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Dopamine and sex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883923/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-is-associated-with-hypermethylation-of-the-dopamine-d2-receptor-gene
#1
Kirsten R Müller-Vahl, Gesa Loeber, Alexandra Kotsiari, Linda Müller-Engling, Helge Frieling
Several lines of evidence support a "dopaminergic hypothesis" in the pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS). The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time epigenetic changes in DNA methylation in different dopamine genes in adult patients with TS. We included 51 well characterized adult patients with TS (41 males, 10 females, mean age = 35 ± 12.6 years, range, 18-71 years) and compared results with data from a group of 51 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Bisulfite sequencing was used to measure peripheral DNA methylation of the dopamine transporter (DAT), the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870436/stress-sex-and-motivated-behaviors
#2
REVIEW
Abigail Laman-Maharg, Brian C Trainor
Stress is a major risk factor for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and development of substance use disorder. Although there are important sex differences in the prevalence of these disorders, most preclinical models used to study stress-induced disorders have used males only. Social defeat stress is a commonly used method to induce stress in an ethologically relevant way but has only recently begun to be used in female rodents. Using these new female models, recent studies have examined how social defeat stress affects males and females differently at the behavioral, circuit, and molecular levels...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859866/modeling-idiopathic-parkinson-disease-as-a-complex-illness-can-inform-incidence-risk-in-healthy-adults-the-pr-edigt-score
#3
Michael G Schlossmacher, Julianna J Tomlinson, Goncalo Santos, Bojan Shutinoski, Earl G Brown, Douglas Manuel, Tiago Mestre
Fifty-five years after the concept of dopamine replacement therapy was introduced, Parkinson disease (PD) remains an incurable neurological disorder. To date, no disease-modifying therapeutic has been approved. The inability to predict PD incidence risk in healthy adults is seen as one limitation in drug development, because by the time of clinical diagnosis >60% of dopamine neurons have been lost. We have designed an incidence prediction model founded on the concept that the pathogenesis of PD is similar to that of many disorders observed in ageing humans, i...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857125/presynaptic-dopamine-capacity-in-patients-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-taking-clozapine-an-18-f-dopa-pet-study
#4
Euitae Kim, Oliver D Howes, Mattia Veronese, Katherine Beck, Seongho Seo, Jin Woo Park, Jae Sung Lee, Yun-Sang Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
Some patients with schizophrenia show poor response to first-line antipsychotic treatments and this is termed treatment resistant schizophrenia. The differential response to first-line antipsychotic drugs may reflect a different underlying neurobiology. Indeed, a previous study found dopamine synthesis capacity was significantly lower in patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia. However, in this study, the treatment resistant patients were highly symptomatic whilst the responsive patients showed no or minimal symptoms...
November 18, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848033/impaired-learning-of-punishments-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-and-without-impulse-control-disorder
#5
Bernd Leplow, Maria Sepke, Robby Schönfeld, Johannes Pohl, Henriette Oelsner, Lea Latzko, Georg Ebersbach
To document specific learning mechanisms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with and without impulse control disorder (ICD). Thirty-two PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) were investigated. Sixteen were diagnosed with ICD (ICD (+) ) and 16 PD patients matched for levodopa equivalence dosage, and DRT duration and severity of disease did not show impulsive behavior (non-ICD). Short-term learning of inhibitory control was assessed by an experimental procedure which was intended to mimic everyday life...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843055/abnormal-premotor-motor-interaction-in-heterozygous-parkin-and-pink1-mutation-carriers
#6
Anne Weissbach, Tobias Bäumer, Peter P Pramstaller, Norbert Brüggemann, Vera Tadic, Robert Chen, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
OBJECTIVES: Mutations in the Parkin and PINK1 gene account for the majority of autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson cases. There is increasing evidence that clinically asymptomatic subjects with single heterozygous mutations have a latent nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit and could be taken as in vivo model of pre-symptomatic phase of Parkinsonism. METHODS: We charted premotor-motor excitability changes as compensatory mechanisms for subcortical dopamine depletions using transcranial magnetic stimulation by applying magnetic resonance-navigated premotor-motor cortex conditioning in 15 asymptomatic, heterozygous Parkin and PINK1 mutation carriers (2 female; mean age 53±8years) and 16 age- and sex-matched controls (5 female; mean age 57±9years)...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816780/adolescent-neural-response-to-reward-is-related-to-participant-sex-and-task-motivation
#7
Gabriela Alarcón, Anita Cservenka, Bonnie J Nagel
Risky decision making is prominent during adolescence, perhaps contributed to by heightened sensation seeking and ongoing maturation of reward and dopamine systems in the brain, which are, in part, modulated by sex hormones. In this study, we examined sex differences in the neural substrates of reward sensitivity during a risky decision-making task and hypothesized that compared with girls, boys would show heightened brain activation in reward-relevant regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens, during reward receipt...
