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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765245/the-epidemiology-of-outpatient-pain-treatment-in-pediatrics
#1
Stacy Baldridge, Laura Wallace, Aditi Kadakia
Background: There is limited real-world, population-level data on the prevalence and treatment of pain in children. An understanding of pediatric pain conditions and its management can help inform provider education, treatment guidelines, and design of pediatric pain studies. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence of conditions associated with acute and chronic pain in pediatric patients and to characterize pediatric pain treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, opioids (immediate release or extended release), antidepressants, topical analgesics, anticonvulsants, and other therapies based on a large, real-world sample...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756748/%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-genetic-polymorphisms-and-duration-of-epidural-fentanyl-analgesia-during-early-labor
#2
Nathalie K Zgheib, Marie T Aouad, Samar K Taha, Anwar H Nassar, Riwa F Masri, Mira Y Khoury, Maha H Makki, Sahar M Siddik-Sayyid
BACKGROUND: Epidural fentanyl is commonly used for initiation of early labor analgesia. The aim of this prospective study is to test the hypothesis that duration of epidural fentanyl analgesia differs in nulliparous women requesting epidural analgesia in early labor who are variant allele carriers of the OPRM1 SNVs 118A>G rs1799971, IVS2+31G>A rs9479757, and IVS2+691G>C rs2075572. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty parturients who received epidural analgesia with fentanyl were included in the 118A>G analysis, and a 196 subcohort was included in the IVS2+31G>A and IVS2+691G>C exploratory analysis...
May 14, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755832/collaborative-phenotype-inference-from-comorbid-substance-use-disorders-and-genotypes
#3
Jin Lu, Jiangwen Sun, Xinyu Wang, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter, Jinbo Bi
Data in large-scale genetic studies of complex human diseases, such as substance use disorders, are often incomplete. Despite great progress in genotype imputation, e.g., the IMPUTE2 method, considerably less progress has been made in inferring phenotypes. We designed a novel approach to integrate individuals' comorbid conditions with their genotype data to infer missing (unreported) diagnostic criteria of a disorder. The premise of our approach derives from correlations among symptoms and the shared biological bases of concurrent disorders such as co-dependence on cocaine and opioids...
November 2017: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754753/a-genetically-encoded-biosensor-reveals-location-bias-of-opioid-drug-action
#4
Miriam Stoeber, Damien Jullié, Braden T Lobingier, Toon Laeremans, Jan Steyaert, Peter W Schiller, Aashish Manglik, Mark von Zastrow
Opioid receptors (ORs) precisely modulate behavior when activated by native peptide ligands but distort behaviors to produce pathology when activated by non-peptide drugs. A fundamental question is how drugs differ from peptides in their actions on target neurons. Here, we show that drugs differ in the subcellular location at which they activate ORs. We develop a genetically encoded biosensor that directly detects ligand-induced activation of ORs and uncover a real-time map of the spatiotemporal organization of OR activation in living neurons...
May 5, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714124/clinical-application-of-pharmacogenetics-in-pain-management
#5
D Max Smith, Kristin W Weitzel, Larisa H Cavallari, Amanda R Elsey, Siegfried Of Schmidt
There is growing experience translating genomic data into clinical practice, as seen with the Implementing GeNomics In pracTicE (IGNITE) network. A primary example is the influence of CYP2D6 genotype on the beneficial and adverse effects of some opioids. Clinical recommendations exist to guide drug therapy based on CYP2D6 genotype for codeine, tramadol, oxycodone and hydrocodone, although the level of supporting evidence differs by drug. Limited evidence also supports the use of genetic data to guide other medications in chronic pain therapy, including tricyclic antidepressants and celecoxib...
March 2018: Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713172/gender-specific-association-of-functional-prodynorphin-68-bp-repeats-with-cannabis-exposure-in-an-african-american-cohort
#6
Vadim Yuferov, Eduardo R Butelman, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Background: Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) cause substantial neuropsychiatric morbidity and comorbidity. There is evidence for gender-based differences in CUDs, for instance, a greater prevalence in males than in females. The main active component of cannabis is delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), a partial agonist of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. Preclinical studies show that genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the kappa opioid receptor/dynorphin system modulates the effects of delta 9-THC...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710079/neurobiology-of-opioid-use-disorder-and-comorbid-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Thomas R Kosten, David P Graham, David A Nielsen
Importance: Treating patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) and traumatic brain injury illustrates 6 neurobiological principles about the actions of 2 contrasting opioid analgesics, morphine and fentanyl, as well as pharmacotherapies for OUD, methadone, naltrexone, and buprenorphine. Observations: This literature review focused on a patient with traumatic brain injury who developed OUD from chronic morphine analgesia. His treatment is described in a neurobiological framework of 6 opioid action principles...
