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neurite outgrowth

Zhenjie Liu, Zhengqing Hu
A microfiber platform that is able to enhance neuronal differentiation and guide aligned neurite outgrowths is essential to the repair of nerve damage. To achieve this aim, we utilized biocompatible and biodegradable poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) to design a novel Aligned Contiguous Microfiber Platform (ACMFP) as substrates for the neuronal induction of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. To generate the ACMFP, a modified micro-fluid chip system was established to control microfiber parameters including fiber diameter, alignment, and the distance between fibers...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Michael Ventre, Marissa Puzan, Emily Ashbolt, Abigail Koppes
OBJECTIVE: Despite the prevalence of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), challenges remain in restoring full functionality to those afflicted. For recovery to occur, axons must extend across the injury site to connect with distal targets, where injury gap size is a critical factor in the probability of restoration of function. Current clinical therapies often achieve limited neural regeneration, motivating the development of new therapeutic interventions such as biophysical stimulation. APPROACH: To investigate the potential for low intensity, pulsed ultrasonic simulation (LIPUS) to impact peripheral nerve regeneration, primary neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurons were examined in vitro in response to ultrasound (US)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Hyeok Jun Yun, Eun-Hye Kim, Byung Gon Kim
There is strong evidence that macrophages can participate in the regeneration or repair of injured nervous system. Here, we describe a protocol in which macrophages are induced to produce conditioned medium (CM) that promotes neurite outgrowth. Adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are acutely dissociated and plated. After the neurons are stably attached, peritoneal macrophages are co-cultured on a cell culture insert overlaid on the same well. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP) is applied to the co-cultures for 24 h, after which the cell culture insert containing the macrophages is moved to another well to collect CM for 72 h...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hee-Jun Kim, Won-Haeng Lee, Mo-Jong Kim, Sunmee Shin, Byungki Jang, Jae-Bong Park, Wilma Wasco, Joseph D Buxbaum, Yong-Sun Kim, Eun-Kyoung Choi
Calsenilin modulates A-type potassium channels, regulates presenilin-mediated γ-secretase activity, and represses prodynorphin and c-fos genes expression. RhoA is involved in various cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, migration, transcription, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Although recent studies demonstrate that calsenilin can directly interact with RhoA and that RhoA inactivation is essential for neuritogenesis, it is uncertain whether there is a link between calsenilin and RhoA-regulated neuritogenesis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christina Maria Anna Pia Schuh, Adam George Edward Day, Heinz Redl, James Phillips
Tissue engineering approaches in nerve regeneration often aim to improve results by bridging nerve defects with conduits that mimic key features of the nerve autograft. One such approach uses Schwann cell self-alignment and stabilisation within collagen gels to generate engineered neural tissue (EngNT). Here we investigated whether a novel blend of fibrin and collagen could be used to form EngNT, as prior to EngNT design a beneficial effect of fibrin on Schwann cell proliferation was observed. A range of blend formulations was tested in terms of mechanical behavior (gel formation, stabilisation, swelling, tensile strength and stiffness) and lead formulations were assessed in vitro...
March 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Nathalie Barroca, Ana Marote, Sandra I Vieira, Abílio Almeida, Maria H V Fernandes, Paula M Vilarinho, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva
Tissue engineering is evolving towards the production of smart platforms exhibiting stimulatory cues to guide tissue regeneration. This work explores the benefits of electrical polarization to produce more efficient neural tissue engineering platforms. Poly (l-lactic) acid (PLLA)-based scaffolds were prepared as solvent cast films and electrospun aligned nanofibers, and electrically polarized by an in-lab built corona poling device. The characterization of the platforms by thermally stimulated depolarization currents reveals a polarization of 60 × 10-10 C cm-2 that is stable on poled electrospun nanofibers for up to 6 months...
March 30, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Joshua A Harrill, Theresa Freudenrich, Kathleen Wallace, Kenneth Ball, Timothy J Shafer, William R Mundy
Medium- to high-throughput in vitro assays that recapitulate the critical processes of nervous system development have been proposed as a means to facilitate rapid testing and identification of chemicals which may affect brain development. In vivo neurodevelopment is a complex progression of distinct cellular processes. Therefore, batteries of in vitro assays that model and quantify effects on a variety of neurodevelopmental processes have the potential to identify chemicals which may affect brain development at different developmental stages...
