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neurite outgrowth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909399/a-subset-of-autism-associated-genes-regulate-the-structural-stability-of-neurons
#1
REVIEW
Yu-Chih Lin, Jeannine A Frei, Michaela B C Kilander, Wenjuan Shen, Gene J Blatt
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a range of neurological conditions that affect individuals' ability to communicate and interact with others. People with ASD often exhibit marked qualitative difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Alterations in neurite arborization and dendritic spine morphology, including size, shape, and number, are hallmarks of almost all neurological conditions, including ASD. As experimental evidence emerges in recent years, it becomes clear that although there is broad heterogeneity of identified autism risk genes, many of them converge into similar cellular pathways, including those regulating neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and spine stability, and synaptic plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904479/valproic-acid-as-a-microrna-modulator-to-promote-neurite-outgrowth
#2
Hirotaka Oikawa, Judy C G Sng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903287/high-content-imaging-quantification-of-multiple-in-vitro-human-neurogenesis-events-after-neurotoxin-exposure
#3
Xian Wu, Anirban Majumder, Robin Webb, Steven L Stice
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to test neural active compounds in a human developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) model that represents neural tube stages of vulnerability. Previously we showed that 14 days in vitro (DIV 14) was sufficient to generate cryopreserved neuronal cells for post thaw neurite recovery assays. However, short exposure and assessment may not detect toxicants that affect an early neurogenesis continuum, from a mitotic human neural progenitor (hNP) cell population through the course of neurite outgrowth in differentiating neurons...
December 1, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900578/potential-mechanism-of-neurite-outgrowth-enhanced-by-electrical-stimulation-involvement-of-microrna-363-5p-targeting-dclk1-expression-in-rat
#4
Xin Quan, Liangliang Huang, Yafeng Yang, Teng Ma, Zhongyang Liu, Jun Ge, Jinghui Huang, Zhuojing Luo
Electrical stimulation (ES) promotes neurite outgrowth and nerve regeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. In the present study, we investigated the role of micro RNAs (miRNAs) in ES-mediated neurite outgrowth. First, we performed microarray analyses to identify changes in the miRNAs profile of dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs) following ES. The expression of 16 known miRNAs was altered by ES. Bioinformatics showed that the potential targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in neurite outgrowth...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894404/streptozotocin-induces-neurite-outgrowth-via-pi3k-akt-and-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-in-neuro2a-cells
#5
T Nishimoto, R Kimura, A Matsumoto, H Sugimoto
Streptozotocin (STZ), a naturally occurring chemical, is toxic to the various kinds of cells such as insulin-producing beta cells. However, the beneficial effect of STZ on neuronal cells such as neurite outgrowth-inducing activity has been unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of STZ on neurite outgrowth in mouse neuronal Neuro2a cells. STZ (0.01 mM~5 mM) exerted remarkable neurite outgrowth-inducing activity in Neuro2a cells in a concentration dependent manner. STZ also had the same neurite outgrowth-inducing activity as that of retinoic acid (RA), which is well known neurite outgrowth inducer...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889895/inflammatory-response-in-the-cns-friend-or-foe
#6
REVIEW
Marta Sochocka, Breno Satler Diniz, Jerzy Leszek