April 25, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706406/parental-overcontrol-x-oprm1-genotype-interaction-predicts-school-aged-children-s-sympathetic-nervous-system-activation-in-response-to-performance-challenge
#8
Lindsey C Partington, Jessica L Borelli, Patricia Smiley, Ella Jarvik, Hannah F Rasmussen, Lauren C Seaman, Erika L Nurmi
Parental overcontrol (OC), the excessive regulation of a child's behavior, cognition, and emotion, is associated with the development of child anxiety. While studies have shown that genetic factors may increase sensitivity to stress, genetic vulnerability to parental OC has not been examined in anxiety etiology. A functional polymorphism in the mu opioid receptor OPRM1 (A118G, rs1799971) has been shown to impact stress reactivity. Using a community sample of children (N = 85, 9-12 years old), we examined the main and interactive effects of maternal OC and child OPRM1 genotype in predicting children's sympathetic nervous system reactivity during a performance stressor...
April 26, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705271/effects-of-human-sult1a3-sult1a4-genetic-polymorphisms-on-the-sulfation-of-acetaminophen-and-opioid-drugs-by-the-cytosolic-sulfotransferase-sult1a3
#9
Ahsan F Bairam, Mohammed I Rasool, Fatemah A Alherz, Maryam S Abunnaja, Amal A El Daibani, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Ming-Cheh Liu
Sulfoconjugation has been shown to be critically involved in the metabolism of acetaminophen (APAP), morphine, tapentadol and O-desmethyl tramadol (O-DMT). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of human SULT1A3 and SULT1A4 genes on the sulfating activity of SULT1A3 allozymes toward these analgesic compounds. Twelve non-synonymous coding SNPs (cSNPs) of SULT1A3/SULT1A4 were investigated, and the corresponding cDNAs were generated by site-directed mutagenesis...
April 26, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681324/expectancy-modulation-of-opioid-neurotransmission
#10
Marta Pecina, Jon-Kar Zubieta
Expectancies are powerful modulators of cognitive and emotional experiences, as well as the neurobiological responses linked to these processes. In medicine, placebo effects are a clear example of how expectancies activate opioid neurotransmission in a treatment context, leading to the experience of analgesia and the improvement of emotional states, among other symptoms. Molecular neuroimaging techniques using positron emission tomography (PET) and the selective μ-opioid receptor tracer [11 C]carfentanil have significantly contributed to our understanding of the neurobiological systems involved in the formation of placebo effects...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671504/buprenorphine-therapy-for-opioid-use-disorder
#11
Roger Zoorob, Alicia Kowalchuk, Maria Mejia de Grubb
Opioid misuse, including the use of heroin and the overprescribing, misuse, and diversion of opioid pain medications, has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. As a result, there has been a dramatic increase in opioid use disorder and associated overdoses and deaths. Addiction is a chronic brain disease with a genetic component that affects motivation, inhibition, and cognition. Patient characteristics associated with successful buprenorphine maintenance treatment include stable or controlled medical or psychiatric comorbidities and a safe, substance-free environment...
March 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667742/genetic-association-and-expression-analyses-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase-pip5k1c-gene-in-alcohol-use-disorder-relevance-for-pain-signaling-and-alcohol-use
#12
Ji Soo Lee, Jill L Sorcher, Allison D Rosen, Ruslan Damadzic, Hui Sun, Melanie Schwandt, Markus Heilig, John Kelly, Kelsey L Mauro, Audrey Luo, Daniel Rosoff, Christine Muench, Jeesun Jung, Zachary A Kaminsky, Falk W Lohoff
BACKGROUND: The gene encoding Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase (PIP5K1C) has been recently implicated in pain regulation. Interestingly, a recent cross-tissue and cross-phenotypic epigenetic analysis identified the same gene in alcohol use disorder (AUD). Given the high comorbidity between AUD and chronic pain, we hypothesized that genetic variation in PIP5K1C might contribute to susceptibility to AUD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control association study of genetic variants in PIP5K1C...
April 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662325/sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-spinal-cord-contributes-to-morphine-induced-hyperalgesia-and-tolerance-through-upregulating-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression
#13
Su Liu, Jun-Li Yao, Xin-Xin Wan, Zhi-Jing Song, Shuai Miao, Ye Zhao, Xiu-Li Wang, Yue-Peng Liu
Purpose: Preventing opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance continues to be a major clinical challenge, and the underlying mechanisms of hyperalgesia and tolerance remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. Methods: Shh signaling expression, behavioral changes, and neurochemical alterations induced by morphine were analyzed in male adult CD-1 mice with repeated administration of morphine...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649967/influence-of-maternal-and-own-genotype-at-tanning-dependence-related-snps-on-sun-exposure-in-childhood
#14
Jasmine Khouja, Sarah J Lewis, Carolina Bonilla
BACKGROUND: Research suggests there may be a genetic influence on the likelihood of becoming tanning dependent (TD). The way in which mothers regulate their children's sun exposure may be affected by being TD. We investigated the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to being TD and early sun exposure. METHODS: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were used. Associations between 17 TD related SNPs in children and their mothers and 10 sun exposure variables in children (assessed via questionnaire at age 8) were analyzed in logistic and ordinal logistic regressions...
