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neurite outgrowth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242118/activation-of-transglutaminase-2-by-nerve-growth-factor-in-differentiating-neuroblastoma-cells-a-role-in-cell-survival-and-neurite-outgrowth
#1
Alanood S Algarni, Alan J Hargreaves, John M Dickenson
NGF (nerve growth factor) and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) play important roles in neurite outgrowth and modulation of neuronal cell survival. In this study, we investigated the regulation of TG2 transamidase activity by NGF in retinoic acid-induced differentiating mouse N2a and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. TG2 transamidase activity was determined using an amine incorporation and a peptide cross linking assay. In situ TG2 activity was assessed by visualising the incorporation of biotin-X-cadaverine using confocal microscopy...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238976/a-spontaneously-immortalized-schwann-cell-line-from-aldose-reductase-deficient-mice-as-a-useful-tool-for-studying-polyol-pathway-and-aldehyde-metabolism
#2
Naoko Niimi, Hideji Yako, Shizuka Takaku, Hiroshi Kato, Takafumi Matsumoto, Yasumasa Nishito, Kazuhiko Watabe, Saori Ogasawara, Hiroki Mizukami, Soroku Yagihashi, Sookja K Chung, Kazunori Sango
The increased glucose flux into the polyol pathway via aldose reductase (AR) is recognized as a major contributing factor for the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy, whereas little is known about the functional significance of AR in the peripheral nervous system. Spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell lines established from long-term cultures of AR-deficient and normal C57BL/6 mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and peripheral nerves can be useful tools for studying the physiological and pathological roles of AR...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238029/characterization-of-konjac-ceramide-kcer-binding-to-sema3a-receptor-nrp1
#3
Seigo Usuki, Noriko Tamura, Tomohiro Tamura, Katsuyuki Mukai, Yasuyuki Igarashi
Konjac ceramide (kCer) can be prepared by a chemoenzymatic method as previously published (Usuki, S.; Tamura, N.; Sakai, S.; Tamura, T.; Mukai, K.; Igarashi, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Rep. 5, 160-167 (2016)). Thus prepared kCer showed an activation effect on Sema3A signaling pathway to induce phosphorylation of CRMP2 and microtubule depolymerizaion, resulting in opposing NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. In the present study, we have shown that kCer is a potential Sema3A-like ligand that has a competitive effect on Sema3A binding to a cell surface receptor Nrp1, but animal-type ceramides have no effect on Sema3A binding to Nrp1...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238028/konjac-ceramide-kcer-regulates-ngf-induced-neurite-outgrowth-via-the-sema3a-signaling-pathway
#4
Seigo Usuki, Noriko Tamura, Kohei Yuyama, Tomohiro Tamura, Katsuyuki Mukai, Yasuyuki Igarashi
The tuber of the konjac plant is a source enriched with GlcCer (kGlcCer), and has been used as a dietary supplement to improve the dry skin and itching that are caused by a deficiency of epidermal ceramide. Previously, we showed chemoenzymatically prepared konjac ceramide has a neurite-outgrowth inhibitory effect that is very similar to that of Sema3A and is not seen with animal-type ceramides. While, it has been unclear whether kCer may act on Sema3A or TrkA signaling pathway. In the present study, we showed kCer induces phosphorylation of CRMP2 and microtubules depolymerization via Sema3A signaling pathway not TrkA...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237486/transplantation-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-improves-long-term-diabetic-polyneuropathy-together-with-improvement-of-nerve-morphometrical-evaluation
#5
Maiko Omi, Masaki Hata, Nobuhisa Nakamura, Megumi Miyabe, Shogo Ozawa, Hitoshi Nukada, Masami Tsukamoto, Kazunori Sango, Tatsuhito Himeno, Hideki Kamiya, Jiro Nakamura, Jun Takebe, Tatsuaki Matsubara, Keiko Naruse
BACKGROUND: Although previous reports have revealed the therapeutic potential of stem cell transplantation in diabetic polyneuropathy, the effects of cell transplantation on long-term diabetic polyneuropathy have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether the transplantation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) ameliorated long-term diabetic polyneuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Forty-eight weeks after STZ injection, we transplanted DPSCs into the unilateral hindlimb skeletal muscles...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235036/expression-of-dha-metabolizing-enzyme-alox15-is-regulated-by-selective-histone-acetylation-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#6
Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Claire Poh-Ee Bon, Yee-Kong Ng, Deron R Herr, Jui-Sheng Wu, Teng-Nan Lin, Wei-Yi Ong
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in neural membranes of the CNS, and recent studies have shown a role of DHA metabolism by 15-lipoxygenase-1 (Alox15) in prefrontal cortex resolvin D1 formation, hippocampo-prefrontal cortical long-term-potentiation, spatial working memory, and anti-nociception/anxiety. In this study, we elucidated epigenetic regulation of Alox15 via histone modifications in neuron-like cells. Treatment of undifferentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate significantly increased Alox15 mRNA expression...