Inflammatory reactions could be both beneficial and detrimental to the brain, depending on strengths of their activation in various stages of neurodegeneration. Mild activation of microglia and astrocytes usually reveals neuroprotective effects and ameliorates early symptoms of neurodegeneration; for instance, released cytokines help maintain synaptic plasticity and modulate neuronal excitability, and stimulated toll-like receptors (TLRs) promote neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth. However, strong activation of glial cells gives rise to cytokine overexpression/dysregulation, which accelerates neurodegeneration...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881786/neuronal-dysfunction-in-ipsc-derived-medium-spiny-neurons-from-chorea-acanthocytosis-patients-is-reversed-by-src-kinase-inhibition-and-f-actin-stabilization
#7
Nancy Stanslowsky, Peter Reinhardt, Hannes Glass, Norman Kalmbach, Maximilian Naujock, Niko Hensel, Verena Lübben, Arun Pal, Anna Venneri, Francesca Lupo, Lucia De Franceschi, Peter Claus, Jared Sterneckert, Alexander Storch, Andreas Hermann, Florian Wegner
: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by red blood cell acanthocytes and striatal neurodegeneration. Recently, severe cell membrane disturbances based on depolymerized cortical actin and an elevated Lyn kinase activity in erythrocytes from ChAc patients were identified. How this contributes to the mechanism of neurodegeneration is still unknown. To gain insight into the pathophysiology, we established a ChAc patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell model and an efficient differentiation protocol providing a large population of human striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the main target of neurodegeneration in ChAc...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872270/hiv-glycoprotein-gp120-impairs-fast-axonal-transport-by-activating-tak1-signaling-pathways
#8
Sarah H Berth, Nichole Mesnard-Hoaglin, Bin Wang, Hajwa Kim, Yuyu Song, Maria Sapar, Gerardo Morfini, Scott T Brady
Sensory neuropathies are the most common neurological complication of HIV. Of these, distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is directly caused by HIV infection and characterized by length-dependent axonal degeneration of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Mechanisms for axonal degeneration in DSP remain unclear, but recent experiments revealed that the HIV glycoprotein gp120 is internalized and localized within axons of DRG neurons. Based on these findings, we investigated whether intra-axonal gp120 might impair fast axonal transport (FAT), a cellular process critical for appropriate maintenance of the axonal compartment...
December 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871963/uptake-of-silica-nanoparticles-in-the-brain-and-effects-on-neuronal-differentiation-using-different-in-vitro-models
#9
A D Ducray, A Stojiljkovic, A Möller, M H Stoffel, H R Widmer, M Frenz, M Mevissen
Nanomedicine offers a promising tool for therapies of brain diseases, but they may be associated with potential adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of silica-nanoparticles engineered for laser-tissue soldering in the brain using SH-SY5Y cells, dissociated and organotypic slice cultures from rat hippocampus. Nanoparticles were predominantly taken up by microglial cells in the hippocampal cultures but nanoparticles were also found in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. The uptake was time- and concentration-dependent in primary hippocampal cells...
November 19, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871935/a-sonic-hedgehog-coreceptor-boc-regulates-neuronal-differentiation-and-neurite-outgrowth-via-interaction-with-abl-and-jnk-activation
#10
Tuan Anh Vuong, Young-Eun Leem, Bok-Geon Kim, Hana Cho, Sang-Jin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae, Jong-Sun Kang
Neurite outgrowth is a critical step for neurogenesis and remodeling synaptic circuitry during neuronal development and regeneration. An immunoglobulin superfamily member, BOC functions as Sonic hedgehog (Shh) coreceptor in canonical and noncanonical Shh signaling in neuronal development and axon outgrowth/guidance. However signaling mechanisms responsible for BOC action during these processes remain unknown. In our previous studies, a multiprotein complex containing BOC and a closely related protein CDO promotes myogenic differentiation through activation of multiple signaling pathways, including non-receptor tyrosine kinase ABL...
