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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137427/association-of-opioid-receptor-mu-1-oprm1-a118g-polymorphism-rs1799971-with-nicotine-dependence
#1
Xiangyi Kong, Hao Deng, Theodore Alston, Yanguo Kong, Jingping Wang
Background and Object: Whether opioid-receptor mu 1 (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) is associated with nicotine dependence is controversial. We analyzed the combined results from published studies of this possibility. Methods: Literature reviews were performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Web of Science, Chinese National Science Infrastructure (CNKI), PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar database searches using MeSH terms were conducted to find all relevant researches up to October 2016...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127441/verification-of-a-genetic-locus-for-methamphetamine-intake-and-the-impact-of-morphine
#2
Emily C Eastwood, Amy J Eshleman, Aaron Janowsky, Tamara J Phillips
A quantitative trait locus (QTL) on proximal chromosome (Chr) 10 accounts for > 50% of the genetic variance in methamphetamine (MA) intake in mice selectively bred for high (MAHDR) and low (MALDR) voluntary MA drinking. The µ-opioid receptor (MOP-r) gene, Oprm1, resides at the proximal end of Chr 10, and buprenorphine reduces MA intake in MAHDR mice. However, this drug has only partial agonist effects at MOP-r. We investigated the impact of a full MOP-r agonist, morphine, on MA intake and saccharin intake, measured MOP-r density and affinity in several brain regions of the MA drinking lines and their C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) progenitor strains, and measured MA intake in two congenic strains of mice to verify the QTL and reduce the QTL interval...
November 10, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124744/usefulness-of-knockout-mice-to-clarify-the-role-of-the-opioid-system-in-chronic-pain
#3
REVIEW
Rafael Maldonado, Josep Eladi Baños, David Cabañero
Several lines of knockout mice deficient in the genes encoding each component of the endogenous opioid system have been used for decades to clarify the specific role of the different opioid receptors and peptide precursors in multiple physiopathological conditions. The use of these genetically modified mice has improved our knowledge of the specific involvement of each endogenous opioid component in nociceptive transmission during acute and chronic pain conditions. The present review summarizes the recent advances obtained using these genetic tools in understanding the role of the opioid system in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying chronic pain...
November 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120924/potential-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery-on-eating-behaviour
#4
Roxanna Zakeri, Rachel L Batterham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reduced energy intake, resulting from favourable changes in eating behaviour, is the predominant driver of weight loss following bariatric surgery. Here we review the most recent studies examining the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy, the two most common bariatric procedures, upon eating behaviour and the suggested underlying biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Following RYGB or sleeve gastrectomy, most people report subjective changes in appetite, taste and food preference, with decreased high-fat preference most commonly reported...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105118/v1b-receptor-antagonist-ssr149415-and-naltrexone-synergistically-decrease-excessive-alcohol-drinking-in-male-and-female-mice
#5
Yan Zhou, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm Low, Mary Jeanne Kreek
BACKGROUND: A recent clinical trial found that pharmacological blockade of V1b receptors reduces alcohol relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. SSR149415 is a selective V1b receptor antagonist that has potential for development as an alcohol dependency treatment. In this study, we investigated whether SSR149415 alone or in combination with the mu-opioid receptor [MOP-r] antagonist naltrexone (NTN) would alter excessive alcohol drinking in mice. METHODS: Both sexes of C57BL/6J (B6) mice were subjected to a chronic intermittent access (IA) drinking paradigm (two-bottle choice, 24-h access every other day) for 3 weeks...
November 3, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098668/similarities-and-differences-in-genetics
#6
Yang Zhang, Yan Sun, Jie Liang, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Similar symptomatology manifestations and high co-morbidity in substance and non-substance addictions suggest that there may be a common pathogenesis between them. Associated with impulse control and emotional processing, the monoamine neurotransmitter system genes are suggested to be related to both substance and non-substance addictions, such as dopamine (DA) system, 5-hydroxytryptamine/serotonin (5-HT) system, the endogenous opioid system and so on. Here we reviewed the similarities and differences in genetics between classic substance addiction and common types of non-substance addiction, e...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098667/similarities-and-differences-in-neurobiology
#7
Manli Chen, Yan Sun, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Substance addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction is defined recently that people may compulsively engage in an activity despite any negative consequences to their lives. Despite differences with respect to their addictive object, substance addiction and non-substance addiction may share similarities with respect to biological, epidemiological, clinical, genetic and other features. Here we review the similarities and differences in neurobiology between these two addictions with a focus on dopamine, serotonin, opioid, glutamate and norepinephrine systems...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094432/mu-opioid-receptors-in-gabaergic-neurons-of-the-forebrain-promote-alcohol-reward-and-drinking
#8
Sami Ben Hamida, Laura-Joy Boulos, Michael McNicholas, Pauline Charbogne, Brigitte Lina Kieffer
Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are widely distributed throughout brain reward circuits and their role in drug and social reward is well established. Substantial evidence has implicated MOR and the endogenous opioid system in alcohol reward, but circuit mechanisms of MOR-mediated alcohol reward and intake behavior remain elusive, and have not been investigated by genetic approaches. We recently created conditional knockout (KO) mice targeting the Oprm1 gene in GABAergic forebrain neurons. These mice (Dlx-MOR KO) show a major MOR deletion in the striatum, whereas receptors in midbrain (including the Ventral Tegmental Area or VTA) and hindbrain are intact...