December 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232108/biocompatible-electroactive-tetra-aniline-conjugated-peptide-nanofibers-for-neural-differentiation
#7
Idil Arioz, Ozlem Erol, Gokhan Bakan, F Begum Dikecoglu, Ahmet Emin Topal, Mustafa Urel, Aykutlu Dana, Ayse B Tekinay, Mustafa O Guler
Peripheral nerve injuries cause devastating problems for the quality of the patients' lives and regeneration following a damage to the peripheral nervous system is limited depending on the degree of the damage. Use of nanobiomaterials can provide therapeutic approaches for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. Electroactive biomaterials, in particular, can provide a promising cure for the regeneration of nerve defects. Here, a supramolecular electroactive nanosystem with tetra(aniline) (TA) containing peptide nanofibers was developed and utilized for nerve regeneration...
December 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231281/novel-3d-neuron-regeneration-scaffolds-based-on-synthetic-polypeptide-containing-neuron-cue
#8
Zhen-Hua Wang, Yen-Yu Chang, Jhih-Guang Wu, Chia-Yu Lin, Hsiao-Lung An, Shyh-Chyang Luo, Tang K Tang, Wei-Fang Su
Neural tissue engineering has become a potential technology to restore the functionality of damaged neural tissue with the hope to cure the patients with neural disorder and to improve their quality of life. This paper reports the design and synthesis of polypeptides containing neuron stimulate, glutamic acid, for the fabrication of biomimetic 3D scaffold in neural tissue engineering application. The polypeptides are synthesized by efficient chemical reactions. Monomer γ-benzyl glutamate-N-carboxyanhydride undergoes ring-opening polymerization to form poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate), then hydrolyzes into poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate)-r-poly(glutamic acid) random copolymer...
December 12, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229648/phosphorylation-of-the-unique-c-terminal-tail-of-the-alpha-isoform-of-the-scaffold-protein-sh2b1-controls-the-ability-of-sh2b1alpha-to-enhance-nerve-growth-factor-function
#9
Ray M Joe, Anabel Flores, Michael E Doche, Joel M Cline, Erik S Clutter, Paul B Vander, Heimo Riedel, Lawrence S Argetsinger, Christin Carter-Su
The scaffold protein SH2B1, a major regulator of body weight, is recruited to the receptors of multiple cytokines and growth factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF). The β isoform, but not the α isoform, of SH2B1 greatly enhances NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. Here we asked how the unique C-terminal tails of the α and β isoforms modulate SH2B1 function. We compared the actions of SH2B1α and SH2B1β to those of the N-terminal 631 amino acids shared by both isoforms. In contrast to the β-tail, the α-tail inhibited the ability of SH2B1 to both cycle through the nucleus and enhance NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth, gene expression, phosphorylation of Akt and PLCγ and autophosphorylation of the NGF receptor TrkA...
