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neurite outgrowth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437614/engineering-highly-interconnected-neuronal-networks-on-nanowire-scaffolds
#1
Vini Gautam, Shagufta Naureen, Naeem Shahid, Qian Gao, Yi Wang, David R Nisbet, Chennupati Jagadish, Vincent R Daria
Identifying the specific role of physical guidance cues in the growth of neurons is crucial for understanding the fundamental biology of brain development and for designing scaffolds for tissue engineering. Here, we investigate the structural significance of nanoscale topographies as physical cues for neurite outgrowth and circuit formation by growing neurons on semiconductor nanowires. We monitored neurite growth using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and evaluated the spontaneous neuronal network activity using functional calcium imaging...
April 24, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429738/fatty-acid-synthase-cooperates-with-protrudin-to-facilitate-membrane-outgrowth-of-cellular-protrusions
#2
Chuanling Zhang, Jiaqi Lu, Huizhong Su, Jing Yang, Demin Zhou
Cellular protrusion formation capacity is a key feature of developing neurons and many eukaryotic cells. However, the mechanisms underlying membrane growth in protrusion formation are largely unclear. In this study, photo-reactive unnatural amino acid 3-(3-methyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)-propamino-carbonyl-Nε-l-lysine was incorporated by a genetic code expansion strategy into protrudin, a protein localized in acidic endosomes and in the endoplasmic reticulum, that induces cellular protrusion and neurite formation...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423360/tiam1-variants-improve-clinical-outcome-in-neuroblastoma
#3
Elena Sanmartín, Yania Yáñez, Victoria Fornés-Ferrer, José L Zugaza, Adela Cañete, Victoria Castel, Jaime Font de Mora
Identification of tumor driver mutations is crucial for improving clinical outcome using a personalized approach to the treatment of cancer. Neuroblastoma is a tumor of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system for which only a few driver alterations have been described including MYCN amplification and ALK mutations. We assessed 106 primary neuroblastoma tumors by next generation sequencing using a customized amplicon-based gene panel. Our results reveal that genetic variants in TIAM1 gene associate with better clinical outcome, suggesting a role for these TIAM1 variants in preventing progression of this disease...
April 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422949/heparin-binding-egf-like-growth-factor-promotes-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-expression-and-protects-the-enteric-nervous-system-after-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#4
Yu Zhou, Yijie Wang, Jacob Olson, Jixin Yang, Gail E Besner
BACKGROUND: Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with alterations of the ENS, with loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expressing neurons in the intestine. The aims of this study were to investigate the roles of heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation, nNOS expression, and effects on ENS integrity during experimental NEC. METHODS: The effects of HB-EGF on NSC differentiation and nNOS production were determined using cultured enteric NSC...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421720/enantioselective-organocatalytic-synthesis-of-a-secoyohimbane-inspired-compound-collection-with-neuritogenic-activity
#5
Herbert Waldmann, Tim Förster, Sara Lopéz-Tosco, Slava Ziegler, Andrey P Antonchick
Natural products provide evolutionary validated core structures inspiring the synthesis of new compound collections endowed with neurite growth-promoting activity. Rhynchophylline is the major component of Uncaria species which has been used to treat neurological diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. According to the structure of this spirocyclic secoyohimbane alkaloid, we developed a highly enantioselective and efficient organocatalyzed synthesis method to provide the tetracyclic secoyohimbane scaffold incorporating a quaternary and three tertiary stereogenic centers in a one-pot multistep reaction sequence...