November 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802831/persisting-neurobehavioral-effects-of-developmental-copper-exposure-in-wildtype-and-metallothionein-1-and-2-knockout-mice
#8
Ann Petro, Hannah G Sexton, Caroline Miranda, Anit Rastogi, Jonathan H Freedman, Edward D Levin
BACKGROUND: Metallothioneins (MT) are small proteins, which are crucial for the distribution of heavy and transition metals. Previously, we found in mice that knockout of MT 1 and 2 genes (MTKO) impaired spatial learning and potentiated the learning impairment caused by developmental mercury exposure. The current study examined the neurocognitive and neurochemical effects of MTKO with the developmental copper (Cu) supplementation. METHODS: Wildtype (WT) and MTKO mice were given supplemental Cu (0, 10 or 50 mg/l) in their drinking water during gestation and until weaning...
November 2, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799080/the-role-of-orgasm-in-the-development-and-shaping-of-partner-preferences
#9
Genaro A Coria-Avila, Deissy Herrera-Covarrubias, Nafissa Ismail, James G Pfaus
BACKGROUND: The effect of orgasm on the development and shaping of partner preferences may involve a catalysis of the neurochemical mechanisms of bonding. Therefore, understanding such process is relevant for neuroscience and psychology. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out using the terms Orgasm, Sexual Reward, Partner Preference, Pair Bonding, Brain, Learning, Sex, Copulation. RESULTS: In humans, concentrations of arousing neurotransmitters and potential bonding neurotransmitters increase during orgasm in the cerebrospinal fluid and the bloodstream...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772753/antioxidant-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-for-the-identification-of-prodromal-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Jonica Campolo, Renata De Maria, Lorena Cozzi, Marina Parolini, Stefano Bernardi, Paola Proserpio, Lino Nobili, Giorgio Gelosa, Immacolata Piccolo, Elio C Agostoni, Maria G Trivella, Paolo Marraccini
OBJECTIVES: We explored the role of oxidative stress and inflammatory molecules as potential Parkinson (PD) biomarkers and correlated biological with non-motor abnormalities (olfactory impairment and dysautonomia), in patients with idiopathic REM behavior disorder (iRBD) (prodromal PD) and established PD. METHODS: We recruited 11 iRBD and 15 patients with idiopathic PD (Hohen&Yahr 1-3, on L-DOPA and dopamine agonists combination therapy) and 12 age- and sex-matched controls (CTRL)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743899/a-framework-for-designing-dynamic-lp-ntpet-studies-to-maximize-the-sensitivity-to-transient-neurotransmitter-responses-to-drugs-application-to-dopamine-and-smoking
#11
Shuo Wang, Sujin Kim, Kelly P Cosgrove, Evan D Morris
The "linear parametric neurotransmitter PET" (lp-ntPET) model was introduced to capture the time course of transient endogenous neurotransmitter response to drug stimulus from dynamic PET data. We previously used this novel analysis tool to probe the short-lived dopamine (DA) response induced by cigarette smoking in the PET scanner. It allowed us to find a sex difference in the DA signature of cigarette smoking. To make best use of this tool to characterize neurotransmitter response to drug stimulus, the sensitivity of lp-ntPET to detect such responses must be maximized...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742893/dopaminergic-inhibition-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-in-the-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-burtoni
#12
Astra S Bryant, Anna K Greenwood, Scott A Juntti, Allie E Byrne, Russell D Fernald
Dopamine regulates reproduction in part by modulating neuronal activity within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Previous studies suggested numerous mechanisms by which dopamine exerts inhibitory control over the HPG axis, ultimately changing the levels of sex steroids that regulate reproductive behaviors. However, it is not known whether these mechanisms are conserved across vertebrate species. In particular, it is unknown whether mechanisms underlying dopaminergic control of reproduction are shared between mammals and teleost fish...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739188/dopamine-noradrenaline-reuptake-inhibition-in-women-improves-endurance-exercise-performance-in-the-heat
#13
P Cordery, N Peirce, R J Maughan, P Watson
Catecholamine reuptake inhibition improves the performance of male volunteers exercising in warm conditions, but sex differences in thermoregulation, circulating hormones, and central neurotransmission may alter this response. With local ethics committee approval, nine physically active women (mean ± SD age 21 ± 2 years; height 1.68 ± 0.08 m; body mass 64.1 ± 6.0 kg; VO2peak 51 ± 7 mL/kg/min) were recruited to examine the effect of pre-exercise administration of Bupropion (BUP; 4 × 150 mg) on prolonged exercise performance in a warm environment...
