca Fagioli
An exercise program (EP) during cancer treatment seems to be a valid strategy against physiological and quality-of-life impairments, but scientific evidence of benefits among pediatric patients is still limited. This review summarizes the literature focused on randomized controlled trials of EP offered to patients during leukemia and lymphoma treatment. Studies published up to June 2017 were selected from multiple databases and assessed by three independent reviewers for methodological validity. The review identified eight studies, but several types of bias have to be avoided to provide evidence-based recommendations accessible to patients, families, and professionals...
May 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289318/reducing-wbc-background-in-cancer-cell-separation-products-by-negative-acoustic-contrast-particle-immuno-acoustophoresis
#7
Kevin Cushing, Eva Undvall, Yvonne Ceder, Hans Lilja, Thomas Laurell
Cancer cells display acoustic properties enabling acoustophoretic separation from white blood cells (WBCs) with 2-3 log suppression of the WBC background. However, a subset of WBCs has overlapping acoustic properties with cancer cells, which is why label-free acoustophoretic cancer cell isolation needs additional purification prior to analysis. This paper reports for the first time a proof of concept for continuous flow acoustophoretic negative selection of WBCs from cancer cells using negative acoustic contrast elastomeric particles (EPs) activated with CD45-antibodies that specifically bind to WBCs...
February 13, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259719/roles-of-nitric-oxide-and-ethyl-pyruvate-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#8
REVIEW
Sandesh Panthi, Kripa Gautam
Short-lived reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species have acquired significant attention in the field of biomedical science. Nitric oxide (NO), which was thought to be an unstable gas and pollutant, is now regarded as a gas transmitter like H2 S and CO. NO is synthesized inside the mammalian body by l-arginine via three different isoforms of NO synthase whereas pyruvate is a glycolysis product and substrate for TCA cycle. Due to poor solubility and stability, therapeutic potential of pyruvate is limited...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233228/disease-and-non-battle-traumatic-injuries-evaluated-by-emergency-physicians-in-a-us-tertiary-combat-hospital
#9
Vikhyat S Bebarta, Alejandra G Mora, Patrick C Ng, Phillip E Mason, Andrew Muck, Joseph K Maddry
Introduction Analysis of injuries during military operations has focused on those related to combat. Non-combat complaints have received less attention, despite the need for many troops to be evacuated for non-battle illnesses in Iraq. This study aims to further characterize the disease and non-battle injuries (DNBIs) seen at a tertiary combat hospital and to describe the types of procedures and medications used in the management of these cases. METHODS: In this observational study, patients were enrolled from a convenience sample with non-combat-related diseases and injuries who were evaluated in the emergency department (ED) of a US military tertiary hospital in Iraq from 2007-2008...
February 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204677/the-predictive-value-of-quantitative-dce-metrics-for-immediate-therapeutic-response-of-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-ablation-hifu-of-symptomatic-uterine-fibroids
#10
Chao Wei, Xin Fang, Chuan-Bin Wang, Yu Chen, Xiao Xu, Jiang-Ning Dong
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the value of quantitative DCE-MRI parameters for predicting the immediate non-perfused volume ratio (NPVR) of HIFU therapy in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 78 symptomatic uterine fibroids in 65 female patients were treated with US-HIFU therapy. All patients underwent conventional MRI and DCE-MRI scans 1 day before and 3 days after HIFU treatment. Permeability parameters Ktrans , Kep , Ve , and Vp and T1 perfusion parameters BF and BV of pretreatment were measured as a baseline, while NPVR was used to assess immediate ablation efficiency...
December 4, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201952/an-echocardiography-training-program-for-improving-the-left-ventricular-function-interpretation-in-emergency-department-a-brief-report
#11
Mary Jacob, Hamid Shokoohi, Fabith Moideen, Amelia Pousson, Keith Boniface
Introduction: Focused training in transthoracic echocardiography enables emergency physicians (EPs) to accurately estimate the left ventricular function. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a brief training program utilizing standardized echocardiography video clips in this regard. Methods: A before and after design was used to determine the efficacy of a 1 hour echocardiography training program using PowerPoint presentation and standardized echocardiography video clips illustrating normal and abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) as well as video clips emphasizing the measurement of mitral valve E-point septal separation (EPSS)...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186911/prostaglandin-e2-in-the-regulation-of-water-transport-in-renal-collecting-ducts
#12
REVIEW
Yuyuan Li, Yuanyi Wei, Feng Zheng, Youfei Guan, Xiaoyan Zhang
The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of the body water balance. The process of targeting the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) on the apical plasma membrane of the collecting duct (CD) principal cells is mainly regulated by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is responsible for the maintenance of water homeostasis. Recently, much attention has been focused on the local factors modulating renal water reabsorption by AQP2 in the collecting ducts, especially prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂)...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165861/engineered-biomolecular-recognition-of-rdx-by-using-a-thermostable-alcohol-dehydrogenase-as-a-protein-scaffold
#13
Beyza Bulutoglu, Jennifer Haghpanah, Elliot Campbell, Scott Banta
There are many biotechnology applications that would benefit from simple, stable proteins with engineered biomolecular recognition. Here, we explored the hypothesis that a thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhD from Pyrococcus furiosus) could be engineered to bind a small molecule instead of a cofactor or molecules involved in the catalytic transition state. We chose the explosive molecule 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (royal demolition explosive, RDX) as a proof-of-concept. Its low solubility in water was exploited for immobilization for biopanning by using ribosome display...
