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opioid genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899885/interacting-cannabinoid-and-opioid-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-control-adolescent-social-play
#1
Antonia Manduca, Olivier Lassalle, Marja Sepers, Patrizia Campolongo, Vincenzo Cuomo, Giovanni Marsicano, Brigitte Kieffer, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Viviana Trezza, Olivier J J Manzoni
Social play behavior is a highly rewarding, developmentally important form of social interaction in young mammals. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Previous work has suggested that opioid and endocannabinoid neurotransmission interact in the modulation of social play. Therefore, we combined behavioral, pharmacological, electrophysiological, and genetic approaches to elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in social play, and how cannabinoid and opioid neurotransmission interact to control social behavior in adolescent rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883323/association-of-single-nucleotide-polymorhism-c3435t-in-the-abcb1-gene-with-opioid-sensitivity-in-treatment-of-postoperative-pain
#2
Vanja Dzambazovska-Trajkovska, Jordan Nojkov, Andrijan Kartalov, Biljana Kuzmanovska, Tatjana Spiroska, Redzep Seljmani, Gjorgji Trajkovski, Nadica Matevska-Geshkovska, Aleksandar Dimovski
BACKGROUND: The minimal effective analgesic concentration of opioids required for satisfactory analgesia may differ significantly among the patients. Genetic factors may contribute to the variable response to opioids by affecting their pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. METHODS: Ninety nine patients undergoing abdominal surgery with colorectal anastomosis because of colorectal carcinoma were enrolled in the present study. C34535T was genotyped in all subjects and the patients were divided into three groups according to their genotype: CC-wild type homozygous, CT-mutant heterozygous and TT-mutant homozygous...
November 1, 2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870427/understanding-the-broad-influence-of-sex-hormones-and-sex-differences-in-the-brain
#3
REVIEW
Bruce S McEwen, Teresa A Milner
Sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Sex hormones can act through many cellular and molecular processes that alter structure and function of neural systems and influence behavior as well as providing neuroprotection. Within neurons, sex hormone receptors are found in nuclei and are also located near membranes, where they are associated with presynaptic terminals, mitochondria, spine apparatus, and postsynaptic densities. Sex hormone receptors also are found in glial cells...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861439/trends-in-tramadol-pharmacology-metabolism-and-misuse
#4
Karen Miotto, Arthur K Cho, Mohamed A Khalil, Kirsten Blanco, Jun D Sasaki, Richard Rawson
Tramadol is a unique analgesic medication, available in variety of formulations, with both monoaminergic reuptake inhibitory and opioid receptor agonist activity increasingly prescribed worldwide as an alternative for high-affinity opioid medication in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. It is a prodrug that is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to its more potent opioid analgesic metabolites, particularly the O-demethylation product M1. The opioid analgesic potency of a given dose of tramadol is influenced by an individual's CYP genetics, with poor metabolizers experiencing little conversion to the active M1 opioid metabolite and individuals with a high metabolic profile, or ultra-metabolizers, experiencing the greatest opioid analgesic effects...
November 17, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842787/precision-medicine-in-toxicology
#5
REVIEW
Daniel A Schwarz, M P George, Martin H Bluth
Precision medicine applies primarily to pharmacokinetics in toxicology. Mastering hepatic metabolism through an understanding of the genetics behind Phase I, or oxidation/reduction and some Phase II, or conjugation, enhances the scientific and clinical application of common drug toxicology. This review includes basic hepatic metabolism, the common substrates, inducers and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 along with genetic variants behind the enzymes. Detailed metabolism of commonly measured opioids in clinical practice is provided...
December 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833495/postoperative-pain-management-of-liver-transplantation-in-cystic-fibrosis-is-it-time-to-start-us-guided-neuraxial-blocks
#6
M Piazza, G Martucci, A Arcadipane
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-limiting genetic disease in Caucasians. Declining lung function is the principal cause of death, but liver involvement can lead to the need for liver transplantation. General anesthesia has detrimental effects on pulmonary function, increasing perioperative morbidity and mortality in CF patients. Regional anesthetic techniques improve outcomes by reducing anesthetic drugs and administration of opioids, and hastening extubation, awakening, and restarting respiratory of physiotherapy...