April 4, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
César García-Cruz, Candelaria Merino-Jiménez, Víctor Ceja, Jorge Aragón, Lourdes Siqueiros-Márquez, Juan Pablo Reyes-Grajeda, Cecilia Montañez
The Dp71 protein is the most abundant dystrophin in the central nervous system (CNS). Several dystrophin Dp71 isoforms have been described and are classified into three groups, each with a different C-terminal end. However, the functions of Dp71 isoforms remain unknown. In the present study, we analysed the effect of Dp71eΔ71 overexpression on neuronal differentiation of PC12 Tet-On cells. Overexpression of dystrophin Dp71eΔ71 stimulates neuronal differentiation, increasing the percentage of cells with neurites and neurite length...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Christina Kath, Paloma Goni-Oliver, Rainer Müller, Carsten Schultz, Volker Haucke, Britta Eickholt, Jan Schmoranzer
Inhibition of the phospholipid phosphatase and tumor suppressor PTEN leads to excessive polarized cell growth during directed cell migration and neurite outgrowth. These processes require the precise regulation of both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. While PTEN is known to regulate actin dynamics through phospholipid modulation, whether and how PTEN regulates microtubule dynamics is unknown. Here, we show that depletion of PTEN leads to elevated levels of stable and post-translationally modified (detyrosinated) microtubules in fibroblasts and developing neurons...
2018: PloS One
Su-Jin Song, Yong Cheol Shin, Sung Eun Kim, Il Keun Kwon, Jong-Ho Lee, Suong-Hyu Hyon, Dong-Wook Han, Bongju Kim
Neural tissue regeneration is a significant challenge, because severe nerve injury is quite difficult to regenerate spontaneously. Although, many studies have been devoted to promote nerve regeneration, there are still many technical challenges to achieve satisfactory results. In this study, we designed biomimetic matrices composed of aligned laminin core-polydioxanone/collagen shell (Lam-PDO/Col) fibers, which can provide both topographical and biochemical cues for promoting neuritogenesis. The aligned Lam-PDO/Col core-shell fiber matrices were fabricated by magnetic field-assisted electrospinning with the coaxial system, and their potential as biofunctional scaffolds for promoting neuritogenesis was explored...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wen Li, Ka Ming Vincent Tam, Wai Wan Ray Chan, Alex Chun Koon, Jacky Chi Ki Ngo, Ho Yin Edwin Chan, Kwok-Fai Lau
Neurite outgrowth is a crucial process in developing neurons for neural network formation. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of neurite outgrowth is essential for developing strategies to stimulate neurite regeneration after nerve injury and in neurodegenerative disorders. FE65 is a brain-enriched adaptor that stimulates Rac1-mediated neurite elongation. However, the precise mechanism by which FE65 promotes the process remains elusive. Here, we show that ELMO1, a subunit of ELMO1-DOCK180 bipartite Rac1 GEF, interacts with the FE65 N-terminal region...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Marc Segarra-Mondejar, Sergi Casellas-Díaz, Marina Ramiro-Pareta, Claudia Müller-Sánchez, Alejandro Martorell-Riera, Ismaïl Hermelo, Manuel Reina, Julián Aragonés, Ofelia M Martínez-Estrada, Francesc X Soriano
The formation of neurites is an important process affecting the cognitive abilities of an organism. Neurite growth requires the addition of new membranes, but the metabolic remodeling necessary to supply lipids for membrane expansion is poorly understood. Here, we show that synaptic activity, one of the most important inducers of neurite growth, transcriptionally regulates the expression of neuronal glucose transporter Glut3 and rate-limiting enzymes of glycolysis, resulting in enhanced glucose uptake and metabolism that is partly used for lipid synthesis...
April 3, 2018: EMBO Journal
Katyayani Singh, Kersti Lilleväli, Scott F Gilbert, Aleksandr Bregin, Jane Narvik, Mohan Jayaram, Märt Rahi, Jürgen Innos, Allen Kaasik, Eero Vasar, Mari-Anne Philips
Cell surface neural adhesion proteins are critical components in the complex orchestration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and neuritogenesis essential for proper brain construction and behavior. We focused on the impact of two plasticity-associated IgLON family neural adhesion molecules, Neurotrimin (Ntm) and Limbic system associated membrane protein (Lsamp), on mouse behavior and its underlying neural development. Phenotyping neurons derived from the hippocampi of Lsamp-/- , Ntm-/- and Lsamp-/- Ntm-/- mice was performed in parallel with behavioral testing...