April 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416701/defective-synaptic-connectivity-and-axonal-neuropathology-in-a-human-ipsc-based-model-of-familial-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Georgia Kouroupi, Era Taoufik, Ioannis S Vlachos, Konstantinos Tsioras, Nasia Antoniou, Florentia Papastefanaki, Dafni Chroni-Tzartou, Wolfgang Wrasidlo, Delphine Bohl, Dimitris Stellas, Panagiotis K Politis, Kostas Vekrellis, Dimitra Papadimitriou, Leonidas Stefanis, Piotr Bregestovski, Artemis G Hatzigeorgiou, Eliezer Masliah, Rebecca Matsas
α-Synuclein (αSyn) is the major gene linked to sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas the G209A (p.A53T) αSyn mutation causes a familial form of PD characterized by early onset and a generally severe phenotype, including nonmotor manifestations. Here we generated de novo induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients harboring the p.A53T mutation and developed a robust model that captures PD pathogenic processes under basal conditions. iPSC-derived mutant neurons displayed novel disease-relevant phenotypes, including protein aggregation, compromised neuritic outgrowth, and contorted or fragmented axons with swollen varicosities containing αSyn and Tau...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414797/big1-is-required-for-the-survival-of-deep-layer-neurons-neuronal-polarity-and-the-formation-of-axonal-tracts-between-the-thalamus-and-neocortex-in-developing-brain
#7
Jia-Jie Teoh, Tomohiko Iwano, Masataka Kunii, Nur Atik, Erda Avriyanti, Shin-Ichiro Yoshimura, Kenta Moriwaki, Akihiro Harada
BIG1, an activator protein of the small GTPase, Arf, and encoded by the Arfgef1 gene, is one of candidate genes for epileptic encephalopathy. To know the involvement of BIG1 in epileptic encephalopathy, we analyzed BIG1-deficient mice and found that BIG1 regulates neurite outgrowth and brain development in vitro and in vivo. The loss of BIG1 decreased the size of the neocortex and hippocampus. In BIG1-deficient mice, the neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) and the interneurons were unaffected. However, Tbr1+ and Ctip2+ deep layer (DL) neurons showed spatial-temporal dependent apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412242/14-3-3%C3%AE-regulates-copine1-mediated-neuronal-differentiation-in-hib5-hippocampal-progenitor-cells
#8
Jae Cheal Yoo, Nammi Park, Boah Lee, Abdullateef Nashed, Young-Sun Lee, Tae Hwan Kim, Da Yong Lee, Ajung Kim, Eun Mi Hwang, Gwan-Su Yi, Jae-Yong Park
Copine1 (CPNE1), known as a calcium-dependent membrane-binding protein, has tandem C2 domains and an A domain. We previously demonstrated that CPNE1 directly induces neuronal differentiation via Protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation in the hippocampal progenitor cell line, HiB5. To better understand its cellular function, we carried out a yeast two-hybrid screening to find CPNE1 binding partners. Among the identified proteins, 14-3-3γ appears to directly interact with CPNE1. Between CPNE1 and 14-3-3γ, the physical interaction as well as the specific binding regions of CPNE1 was confirmed in vitro and in vivo...
