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neurite outgrowth

Richard J Wurtman
The memory impairments of early Alzheimer's disease [AD] are thought to result from a deficiency in synapses within the hippocampus and related brain regions. This deficiency could result from an acceleration in synapse turnover - perhaps caused by an endogenous neurotoxin like A-beta oligomers - or from a decrease in the production of the synaptic membrane needed to form new synapses. An AD-associated decrease in synaptogenesis almost certainly does occur, inasmuch as major decreases are also observed in the numbers of hippocampal dendritic spines, the immediate cytologic precursor of glutamatergic synapses...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Hua Wu, Jiaoyan Liu, Qing Fang, Bo Xiao, Ying Wan
Nerve conduits containing aligned fibrous fillers with gradiently distributed signal molecules are essential for long-gap nerve repair. This study was to develop an approach for establishing nerve growth factor (NGF) gradients onto the aligned chitosan-polylactide (CH-PLA) fibers. CH-PLA containing 37wt% of PLA was spun into fibers using a wet-spinning technique. CH-PLA fibers showed much higher wet-state tensile strength, enhanced degradation tolerance and significantly lower swelling degree in comparison to chitosan fibers...
October 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Nana Nakazawa-Tanaka, N Fujiwara, K Miyahara, S Nakada, E Arikawa-Hirasawa, C Akazawa, M Urao, A Yamataka
BACKGROUND/AIM: Laminin-1 regulates neurite outgrowth in various neuronal cells. We have previously demonstrated that laminin-1 promotes enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC) migration by using Sox10-VENUS transgenic mice, in which ENCCs are labeled with a green fluorescent protein, Venus. Mice lacking the endothelin-B receptor gene, Ednrb (-/-) mice, are widely used as a model for Hirschsprung's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of laminin-1on ENCC migration in Sox10-VENUS(+)/Ednrb (-/-) mice, a newly created HD mice model...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
Namrata Chaudhari, Priti Talwar, Christian Lefebvre D'hellencourt, Palaniyandi Ravanan
Neuroblastoma is the most common solid extra cranial tumor in infants. Improving the clinical outcome of children with aggressive tumors undergoing one of the multiple treatment options has been a major concern. Differentiating neuroblastoma cells holds promise in inducing tumor growth arrest and treating minimal residual disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of partial PPARγ agonist 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) on human neuroblastoma IMR32 cells. Our results demonstrate that treatment with low concentration of CDDO and particularly in combination with all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induced neurite outgrowth, increased the percentage of more than two neurites bearing cells, and decreased viability in IMR32 cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Sheri L Peterson, Hal X Nguyen, Oscar A Mendez, Aileen J Anderson
The inflammatory response to spinal cord injury (SCI) involves localization and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells and proteins, including the complement cascade. Complement C3 is important for the classical, alternative, and lectin pathways of complement activation, and its cleavage products C3a and C3b mediate several functions in the context of inflammation, but little is known about the potential functions of C3 on regeneration and survival of injured neurons after SCI. We report that 6 weeks after dorsal hemisection with peripheral conditioning lesion, C3(-/-) mice demonstrated a 2-fold increase in sensory axon regeneration in the spinal cord in comparison to wildtype C3(+/+) mice...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yo-Cheng Chang, Ming-Hong Chen, Shih-Yung Liao, Hsi-Chin Wu, Chen-Hsiang Kuan, Jui-Sheng Sun, Tzu-Wei Wang
Peripheral nerve injuries, causing sensory and motor impairment, affect a great number of patients annually. It is therefore important to incorporate different strategies to promote nerve healing. Among the treatment options, however, the efficacy of nerve conduits is often compromised by their lack of living cells, insufficient growth factors, and absence of the extracellular matrix (ECM)-like structure. To improve the functional recovery, we aimed to develop a natural biodegradable multichanneled scaffold characterized with aligned electrospun nanofibers and neurotrophic gradient (MC/AN/NG) to guide axon outgrowth...