November 2, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081796/hepatocyte-cyp2b6-can-be-expressed-in-cell-culture-systems-by-exerting-physiological-levels-of-shear-implications-for-adme-testing
#9
REVIEW
Timothy G Hammond, Holly H Birdsall
Cytochrome 2B6 (CYP2B6) has substantial clinical effects on morbidity and mortality and its effects on drug metabolism should be part of hepatotoxicity screening. Examples of CYP2B6's impacts include its linkage to mortality during cyclophosphamide therapy and its role in determining hepatotoxicity and CNS toxicity during efavirenz therapy for HIV infection. CYP2B6 is key to metabolism of many common drugs from opioids to antidepressants, anesthetics, and anticonvulsants. But CYP2B6 has been extremely difficult to express in cell culture, and as a result, it has been largely deemphasized in preclinical toxicity studies...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070014/lack-of-associations-of-the-opioid-receptor-mu-1-oprm1-a118g-polymorphism-rs1799971-with-alcohol-dependence-review-and-meta-analysis-of-retrospective-controlled-studies
#10
REVIEW
Xiangyi Kong, Hao Deng, Shun Gong, Theodore Alston, Yanguo Kong, Jingping Wang
BACKGROUND: Studies have sought associations of the opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) with alcohol-dependence, but findings are inconsistent. We summarize the information as to associations of rs1799971 (A > G) and the alcohol-dependence. METHODS: Systematically, we reviewed related literatures using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Embase, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched using select medical subject heading (MeSH) terms to identify all researches focusing on the present topic up to September 2016...
October 26, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061087/oct1-pharmacogenetics-in-pain-management-is-a-clinical-application-within-reach
#11
Mladen V Tzvetkov
Beside drug metabolizing enzymes alsogenetically variable membrane transporters may substantially contribute to the interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and efficacy of opioids and other analgesics. The organic cation transporter OCT1 is strongly expressed in the sinusoidal membrane of the human liver. It may affect hepatic uptake and thus limit metabolic rates. OCT1 is highly genetically variable. Genetic polymorphisms lead to substantially reduced OCT1 activity in up to 9% of the Europeans and the white Americans...
October 24, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056151/the-role-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-in-alcohol-and-drug-abuse-disorders
#12
Stacey L Robinson, Todd E Thiele
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neuromodulator that is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and which is cosecreted with classic neurotransmitters including GABA and glutamate. There is a long history of research implicating a role for NPY in modulating neurobiological responses to alcohol (ethanol) as well as other drugs of abuse. Both ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol have been shown to produce changes in NPY and NPY receptor protein levels and mRNA expression in the CNS...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055075/association-between-genetic-polymorphisms-and-pain-sensitivity-in-patients-with-hip-osteoarthritis
#13
Anne E Olesen, Lecia M Nielsen, Søren Feddersen, Joachim Erlenwein, Frank Petzke, Michael Przemeck, Lona L Christrup, Asbjørn M Drewes
BACKGROUND: Factors such as age, gender and genetic polymorphisms may explain individual difference in pain phenotype. Genetic associations to pain sensitivity have previously been investigated in osteoarthritis patients with focus on the P2X7, TRPV1 and TACR1 genes. However, other genes may play a role as well. Osteoarthritis is a common joint disease and many patients suffering from this disease are thought to have increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli resulting from sensitization in the nociceptive system...