April 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408478/antagonistic-roles-for-styx-pseudophosphatases-in-neurite-outgrowth
#9
REVIEW
Arya Dahal, Shantá D Hinton
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are essential players in important neuronal signaling pathways including neuronal development, plasticity, survival, learning, and memory. The inactivation of MAPKs is tightly controlled by MAPK phosphatases (MKPs), which also are important regulators of these neuronal processes. Considering that MAPKs and MKPs are major players in neuronal signaling, it follows that their misregulation is pivotal in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's, Parkinson's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406999/dorsal-root-ganglia-neurite-outgrowth-measured-as-a-function-of-changes-in-microelectrode-array-resistance
#10
Jordan M Renna, Jessica M Stukel, Rebecca Kuntz Willits, Erik D Engeberg
Current research in prosthetic device design aims to mimic natural movements using a feedback system that connects to the patient's own nerves to control the device. The first step in using neurons to control motion is to make and maintain contact between neurons and the feedback sensors. Therefore, the goal of this project was to determine if changes in electrode resistance could be detected when a neuron extended a neurite to contact a sensor. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were harvested from chick embryos and cultured on a collagen-coated carbon nanotube microelectrode array for two days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392359/intracranial-self-stimulation-reward-induces-neurite-extension-in-pc12m3-cells-and-activation-of-the-p38-mapk-pathway
#11
Yutaka Gomita, Satoru Esumi, Naoya Sugiyama, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Yoshihisa Koike, Hirotoshi Motoda, Toshiaki Sendo, Yoshio Kano
Factors that trigger emotional expression may be divided into two patterns according to the type of motivation, acquiring reward (pleasure) and avoiding aversion (punishment). Repeated exposure to certain external stimuli accompanied by aberrant motivation may produce psychiatric diseases such as bipolar disorder and addiction via dysregulation of the central nervous system. However, neurobiological underpinnings of such diseases have not been clarified, especially at the neuronal level. In the present study, plasma from rats undergoing intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) produced neurite outgrowth in PC12-variant cells (PC12m3)...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385489/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-different-pesticides-in-pc-12-cells-in-vitro
#12
Verena Christen, Manuel Rusconi, Pierre Crettaz, Karl Fent
The detection of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of chemicals has high relevance for protection of human health. However, DNT of many pesticides is only little known. Furthermore, validated in vitro systems for assessment of DNT are not well established. Here we employed the rat phaeochromocytoma cell line PC-12 to evaluate DNT of 18 frequently used pesticides of different classes, including neonicotinoids, pyrethroids, organophosphates, organochlorines, as well as quaternary ammonium compounds, the organic compound used in pesticides, piperonyl butoxide, as well as the insect repellent diethyltoluamide (DEET)...
April 3, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384198/tbc1d12-is-a-novel-rab11-binding-protein-that-modulates-neurite-outgrowth-of-pc12-cells
#13
Mai E Oguchi, Kenta Noguchi, Mitsunori Fukuda
Recycling endosomes are generally thought to play a central role in endocytic recycling, but recent evidence has indicated that they also participate in other cellular events, including cytokinesis, autophagy, and neurite outgrowth. Rab small GTPases are key regulators in membrane trafficking, and although several Rab isoforms, e.g., Rab11, have been shown to regulate recycling endosomal trafficking, the precise mechanism by which these Rabs regulate recycling endosomes is not fully understood. In this study, we focused on a Rab-GTPase-activating protein (Rab-GAP), one of the key regulators of Rabs, and comprehensively screened 43 mammalian Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC)/Rab-GAP-domain-containing proteins (TBC proteins) for proteins that specifically localize on recycling endosomes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383484/an-unusual-diterpene-enhygromic-acid-and-deoxyenhygrolides-from-a-marine-myxobacterium-enhygromyxa-sp
#14
Tomohiko Tomura, Shiori Nagashima, Satoshi Yamazaki, Takashi Iizuka, Ryosuke Fudou, Makoto Ojika
Three new compounds, enhygromic acid (1) and deoxyenhygrolides A (2) and B (3), were isolated from a marine myxobacterium, Enhygromyxa sp. Compound 1 was found to be an acrylic acid derivative with a rare polycyclic carbon skeleton, decahydroacenaphthylene, by spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2 and 3 were deoxy analogs of the known γ-alkylidenebutenolides, enhygrolides. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against B16 melanoma cells and anti-bacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, and enhanced the NGF-induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells...
April 6, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382744/exercise-and-bdnf-reduce-a%C3%AE-production-by-enhancing-%C3%AE-secretase-processing-of-app
#15
Saket M Nigam, Shaohua Xu, Joanna S Kritikou, Krisztina Marosi, Lennart Brodin, Mark P Mattson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by aggregation of toxic forms of amyloid β peptide (Aβ). Treatment strategies have largely been focused on inhibiting the enzymes (β- and γ-secretases) that liberate Aβ from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). While evidence suggests that individuals who exercise regularly are at reduced risk for AD and studies of animal models demonstrate that running can ameliorate brain Aβ pathology and associated cognitive deficits, the underlying mechanisms are unknown...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381702/livebearing-or-egg-laying-mammals-27-decisive-nucleotides-of-fam168
#16
Subrata Pramanik, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
In the present study, we determine comprehensive molecular phylogenetic relationships of the novel myelin-associated neurite-outgrowth inhibitor (MANI) gene across the entire eukaryotic lineage. Combined computational genomic and proteomic sequence analyses revealed MANI as one of the two members of the novel family with sequence similarity 168 member (FAM168) genes, consisting of FAM168A and FAM168B, having distinct genetic differences that illustrate diversification in its biological function and genetic taxonomy across the phylogenetic tree...