February 2, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147056/organizing-integrated-health-care-services-to-meet-older-people-s-needs
#14
Islene Araujo de Carvalho, JoAnne Epping-Jordan, Anne Margriet Pot, Edward Kelley, Nuria Toro, Jotheeswaran A Thiyagarajan, John R Beard
In most countries, a fundamental shift in the focus of clinical care for older people is needed. Instead of trying to manage numerous diseases and symptoms in a disjointed fashion, the emphasis should be on interventions that optimize older people's physical and mental capacities over their life course and that enable them to do the things they value. This, in turn, requires a change in the way services are organized: there should be more integration within the health system and between health and social services...
November 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145675/-implementing-the-cross-disciplinary-subject-palliative-care-lecture-s-perspective
#15
Leonie Isermeyer, Benjamin Ilse, Gabriella Marx, Stephanie Seidemann, Jana Jünger, Friedemann Nauck, Bernd Alt-Epping
Introduction  In 2009, palliative care was introduced as a mandatory subject in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Germany. Despite all efforts to integrate this subject into the curriculum, research suggests substantial differences and deficits in the quality of education between the medical schools. The aim of this research was to find out promoting as well as impedimental aspects of implementing palliative care in the medical training program. By this, a suitable framework in terms of content and structure for palliative care teaching should be extracted...
November 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136745/-willingness-and-influencing-factors-of-using-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-301-men-have-sex-with-men-in-wuhan-city-2015
#16
P Y Xie, X Wang, P L Liu, X D Tan, W Zhou
Objective: To understand willingness and influencing factors of using pre-exposure prophylaxis (Pr-EP) among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: Snow ball sampling was employed to recruit MSM in the social spaces (like bars and bathrooms) with focused activities by MSM and internet (QQ and Wechat) in Wuhan between August and November, 2015. 304 MSM were considered eligible when they were self-identified MSM and has had sex with men in the previous 12 months, over the age of 18 and have full civil liability...
November 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134301/prostaglandin-e2-receptor-ep1-in-healthy-and-diseased-human-endometrium
#17
Junyan Zhu, Doris Mayr, Christina Kuhn, Sven Mahner, Udo Jeschke, Viktoria von Schönfeldt
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is well described to be associated with both endometrial functions and disorders. The primary aim of this study was to explore the underlying mechanisms that affect the growth and function of endometrial epithelium and stroma by assessing the staining intensity of PGE2 receptors (EP) in healthy endometrium across the menstrual cycle and in pathological endometrium, such as ovarian endometriosis and endometrial cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the EPs staining intensity in human nonpregnant endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle by immunohistochemistry and further focused on EP1 (n = 42)...
February 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130400/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-depression-with-integrated-techniques-from-emotion-focused-and-exposure-therapies
#18
Martin Grosse Holtforth, Tobias Krieger, Johannes Zimmermann, David Altenstein-Yamanaka, Nadja Dörig, Laurence Meisch, Adele M Hayes
BACKGROUND: Emotional processing (EP) is hypothesized to be a key mechanism of change in psychotherapy that may enhance its long-term efficacy. To study the effects of fostering EP in psychotherapy for depression, this randomized-controlled clinical trial compares the efficacy and pattern of change of a cognitive-behavioral therapy that integrates emotion-focused techniques within an exposure framework (Exposure-Based Cognitive Therapy for depression; EBCT-R) to a standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)...
November 12, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119470/failure-to-flow-an-exploration-of-learning-and-teaching-in-busy-multi-patient-environments-using-an-interpretive-description-method
#19
Teresa M Chan, Kenneth Van Dewark, Jonathan Sherbino, Alan Schwartz, Geoff Norman, Matthew Lineberry
INTRODUCTION: As patient volumes continue to increase, more attention must be paid to skills that foster efficiency without sacrificing patient safety. The emergency department is a fertile ground for examining leadership and management skills, especially those that concern prioritization in multi-patient environments. We sought to understand the needs of emergency physicians (EPs) and emergency medicine junior trainees with regards to teaching and learning about how best to handle busy, multi-patient environments...
December 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078929/blood-product-transfusions-and-reactions
#20
REVIEW
Jessica L Osterman, Sanjay Arora
Blood product transfusions are an essential component of the practice of emergency medicine. From acute traumatic hemorrhage to chronic blood loss necessitating transfusion for symptomatic anemia, familiarity with individual blood products and their indications for transfusion is an essential tool for every emergency physician (EP). Although the focus of this article is primarily on the transfusion of red blood cells, many of the concepts are applicable to the transfusion of all blood products. EPs must be fully familiar with both the individual blood components and the potential reactions and complications of these transfusions...
December 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
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