October 13, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730642/immunocytochemical-characterisation-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-from-green-terror-cichlid-aequidens-rivulatus
#14
C M Wen, M M Chen, F H Nan, C S Wang
In this study, cultures of neural stem-progenitor cells (NSPC) from the brain of green terror cichlid Aequidens rivulatus were established and various NSPCs were demonstrated using immunocytochemistry. All of the NSPCs expressed brain lipid-binding protein, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 (DARPP-32), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, paired box 6 and sex determining region Y-box 2. The intensity and localisation of these proteins, however, varied among the different NSPCs. Despite being intermediate cells, NSPCs can be divided into radial glial cells, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) and neuroblasts by expressing the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), OPC marker A2B5 and neuronal markers, including acetyl-tubulin, βIII-tubulin, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neurofilament protein...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726127/a-drd4-gene-by-maternal-sensitivity-interaction-predicts-risk-for-overweight-or-obesity-in-two-independent-cohorts-of-preschool-children
#15
Robert D Levitan, Pauline Jansen, Barbara Wendland, Henning Tiemeier, Vincent W Jaddoe, Patricia P Silveira, James L Kennedy, Leslie Atkinson, Alison Fleming, Marla Sokolowski, Helene Gaudreau, Meir Steiner, Laurette Dubé, Jill Hamilton, Ellen Moss, Ashley Wazana, Michael Meaney
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to low maternal sensitivity is a risk factor for obesity in children and adolescents. A separate line of study shows that the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) increases susceptibility to environmental factors including maternal sensitivity. The current study integrates these lines of work by examining whether preschoolers carrying the 7R allele are more vulnerable to low maternal sensitivity as it relates to overweight/obesity risk...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716994/dopamine-d3-receptor-knockout-mice-exhibit-abnormal-nociception-in-a-sex-different-manner
#16
Peng Liu, Bo Xing, Zheng Chu, Fei Liu, Gang Lei, Li Zhu, Ya Gao, Teng Chen, Yong-Hui Dang
Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception. Given that there are sex differences in pain perception, there may be differences in responses to nociceptive stimuli between male and female D3RKO mice. In the current study, we examined the role of the D3 receptor in modulating nociception in male and female D3RKO mice. Acute thermal pain was modeled by hot-plate test...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695921/sex-differences-and-the-role-of-dopamine-receptors-in-the-reward-enhancing-effects-of-nicotine-and-bupropion
#17
Scott T Barrett, Trevor N Geary, Amy N Steiner, Rick A Bevins
RATIONALE: Nicotine and bupropion have been demonstrated to enhance the value of other reinforcers, and this may partially account for nicotine reward and dependence. Evidence suggests that the sexes differ in their sensitivity to the primary and secondary reinforcing effects of nicotine and nicotine-associated stimuli. Whether the sexes also differ in sensitivity to the reward-enhancing effects of nicotine (and bupropion) is yet unclear. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated potential sex differences in the enhancement effects of nicotine and bupropion using a reinforcer demand approach...
October 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634643/executive-functioning-in-children-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#18
A Monica Agoston, Maria Teresa Gonzalez-Bolanos, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Nancy Vanderburg, Kyriakie Sarafoglou
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a disorder characterized by impaired cortisol synthesis leading to excessive production of adrenal androgens. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to excess androgens may increase neural vulnerability to insult and affect cognitive functions, particularly dopamine-dependent neural circuits responsible for executive functioning (EF). Our study aimed to investigate relationship between more pronounced androgen exposure and EF-related behaviors in children with CAH, as well as sex differences in these associations...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628967/salience-attribution-and-its-relationship-to-cannabis-induced-psychotic-symptoms
#19
M A P Bloomfield, E Mouchlianitis, C J A Morgan, T P Freeman, H V Curran, J P Roiser, O D Howes
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is a widely used drug associated with increased risk for psychosis. The dopamine hypothesis of psychosis postulates that altered salience processing leads to psychosis. We therefore tested the hypothesis that cannabis users exhibit aberrant salience and explored the relationship between aberrant salience and dopamine synthesis capacity. METHOD: We tested 17 cannabis users and 17 age- and sex-matched non-user controls using the Salience Attribution Test, a probabilistic reward-learning task...
December 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616302/sex-and-intrauterine-growth-restriction-modify-brain-neurotransmitters-profile-of-newborn-piglets
#20
M Vázquez-Gómez, D Valent, C García-Contreras, L Arroyo, C Óvilo, B Isabel, A Bassols, A González-Bulnes
The current study aimed to determine, using a swine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), whether short- and long-term neurological deficiencies and interactive dysfunctions of Low Birth-Weight (LBW) offspring might be related to altered pattern of neurotransmitters. Hence, we compared the quantities of different neurotransmitters (catecholamines and indoleamines), which were determined by HPLC, at brain structures related to the limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala) in 14 LBW and 10 Normal Body-Weight (NBW) newborn piglets...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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