April 12, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649030/resistin-is-a-novel-marker-for-postoperative-pain-intensity
#15
Jun Hozumi, Masahiko Sumitani, Daisuke Nishizawa, Makoto Nagashima, Kazutaka Ikeda, Hiroaki Abe, Ryoji Kato, Yoshiomi Kusakabe, Yoshitsugu Yamada
BACKGROUND: Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (adipokines) associated with adipose tissue can modulate inflammatory processes and lead to systemic inflammatory conditions such as metabolic syndrome. In the present pilot study, we investigated 3 major adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, and resistin) and 2 nonspecific proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6) with regard to their association with postoperative pain intensity. METHODS: We analyzed a total of 45 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the adipokines in 57 patients with postlaparotomy pain...
April 11, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623680/a-critical-review-of-methods-and-results-in-the-search-for-genetic-contributors-to-alcohol-sensitivity
#16
REVIEW
Marc A Schuckit
Attributes of alcohol sensitivity are present before alcohol use disorders (AUDs) develop, they predict those adverse alcohol outcomes, are familial in nature, and many are heritable. Whether measured by alcohol challenges or retrospective reports of numbers of drinks required for effects, alcohol sensitivity reflects multiple phenotypes, including low levels of alcohol response and alcohol-related stimulation. Identification of genes that contribute to alcohol sensitivity could help identify individuals carrying risks for AUDs through their alcohol responses for whom early intervention might mitigate their vulnerability...
April 5, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623639/pharmacogenetics-of-opioid-use-disorder-treatment
#17
Richard C Crist, Toni-Kim Clarke, Wade H Berrettini
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant health problem in the United States and many other countries. A combination of issues, most notably increased prescription of opioid analgesics, has resulted in climbing rates of opioid abuse and overdose over the last decade. This ongoing epidemic has produced a growing population of patients requiring treatment for OUD. Medications such as methadone and buprenorphine have well documented success rates in treating the disorder compared with placebo. However, significant percentages of the population still fail to maintain abstinence or reduce illicit opioid use while using such medications...
April 5, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622698/value-of-supportive-care-pharmacogenomics-in-oncology-practice
#18
REVIEW
Jai N Patel, Lauren A Wiebe, Henry M Dunnenberger, Howard L McLeod
Genomic medicine provides opportunities to personalize cancer therapy for an individual patient. Although novel targeted therapies prolong survival, most patients with cancer continue to suffer from burdensome symptoms including pain, depression, neuropathy, nausea and vomiting, and infections, which significantly impair quality of life. Suboptimal management of these symptoms can negatively affect response to cancer treatment and overall prognosis. The effect of genetic variation on drug response-otherwise known as pharmacogenomics-is well documented and directly influences an individual patient's response to antiemetics, opioids, neuromodulators, antidepressants, antifungals, and more...
April 5, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619627/new-advances-in-acute-postoperative-pain-management
#19
REVIEW
Sukanya Mitra, Daniel Carlyle, Gopal Kodumudi, Vijay Kodumudi, Nalini Vadivelu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postoperative pain remains one of the most common challenges following inpatient and outpatient surgeries. With our advances in modern medicine, pain following surgical procedures still remains a challenge, though significant accomplishments have been made over the past few decades. This article highlights some of the promising new advances and approaches in postoperative pain management. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last decade, Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) pathways and protocols are becoming the benchmark standards for enhancing postoperative recovery...
April 4, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604314/zebrafish-models-relevant-to-studying-central-opioid-and-endocannabinoid-systems
#20
REVIEW
Konstantin A Demin, Darya A Meshalkina, Elana V Kysil, Kristina A Antonova, Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Polina A Alekseeva, Maria M Firuleva, Anton M Lakstygal, Murilo S de Abreu, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Wandong Bao, Ashton J Friend, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Denis B Rosemberg, Pavel E Musienko, Cai Song, Allan V Kalueff
The endocannabinoid and opioid systems are two interplaying neurotransmitter systems that modulate drug abuse, anxiety, pain, cognition, neurogenesis and immune activity. Although they are involved in such critical functions, our understanding of endocannabinoid and opioid physiology remains limited, necessitating further studies, novel models and new model organisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly emerging as one of the most effective translational models in neuroscience and biological psychiatry. Due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, zebrafish may be effectively used to study the endocannabinoid and opioid systems...
March 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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