December 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227287/creating-a-graft-friendly-environment-for-stem-cells-in-diseased-brains
#10
Robert Yl Tsai
Most of the adult CNS lacks regenerative activity in terms of both neuron birth and neurite outgrowth. While this regeneration-unfriendly environment of the adult CNS may preserve the existing neuronal circuitry that takes years to develop in higher organisms, it also poses a major obstacle for CNS repair later in life. In this issue of the JCI, Song et al. report on their development of a strategy that uses region-specific and molecularly engineered astrocytes to turn an unfavorable brain environment into a favorable one for engrafted neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPCs)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227174/gambogic-amide-a-selective-trka-agonist-does-not-improve-outcomes-from-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#11
Maddison R Johnstone, Mujun Sun, Caroline J Taylor, Rhys D Brady, Brian L Grills, Jarrod E Church, Sandy R Shultz, Stuart J McDonald
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF) may reduce neuroinflammation and apoptosis after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). NGF is thought to exert its effects via binding to either TrkA or p75 neurotrophin receptors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a selective TrkA agonist, gambogic amide (GA), on TBI pathology and outcomes in mice following lateral fluid percussion injury. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were given either a TBI or sham injury, and then received subcutaneous injections of either 2 mg/kg of GA or vehicle at 1, 24, and 48 h post-injury...
December 11, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223392/parkinson-s-disease-associated-mutant-lrrk2-phosphorylates-rab7l1-and-modifies-trans-golgi-morphology
#12
Tetta Fujimoto, Tomoki Kuwahara, Tomoya Eguchi, Maria Sakurai, Tadayuki Komori, Takeshi Iwatsubo
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the major genetic cause of autosomal-dominantly inherited Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 is implicated in the regulation of intracellular trafficking, neurite outgrowth and PD risk in connection with Rab7L1, a putative interactor of LRRK2. Recently, a subset of Rab GTPases have been reported as substrates of LRRK2. Here we examine the kinase activity of LRRK2 on Rab7L1 in situ in cells. Phos-tag analyses and metabolic labeling assays revealed that LRRK2 readily phosphorylates Golgi-localized wild-type Rab7L1 but not mutant forms that are distributed in the cytoplasm...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223350/%C3%AE-6-and-%C3%AE-1-integrin-heterodimer-mediates-schwann-cell-interactions-with-axons-and-facilitates-axonal-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#13
In Ae Chang, Ki Joong Kim, Uk Namgung
Several isoforms of integrin subunits are expressed in Schwann cells and mediate Schwann cell interactions with axons. Here, we identify α6 and β1 integrins as heterodimeric proteins expressed in Schwann cells and define their functions in axonal regeneration. α6 and β1 integrins are induced in Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve after a crush injury, and the blocking of integrin activity by siRNA expression and by treatment with anti-integrin antibodies attenuates Schwann cell contact with cultured neurons and decreases neurite outgrowth...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222785/neuronal-cell-morphology-in-primary-cerebellar-granule-cells-using-high-content-analysis
#14
Nicholas Radio, Steven Frank
Neurite outgrowth, one of the underlying cellular processes that defines the development and functionality of the mammalian nervous system, is also a sensitive indicator of neuronal cell health. From screening libraries of putative neurotherapeutic compounds to analyzing the millions of environmental pollutants for which we have inadequate neurotoxicity safety data, the large volume of chemical compounds that require evaluation is a major obstacle for manual imaging and analysis methods. In this context, high-content analysis (HCA) has emerged as a sensitive and accurate method for detecting changes in neuronal cell morphology within a format applicable to screening large chemical libraries...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221205/thrombospondin-1-modified-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-bmscs-promote-neurite-outgrowth-and-functional-recovery-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Yujie Pu, Ke Meng, Chuanlong Gu, Linlin Wang, Xiaoming Zhang
Stem cell therapies are currently gaining momentum in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, unsatisfied intrinsic neurite growth capacity constitutes significant obstacles for injured spinal cord repair and ultimately results in neurological dysfunction. The present study assessed the efficacy of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a neurite outgrowth-promoting molecule, modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on promoting neurite outgrowth in vitro and in vivo of Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation (OGD) treated motor neurons and SCI rat models...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215199/neurotrophically-induced-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-enhance-neuritogenesis-via-neurotrophin-and-cytokine-production
#16
Rachel M Brick, Aaron X Sun, Rocky S Tuan
Adult tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to produce a number of bioactive factors, including neurotrophic growth factors, capable of supporting and improving nerve regeneration. However, with a finite culture expansion capacity, MSCs are inherently limited in their lifespan and use. We examined here the potential utility of an alternative, mesenchymal-like cell source, derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, termed induced mesenchymal progenitor cells (MiMPCs). We found that several genes were upregulated and proteins were produced in MiMPCs that matched those previously reported for MSCs...