October 2016: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819122/erratum-to-carriers-of-genetic-variants-in-the-hnf1a-gene-are-more-common-among-dead-opioid-addicts-than-among-living-addicts
#7
Anh Nguyen, Tore B Stage, Søren Feddersen, Dorte J Christoffersen, Mette Marie H Christensen, Per Damkier, Jørgen L Thomsen, Kim Brøsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818236/a-role-for-the-mu-opioid-receptor-in-the-antidepressant-effects-of-buprenorphine
#8
Shivon A Robinson, Rebecca L Erickson, Caroline A Browne, Irwin Lucki
Buprenorphine (BPN), a mixed opioid drug with high affinity for mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) opioid receptors, has been shown to produce behavioral responses in rodents that are similar to those of antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. Although recent studies have identified KORs as a primary mediator of BPN's effects in rodent models of depressive-like behavior, the role of MORs in BPN's behavioral effects has not been as well explored. The current studies investigated the role of MORs in mediating conditioned approach behavior in the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) test, a behavioral measure previously shown to be sensitive to chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs...
November 3, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762075/sex-specific-linkage-scans-in-opioid-dependence
#9
Bao-Zhu Yang, Shizhong Han, Henry R Kranzler, Abraham A Palmer, Joel Gelernter
Sex influences risk for opioid dependence (OD). We hypothesized that sex might interact with genetic loci that influence the risk for OD. Therefore we performed an analysis to identify sex-specific genomic susceptibility regions for OD using linkage. Over 6,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were genotyped for 1,758 African- and European-American (AA and EA) individuals from 739 families, ascertained via affected sib-pairs with OD and/or cocaine dependence. Autosomewide non-parametric linkage scans, stratified by sex and population, were performed...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752976/pharmacogenomics-and-pharmacogenetics-for-the-intensive-care-unit-a-narrative-review
#10
Meghan MacKenzie, Richard Hall
PURPOSE: Knowledge of how alterations in pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics may affect drug therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) has received little study. We review the clinically relevant application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to drugs and conditions encountered in the ICU. SOURCE: We selected relevant literature to illustrate the important concepts contained within. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two main approaches have been used to identify genetic abnormalities - the candidate gene approach and the genome-wide approach...
October 17, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729240/transgenerational-attenuation-of-opioid-self-administration-as-a-consequence-of-adolescent-morphine-exposure
#11
Fair M Vassoler, David J Oliver, Cristina Wyse, Ashley Blau, Michael Shtutman, Jill R Turner, Elizabeth M Byrnes
The United States is in the midst of an opiate epidemic, with abuse of prescription and illegal opioids increasing steadily over the past decade. While it is clear that there is a genetic component to opioid addiction, there is a significant portion of heritability that cannot be explained by genetics alone. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal exposure to opioids prior to pregnancy alters abuse liability in subsequent generations. Female adolescent Sprague Dawley rats were administered morphine at increasing doses (5-25 mg/kg, s...
February 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729204/exploring-the-multifactorial-nature-of-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-in-women-following-surgery-for-breast-cancer
#12
Susan W Wesmiller, Susan M Sereika, Catherine M Bender, Dana Bovbjerg, Gretchen Ahrendt, Marguerite Bonaventura, Yvette P Conley
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are two of the most frequent and distressing complications following surgical procedures, with as many as 80% of patients considered to be at risk. Despite recognition of well-established risk factors and the subsequent use of clinical guidelines, 20-30% of women do not respond to antiemetic protocols, indicating that there may be a genetic risk. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the incidence and explore the risk factors associated with PONV after surgery in women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer...
September 28, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725223/next-generation-sequencing-of-human-opioid-receptor-genes-based-on-a-custom-ampliseq%C3%A2-library-and-ion-torrent-personal-genome-machine
#13
Dario Kringel, Jörn Lötsch
BACKGROUND: The opioid system is involved in the control of pain, reward, addictive behaviors and vegetative effects. Opioids exert their pharmacological actions through the agonistic binding at opioid receptors and variation in the coding genes has been found to modulate opioid receptor expression or signaling. However, a limited selection of functional opioid receptor variants is perceived as insufficient in providing a genetic diagnosis of clinical phenotypes and therefore, unrestricted access to opioid receptor genetics is required...