April 3, 2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380447/the-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-regulates-cranial-irradiation-induced-hippocampus-dependent-cognitive-dysfunction
#17
Xin Ding, Hao-Hao Wu, Sheng-Jun Ji, Shang Cai, Pei-Wen Dai, Mei-Ling Xu, Jun-Jun Zhang, Qi-Xian Zhang, Ye Tian, Quan-Hong Ma
Cognitive deficits, characterized by progressive problems with hippocampus-dependent learning, memory and spatial processing, are the most serious complication of cranial irradiation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is involved in a diverse arrays of cellular responses, including neurite outgrowth, neurogenesis, and negative regulation of spine density, which are associated with various neurological disorders. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received 10 Gy cranial irradiation...
March 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369220/a-recurrent-wars-mutation-is-a-novel-cause-of-autosomal-dominant-distal-hereditary-motor-neuropathy
#18
Pei-Chien Tsai, Bing-Wen Soong, Inès Mademan, Yen-Hua Huang, Chia-Rung Liu, Cheng-Tsung Hsiao, Hung-Ta Wu, Tze-Tze Liu, Yo-Tsen Liu, Yen-Ting Tseng, Kon-Ping Lin, Ueng-Cheng Yang, Ki Wha Chung, Byung-Ok Choi, Garth A Nicholson, Marina L Kennerson, Chih-Chiang Chan, Peter De Jonghe, Tzu-Hao Cheng, Yi-Chu Liao, Stephan Züchner, Jonathan Baets, Yi-Chung Lee
Distal hereditary motor neuropathy is a heterogeneous group of inherited neuropathies characterized by distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy. Although at least 15 genes have been implicated in distal hereditary motor neuropathy, the genetic causes remain elusive in many families. To identify an additional causal gene for distal hereditary motor neuropathy, we performed exome sequencing for two affected individuals and two unaffected members in a Taiwanese family with an autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy in which mutations in common distal hereditary motor neuropathy-implicated genes had been excluded...
March 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367116/microglial-intracellular-ca-2-signaling-in-synaptic-development-and-its-alterations-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Yoshito Mizoguchi, Akira Monji
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social interaction, difficulties with language and repetitive/restricted behaviors. Microglia are resident innate immune cells which release many factors including proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) when they are activated in response to immunological stimuli. Recent in vivo imaging has shown that microglia sculpt and refine the synaptic circuitry by removing excess and unwanted synapses and be involved in the development of neural circuits or synaptic plasticity thereby maintaining the brain homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366194/effects-of-a-defined-xeno-free-medium-on-the-growth-and-neurotrophic-and-angiogenic-properties-of-human-adult-stem-cells
#20
Maria Brohlin, Peyman Kelk, Mikael Wiberg, Paul J Kingham
BACKGROUND: The growth properties and neurotrophic and angiogenic effects of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) cultured in a defined xeno-free, serum-free medium (MesenCult-XF) were investigated. METHODS: Human MSCs from adipose tissue (ASCs) and bone marrow (BMSCs) were cultured in Minimum Essential Medium-alpha (α-MEM) containing fetal calf serum or in MesenCult-XF. Proliferation was measured over 10 passages and the colony-forming unit (CFU) assay and expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) surface markers were determined...
May 2017: Cytotherapy
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