December 7, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213230/pannexin-1-modulates-axonal-growth-in-mouse-peripheral-nerves
#17
Steven M Horton, Carlos Luna Lopez, Elisabeth Blevins, Holly Howarth, Jake Weisberg, Valery I Shestopalov, Helen P Makarenkova, Sameer B Shah
The pannexin family of channels consists of three members-pannexin-1 (Panx1), pannexin-2 (Panx2), and pannexin-3 (Panx3) that enable the exchange of metabolites and signaling molecules between intracellular and extracellular compartments. Pannexin-mediated release of intracellular ATP into the extracellular space has been tied to a number of cellular activities, primarily through the activity of type P2 purinergic receptors. Previous work indicates that the opening of Panx1 channels and activation of purinergic receptors by extracellular ATP may cause inflammation and apoptosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209220/the-traditional-japanese-herbal-medicine-hachimijiogan-elicits-neurite-outgrowth-effects-in-pc12-cells-and-improves-cognitive-in-ad-model-rats-via-phosphorylation-of-creb
#18
Kaori Kubota, Haruka Fukue, Hitomi Sato, Kana Hashimoto, Aya Fujikane, Hiroshi Moriyama, Takuya Watanabe, Shutaro Katsurabayashi, Mosaburo Kainuma, Katsunori Iwasaki
Hachimijiogan (HJG) is a traditional herbal medicine that improves anxiety disorders in patients with dementia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HJG exerts neurotrophic factor-like effects to ameliorate memory impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD) model rats. First, we describe that HJG acts to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells (a rat pheochromocytoma cell line) like nerve growth factor (NGF) in a concentration-dependent manner (3 μg/ml HJG, p < 0.05; 10-500 μg/ml HJG, p < 0.001). While six herbal constituents of HJG, Rehmannia root, Dioscorea rhizome, Rhizoma Alismatis, Poria sclerotium, Moutan bark, and Cinnamon bark, could induce neurite outgrowth effects, the effect was strongest with HJG (500 μg/ml)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207108/integrated-analysis-of-gene-expression-and-copy-number-variations-in-met-proto%C3%A2-oncogene%C3%A2-transformed-human-primary-osteoblasts
#19
Ru-Jiang Jia, Chun-Gen Lan, Xiu-Chao Wang, Chun-Tao Gao
The aim of the present study was to screen the potential osteosarcoma (OS)‑associated genes and to obtain additional insight into the pathogenesis of OS. Transcriptional profile (ID: GSE28256) and copy number variations (CNV) profile were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between MET proto‑oncogene‑transformed human primary osteoblast (MET‑HOB) samples and the control samples were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray Data package. Subsequently, CNV areas and CNVs were identified using cut‑off criterion of >30%‑overlap within the cases using detect_cnv...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207038/interaction-of-ipsc-derived-neural-stem-cells-on-poly-l-lactic-acid-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-possible-use-in-neural-tissue-engineering
#20
Chengkai Lin, Chang Liu, Liangming Zhang, Zhi Huang, Peipei Zhao, Ruiqiang Chen, Mao Pang, Zhenxiang Chen, Liumin He, Chunxiao Luo, Limin Rong, Bin Liu
Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing technological area for the regeneration and reconstruction of damage to the central nervous system. By combining seed cells with appropriate biomaterial scaffolds, tissue engineering has the ability to improve nerve regeneration and functional recovery. In the present study, mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with the non-integrating episomal vectors pCEP4-EO2S-ET2K and pCEP4-miR-302-367 cluster, and differentiated into neural stem cells (NSCs) as transplanting cells...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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