March 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Hongyu Chen, Jinjin Zhang, Jinwei Ren, Wenzhao Wang, Weiping Xiong, Yaodong Zhang, Li Bao, Hongwei Liu
Ganoderma leucocontextum is a well-known medicinal mushroom cultivated in the Tibet Plateau of China. Chemistry investigation on the fruiting bodies of this mushroom resulted in the isolation of sixteen secondary metabolites including three new lanostane triterpenes, ganoleucoins Q-S (1-3), as well as thirteen known compounds (4-16). The structures of compounds 1-3 were determined by NMR, MS, CD spectral analysis and chemical derivation method. The neuroprotective effects of compounds 1-16 were tested on PC12 cells...
March 30, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Sandeep Verma, Ashok Kumar, Hilal Ahmed Pal, Parvaiz Sheikh, Anamika Singh, Apurva Panjla
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous messenger involved in neuronal differentiation, development and synaptogenesis, in addition to many other physiological functions. Therefore, it is imperative to maintain optimal nitric oxide concentration to ensure its biochemical function. We describe a sustained NO-releasing scaffold, which supports neuronal cell differentiation as judged by morphometric analysis of neurite outgrowth. Moreover, its effect on neuroblastoma cell line was also confirmed by immunofluorescent analysis of NeuN (neuronal nuclear protein), specific neuronal marker, and neurofilament (NF) protein, which revealed a significant increase in their expression levels, when compared to undifferentiated cells...
March 30, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
James M Brimson, Stephen T Safrany, Heider Qassam, Tewin Tencomnao
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that affects 44 million people worldwide, costing the world $605 billion to care for those affected not taking into account the physical and psychological costs for those who care for Alzheimer's patients. Dipentylammonium is a simple amine, which is structurally similar to a number of other identified sigma-1 receptor ligands with high affinities such as (2R-trans)-2butyl-5-heptylpyrrolidine, stearylamine and dodecylamine. This study investigates whether dipentylammonium is able to provide neuroprotective effects similar to those of sigma-1 receptor agonists such as PRE-084...
March 27, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Ye-Ran Wang, Jun Wang, Yu-Hui Liu, Gong-Ling Hu, Chang-Yue Gao, Yan-Jiang Wang, Xin-Fu Zhou, Fan Zeng
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is an amyloid-β (Aβ) receptor that both mediates Aβ neurotoxicity and regulates Aβ production and deposition, thus playing an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The extracellular domain of p75NTR (p75ECD), consisting of four cysteine-rich repeat domains (CRDs), was recently reported to be an endogenous anti-Aβ scavenger to block p75NTR-mediated neuronal death and neurite degeneration signaling of Aβ and pro-neurotrophins. Identification of the specific Aβ binding domains of p75NTR is crucial for illuminating their interactions and the etiology of AD...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Dongni Wu, Yongnu Zhang, Xiaoting Xu, Ting Guo, Deming Xie, Rong Zhu, Shengfeng Chen, Seeram Ramakrishna, Liumin He
In this study, we prepared a multifunctional gene delivery nanovector containing a chitosan (CS) backbone and polyethylenimine (PEI) arms with arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD)/twin-arginine translocation (TAT) conjugated via polyethylene glycol (PEG). Branched PEI, with a molecular weight of 2000 Da, was used to achieve a balance between biocompatibility and transfection efficiency, whereas RGD/TAT peptides were conjugated for enhanced targeting ability and cellular uptake. Synthesis of the copolymers was confirmed by characterizing the chemical structure with1 H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)...
March 22, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Steven J Collins, Carolin Tumpach, Bradley R Groveman, Simon C Drew, Cathryn L Haigh
Neurogenesis continues in the post-developmental brain throughout life. The ability to stimulate the production of new neurones requires both quiescent and actively proliferating pools of neural stem cells (NSCs). Actively proliferating NSCs ensure that neurogenic demand can be met, whilst the quiescent pool makes certain NSC reserves do not become depleted. The processes preserving the NSC quiescent pool are only just beginning to be defined. Herein, we identify a switch between NSC proliferation and quiescence through changing intracellular redox signalling...
March 24, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Katherine A Southam, Fiona Stennard, Cassandra Pavez, David H Small
The function of the β-A4 amyloid protein precursor (APP) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. APP has a number of putative roles in neuronal differentiation, survival, synaptogenesis and cell adhesion. In this study, we examined the development of axons, dendrites and synapses in cultures of hippocampus neutrons derived from APP knockout (KO) mice. We report that loss of APP function reduces the branching of cultured hippocampal neurons, resulting in reduced synapse formation. Using a compartmentalised culture approach, we found reduced axonal outgrowth in cultured hippocampal neurons and we also identified abnormal growth characteristics of isolated hippocampal neuron axons...
March 23, 2018: Neurochemical Research
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