October 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Paolo Mellini, Yukihiro Itoh, Hiroki Tsumoto, Ying Li, Miki Suzuki, Natsuko Tokuda, Taeko Kakizawa, Yuri Miura, Jun Takeuchi, Maija Lahtela-Kakkonen, Takayoshi Suzuki
Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), a member of the NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase family, has recently received increasing attention due to its potential involvement in neurodegenerative diseases and the progression of cancer. Potent and selective SIRT2 inhibitors thus represent desirable biological probes. Based on the X-ray crystal structure of SIRT2 in complex with a previously reported weak inhibitor (6), we identified in this study the potent mechanism-based inactivator KPM-2 (36), which is selective toward SIRT2...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Hilal Ahmad Pal, Saswat Mohapatra, Varsha Gupta, Surajit Ghosh, Sandeep Verma
Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenously produced free radical species, is an extremely important signalling molecule in several biochemical processes related to neurotransmission, neuronal communication, and vasodilation, to name a few. Other than relying on endogenous synthesis, intracellular NO delivery presents an interesting challenge to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of this gaseous molecule. We have applied a self-assembling peptide conjugate strategy to devise a construct carrying a NO-release arm, which can be activated under standard redox conditions...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Naho Fujiwara, Nana Nakazawa-Tanaka, Katsumi Miyahara, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa, Chihiro Akazawa, Atsuyuki Yamataka
PURPOSE: Laminin, an extracellular matrix molecule, is essential for normal development of the nervous system. The alpha1 subunit of laminin-1 (LAMA1) has been reported to promote neurites and outgrowth and is expressed only during embryogenesis. Previously, we developed a Sox10 transgenic version of the Endothelin receptor-B (Ednrb) mouse to visualize Enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC)s with a green fluorescent protein, Venus. We designed this study to investigate the expression of LAMA1 using Sox10-VENUS mice gut...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
Elena Coccia, Isabel Calleja-Yagüe, Laura Planells-Ferrer, Blanca Sanuy, Belen Sanz, Joaquin López-Soriano, Rana S Moubarak, Francina Munell, Bruna Barneda-Zahonero, Joan X Comella, M Jose Pérez-García
Fas Apoptosis Inhibitory Molecule (FAIM) is an evolutionarily highly conserved death receptor antagonist, widely expressed and known to participate in physiological and pathological processes. Two FAIM transcript variants have been characterized to date, namely FAIM short (FAIM-S) and FAIM long (FAIM-L). FAIM-S is ubiquitously expressed and serves as an anti-apoptotic protein in the immune system. Furthermore, in neurons, this isoform promotes NGF-induced neurite outgrowth through NF-кB and ERK signaling. In contrast FAIM-L is found only in neurons, where it exerts anti-apoptotic activity against several stimuli...
2017: PloS One
Micaela D Garcia, Karina Formoso, Gabriela I Aparicio, Alberto C C Frasch, Camila Scorticati
Single point mutations or variations in the expression of the gene encoding the neuronal glycoprotein M6a have been associated with psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, depression and schizophrenia. In cultured neurons, M6a positively contributes to neurite extension, axon guidance, filopodia/spine outgrowth, and synapse formation. The endocytic processes of neuronal membrane proteins are linked to the differentiation, growth, signaling and plasticity of neurons. However, the roles of M6a and the precise mechanisms through which M6a internalizes and recycles back to the neuronal membrane are unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Mallappa K Kolar, Vinay N Itte, Paul J Kingham, Lev N Novikov, Mikael Wiberg, Peyman Kelk
The current gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve injury is nerve grafting but this has disadvantages such as donor site morbidity. New techniques focus on replacing these grafts with nerve conduits enhanced with growth factors and/or various cell types such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Dental-MSCs (D-MSCs) including stem cells obtained from apical papilla (SCAP), dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) are potential sources of MSCs for nerve repair. Here we present the characterization of various D-MSCs from the same human donors for peripheral nerve regeneration...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sarah Geller, Didier Lomet, Alain Caraty, Yves Tillet, Anne Duittoz, Pascal Vaudin
During mammalian embryonic development, GnRH neurones differentiate from the nasal placode and migrate through the nasal septum toward the forebrain. We previously showed that a category of glial cells, the olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), forms the microenvironment of migrating GnRH neurones. Here, to caraterize the quantitative and qualitative importance of this glial, we investigated the spatio-temporal maturation of glial cells in situ and the role of maturing glia in GnRH neurones development ex vivo...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sara M Katrancha, Yi Wu, Minsheng Zhu, Betty A Eipper, Anthony J Koleske, Richard E Mains
Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism, and intellectual disability are complex neurodevelopmental disorders, debilitating millions of people. Therapeutic progress is limited by poor understanding of underlying molecular pathways. Using a targeted search, we identified an enrichment of de novo mutations in the gene encoding the 330-kDa triple functional domain (TRIO) protein associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. By generating multiple TRIO antibodies, we show that the smaller TRIO9 isoform is the major brain protein product, and its levels decrease after birth...