December 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721531/are-therapeutic-vaccines-an-answer-to-the-global-problem-of-drug-and-alcohol-abuse
#14
Dick B S Brashier, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Neha Akhoon
Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719874/nature-of-the-placebo-and-nocebo-effect-in-relation-to-functional-neurologic-disorders
#15
E Carlino, A Piedimonte, F Benedetti
Placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, for they have always been used as comparators for the validation of new treatments. By contrast, today they represent an active field of research, and, due to the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually be viewed as a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience. There is not a single placebo effect, but many, with different mechanisms across different medical conditions and therapeutic interventions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709010/insights-into-cyp2b6-mediated-drug-drug-interactions
#16
William D Hedrich, Hazem E Hassan, Hongbing Wang
Mounting evidence demonstrates that CYP2B6 plays a much larger role in human drug metabolism than was previously believed. The discovery of multiple important substrates of CYP2B6 as well as polymorphic differences has sparked increasing interest in the genetic and xenobiotic factors contributing to the expression and function of the enzyme. The expression of CYP2B6 is regulated primarily by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) in the liver. In addition to CYP2B6, these receptors also mediate the inductive expression of CYP3A4, and a number of important phase II enzymes and drug transporters...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702939/degradation-of-opioids-and-opiates-during-acid-hydrolysis-leads-to-reduced-recovery-compared-to-enzymatic-hydrolysis
#17
Pongkwan Sitasuwan, Cathleen Melendez, Margarita Marinova, Kaylee R Mastrianni, Alicia Darragh, Emily Ryan, L Andrew Lee
Drug monitoring laboratories utilize a hydrolysis process to liberate the opiates from their glucuronide conjugates to facilitate their detection by tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Both acid and enzyme hydrolysis have been reported as viable methods, with the former as a more effective process for recovering codeine-6-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide. Here, we report concerns with acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of opioids, including a significant loss of analytes and conversions of oxycodone to oxymorphone, hydrocodone to hydromorphone and codeine to morphine...
October 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671662/deletion-of-the-mu-opioid-receptor-gene-in-mice-reshapes-the-reward-aversion-connectome
#18
Anna E Mechling, Tanzil Arefin, Hsu-Lei Lee, Thomas Bienert, Marco Reisert, Sami Ben Hamida, Emmanuel Darcq, Aliza Ehrlich, Claire Gaveriaux-Ruff, Maxime J Parent, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Jürgen Hennig, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Brigitte Lina Kieffer, Laura-Adela Harsan
Connectome genetics seeks to uncover how genetic factors shape brain functional connectivity; however, the causal impact of a single gene's activity on whole-brain networks remains unknown. We tested whether the sole targeted deletion of the mu opioid receptor gene (Oprm1) alters the brain connectome in living mice. Hypothesis-free analysis of combined resting-state fMRI diffusion tractography showed pronounced modifications of functional connectivity with only minor changes in structural pathways. Fine-grained resting-state fMRI mapping, graph theory, and intergroup comparison revealed Oprm1-specific hubs and captured a unique Oprm1 gene-to-network signature...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664554/variants-of-opioid-system-genes-are-associated-with-non-dependent-opioid-use-and-heroin-dependence
#19
Matthew Randesi, Wim van den Brink, Orna Levran, Peter Blanken, Eduardo R Butelman, Vadim Yuferov, Joel Correa da Rosa, Jurg Ott, Jan M van Ree, Mary Jeanne Kreek
BACKGROUND: Heroin addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease. Genetic factors are involved in the development of drug addiction. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific variants in genes of the opioid system are associated with non-dependent opioid use and heroin dependence. METHODS: Genetic information from four subject groups was collected: non-dependent opioid users (NOD) [n=163]; opioid-dependent (OD) patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) [n=143]; opioid-dependent MMT-resistant patients in heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) [n=138]; and healthy controls with no history of opioid use (HC) [n=153]...
September 5, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649267/ethnicity-dependent-influence-of-innate-immune-genetic-markers-on-morphine-pca-requirements-and-adverse-effects-in-postoperative-pain
#20
Andrew A Somogyi, Alex T Sia, Ene-Choo Tan, Janet K Coller, Mark R Hutchinson, Daniel T Barratt
Although several genetic factors have been associated with postsurgical morphine requirements, those involving the innate immune system and cytokines have not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of genetic variability in innate immune signalling pathways to variability in morphine dosage after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia in 133 Indian, 230 Malay, and 598 Han Chinese women previously studied. Twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes involved in glial activation (TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, MD2), inflammatory signalling (IL2, IL6, IL10, IL1B, IL6R, TNFA, TGFB1, CRP, CASP1), and neuronal regulation (BDNF) were newly investigated, in addition to OPRM1, COMT, and ABCB1 genetic variability identified previously...
July 14, 2016: Pain
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