October 20, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054049/individual-variability-in-clinical-effect-and-tolerability-of-opioid-analgesics-importance-of-drug-interactions-and-pharmacogenetics
#14
REVIEW
Vigdis Solhaug, Espen Molden
BACKGROUND: As pain is often a comorbid condition, many patients use opioid analgesics in combination with several other drugs. This implies a generally increased risk of drug interactions, which along with inherent pharmacogenetic variability and other factors may cause differences in therapeutic response of opioids. AIM: To provide an overview of interactions and pharmacogenetic variability of relevance for individual differences in effect and tolerability of opioid analgesics, which physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of in clinical practice...
October 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042247/murine-genetic-variance-in-muscarinic-cholinergic-receptor-antagonism-of-sucrose-and-saccharin-solution-intakes-in-three-inbred-mouse-strains
#15
Faye Bourie, Kerstin Olsson, Ben Iskhakov, Agata Buras, Gabriela Fazilov, Merna Shenouda, Julia Zhezherya, Richard J Bodnar
Nutritive (e.g., sucrose) and non-nutritive (e.g., saccharin) sweeteners stimulate intake in inbred mouse strains. BALB/c, SWR and C57BL/6 mice differ in the ability of dopamine (DA) D1 (SCH23390) and opioid (naltrexone) receptor antagonism to alter sucrose intake. Whereas SCH23390 comparably reduced cumulative sucrose intake in all three strains, naltrexone reduced cumulative sucrose intake maximally in C57/BL/6 mice, in intermediate fashion in BALB/c mice, but not in SWR mice. Whereas cumulative saccharin intake was reduced by DA D1 receptor antagonism in BALB/c and SWR mice, naltrexone was more potent in SWR relative to BALB/c mice...
October 16, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028639/implications-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-for-the-anesthetic-and-perioperative-management-a-case-report-of-spinal-fusion-genetic-confusion-and-a-patient-s-perspective
#16
Linda S Aglio, Brian T Lockhart, Jeantine E Lunshof, Christoph S Nabzdyk
We describe a patient's personal struggle with a symptom complex consisting of profound muscle weakness requiring pyridostigmine, and metabolic abnormalities suggestive of mitochondrial disease. This included a profound sensitivity to opioids, which in the past caused severe respiratory depression during a prior hospital admission. Interestingly, the patient herself is a professor of ethics in genomic sciences, and she and her medical team thus far have not been able to formally diagnose her with mitochondrial disease...
October 12, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993838/delta-opioid-receptor-expression-and-function-in-primary-afferent-somatosensory-neurons
#17
Amaury François, Grégory Scherrer
The functional diversity of primary afferent neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) generates a variety of qualitatively and quantitatively distinct somatosensory experiences, from shooting pain to pleasant touch. In recent years, the identification of dozens of genetic markers specifically expressed by subpopulations of DRG neurons has dramatically improved our understanding of this diversity and provided the tools to manipulate their activity and uncover their molecular identity and function. Opioid receptors have long been known to be expressed by discrete populations of DRG neurons, in which they regulate cell excitability and neurotransmitter release...
October 10, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992386/interaction-between-the-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-gene-and-the-number-of-heavy-drinking-peers-on-alcohol-use
#18
Michelle J Zaso, Stephen A Maisto, Stephen J Glatt, John M Belote, Aesoon Park
BACKGROUND: The presence of heavy-drinking peers may trigger genetic vulnerabilities to alcohol use. Limited correlational findings, albeit mixed as a function of age, suggest that carriers of a μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) G allele may be more vulnerable than noncarriers to alcohol-promoting perceived peer environments. However, research has not yet examined such genetic susceptibility to actual (rather than perceived) peer environments through an experimental, ad libitum alcohol administration design...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971215/-differential-indications-of-opioids-in-pain-therapy
#19
REVIEW
J Heyn, S C Azad
Due to their strong analgesic potency opioids are highly effective in the therapy of acute and particularly cancer-induced chronic pain; however, the individual opioids differ considerably with respect to their pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties and may therefore not be equally applicable for every patient. Caution should be taken especially in patients with impaired organ function. Furthermore, the metabolism of opioids leads to active or inactive metabolites. This process can be substantially influenced by genetic polymorphisms or drug interactions...
November 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968191/the-genetics-of-pain-implications-for-therapeutics
#20
Jane E Sexton, James J Cox, Jing Zhao, John N Wood
Pain is an increasing clinical challenge affecting about half the population, with a substantial number of people suffering daily intense pain. Such suffering can be linked to the dramatic rise in opioid use and associated deaths in the United States. There is a pressing need for new analgesics with limited side effects. Here, we summarize what we know about the genetics of pain and implications for drug development. We make the case that chronic pain is not one but a set of disease states, with peripheral drive a key element in most...
October 2, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
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