September 14, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
Kunlin Zhang, Zili Fan, Yufeng Wang, Stephen V Faraone, Li Yang, Suhua Chang
OBJECTIVES: Investigation of the genetic basis of endophenotype and analysis the pathways with multiple genes of small effects might increase the understanding of the genetic basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we aimed to explore the genetic basis of cognitive flexibility in ADHD at SNP, gene and pathway level. METHODS: The Trail-Making Test (TMT) was used to test the cognitive flexibility of 788 ADHD patients. A genome-wide association analysis of cognitive flexibility was conducted for 644,166 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
October 3, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Kun-Wei Wu, Jia-Lin Mo, Zeng-Wei Kou, Qi Liu, Ling-Ling Lv, Yu Lei, Feng-Yan Sun
Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) have been found to guide the migration, promote the survival and regulate the differentiation of neural cells. However, whether BMEC promote development and maturation of immature neurons is still unknown. Therefore, in this study, we used a direct endothelium-neuron co-culture system combined with patch clamp recordings and confocal imaging analysis, to investigate the effects of endothelial cells on neuronal morphology and function during development. We found that endothelial cells co-culture or BMEC-conditioned medium (B-CM) promoted neurite outgrowth and spine formation, accelerated electrophysiological development and enhanced synapse function...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Hye Jin Park, Huiyoung Kwon, Seungheon Lee, Ji Wook Jung, Jong Hoon Ryu, Dae Sik Jang, Young Choon Lee, Dong Hyun Kim
Aging leads to functional changes in the brain and decreases ability of learning and memory. Neurite outgrowth is important in learning and memory, therefore regulation of neurite outgrowth might be a candidate for treating aged brain. Echinocystic acid (EA), a pentacyclic triterpene, has shown to exert various neurological effects. However, the effect of EA on neurite outgrowth has not been studied. In this study, we examined if EA is effective on neurite outgrowth and memory in aged mice. The effect of EA on neurite outgrowth was observed by examining neurite processes of Neuro2a cells treated with EA...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Hiroshi Nango, Yasuhiro Kosuge, Hiroko Miyagishi, Kosuke Sugawa, Yoshihisa Ito, Kumiko Ishige
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exerts various biological effects by binding to E-prostanoid receptors (EP1-4). Although recent studies have shown that PGE2 induces cell differentiation in some neuronal cells such as mouse DRG neurons and sensory neuron-like ND7/23 cells, it is unclear whether PGE2 plays a role in differentiation of motor neurons. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of PGE2-induced differentiation of motor neurons using NSC-34, a mouse motor neuron-like cell line. Exposure of undifferentiated NSC-34 cells to PGE2 and butaprost, an EP2-selective agonist, resulted in a reduction of MTT reduction activity without increase the number of propidium iodide-positive cells and in an increase in the number of neurite-bearing cells...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Alexandra A Bouza, Lori L Isom
Voltage-gated sodium channels are protein complexes comprised of one pore forming α subunit and two, non-pore forming, β subunits. The voltage-gated sodium channel β subunits were originally identified to function as auxiliary subunits, which modulate the gating, kinetics, and localization of the ion channel pore. Since that time, the five β subunits have been shown to play crucial roles as multifunctional signaling molecules involved in cell adhesion, cell migration, neuronal pathfinding, fasciculation, and neurite outgrowth...
October 1, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Yutaka Gomita, Satoru Esumi, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Hirotoshi Motoda, Toshiaki Sendo, Hidenori Sagara, Hiroaki Araki, Mitsunobu Mio, Shigeki Inoue, Yoshio Kano
AIM: In mammals, rewarding and aversive states are motivational drivers of behavioral expression. However, it is unclear whether such states affect neuronal functions at the level of individual neurons. In the present study, the neuronal effects of rewarding and aversive states were investigated in using PC12 mutant cells (PC12m3 cells) with low sensitivity to nerve growth factor. MAIN METHODS: The intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and immobilization (IMM) methods were used to create rewarding and aversive states, respectively, in rats...
September 27, 2017: Life Sciences
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