November 18, 2016: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871848/sonic-hedgehog-promotes-neurite-outgrowth-of-cortical-neurons-under-oxidative-stress-involving-of-mitochondria-and-energy-metabolism
#11
Weiliang He, Lili Cui, Cong Zhang, Xiangjian Zhang, Junna He, Yanzhao Xie, Yanxia Chen
Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be involved in the etiology of several neurobiological disorders. Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a secreted glycoprotein factor, has been implicated in promoting several aspects of brain remodeling process. Mitochondria may play an important role in controlling fundamental processes in neuroplasticity. However, little evidence is available about the effect and the potential mechanism of Shh on neurite outgrowth in primary cortical neurons under oxidative stress. Here, we revealed that Shh treatment significantly increased the viability of cortical neurons in a dose-dependent manner, which was damaged by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
November 18, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867665/dose-dependent-differential-effect-of-neurotrophic-factors-on-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-regeneration-of-motor-and-sensory-neurons
#12
Daniel Santos, Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Xavier Navarro, Jaume Del Valle
Although peripheral axons can regenerate after nerve transection and repair, functional recovery is usually poor due to inaccurate reinnervation. Neurotrophic factors promote directional guidance to regenerating axons and their selective application may help to improve functional recovery. Hence, we have characterized in organotypic cultures of spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia the effect of GDNF, FGF-2, NGF, NT-3, and BDNF at different concentrations on motor and sensory neurite outgrowth. In vitro results show that GDNF and FGF-2 enhanced both motor and sensory neurite outgrowth, NGF and NT-3 were the most selective to enhance sensory neurite outgrowth, and high doses of BDNF selectively enhanced motor neurite outgrowth...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864151/gelatin-nanoceria-nanocomposite-fibers-as-antioxidant-scaffolds-for-neuronal-regeneration
#13
Attilio Marino, Chiara Tonda-Turo, Daniele De Pasquale, Francesca Ruini, Giada Genchi, Simone Nitti, Valentina Cappello, Mauro Gemmi, Virgilio Mattoli, Gianluca Ciardelli, Gianni Ciofani
BACKGROUND: The design of efficient nerve conduits able to sustain the axonal outgrowth and its guidance towards appropriate targets is of paramount importance in nerve tissue engineering. METHODS: In this work, we propose the preparation of highly aligned nanocomposite fibers of gelatin/cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria), prepared by electrospinning. Nanoceria are powerful self-regenerative antioxidant nanomaterials, that behave as strong reactive oxygen species scavengers, and among various beneficial effects, they have been proven to inhibit the cell senescence and to promote the neurite sprouting...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856318/sympathetic-nerve-repulsion-inhibited-by-designer-molecules-in-vitro-and-role-in-experimental-arthritis
#14
Julia Kunath, Nicolas Delaroque, Michael Szardenings, Ines Neundorf, Rainer H Straub
AIMS: In rheumatoid arthritis and collagen type II arthritis (CIA), sympathetic nerve fibers get lost in inflamed tissue. The process is probably induced by nerve repellent factors like semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F). Repulsion of sympathetic nerve fibers in inflamed tissue has proinflammatory effects due to the loss of anti-inflammatory neurotransmitters. We hypothesized that design molecules like antibodies and specific peptides that inhibit nerve fiber repulsion can ameliorate CIA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two blocking antibodies were used and four blocking peptides were generated using the phage display technique with the targets of SEMA3F and plexin-A2...
November 14, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852736/the-role-of-retinoic-acid-in-the-formation-and-modulation-of-invertebrate-central-synapses
#15
Cailin M Rothwell, Eric de Hoog, Gaynor Elizabeth Spencer
Trophic factors can influence many aspects of nervous system function, such as neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and synapse modulation. The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid can exert trophic effects to promote neuronal survival and outgrowth in many species, and is also known to modulate vertebrate hippocampal synapses. However, its role in synaptogenesis has not been well studied, and whether it can modulate existing invertebrate synapses is also not known. In this study, we first examined a potential trophic effect of retinoic acid on the formation of excitatory synapses, independently of its role in neurite outgrowth, using cultured neurons of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847705/a-model-of-glial-scarring-analogous-to-the-environment-of-a-traumatically-injured-spinal-cord-using-kainate
#16
Jong Yoon Yoo, Chang Ho Hwang, Hea Nam Hong
OBJECTIVE: To develop an in vitro model analogous to the environment of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), the authors evaluated change of astrogliosis following treatments with kainate and/or scratch, and degree of neurite outgrowth after treatment with a kainate inhibitor. METHODS: Astrocytes were obtained from the rat spinal cord. Then, 99% of the cells were confirmed to be GFAP-positive astrocytes. For chemical injury, the cells were treated with kainate at different concentrations (10, 50 or 100 µM)...
October 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844289/transcriptional-elongation-regulator-1-affects-transcription-and-splicing-of-genes-associated-with-cellular-morphology-and-cytoskeleton-dynamics-and-is-required-for-neurite-outgrowth-in-neuroblastoma-cells-and-primary-neuronal-cultures
#17
Juan Pablo Muñoz-Cobo, Noemí Sánchez-Hernández, Sara Gutiérrez, Younes El Yousfi, Marta Montes, Carme Gallego, Cristina Hernández-Munain, Carlos Suñé
TCERG1 is a highly conserved human protein implicated in interactions with the transcriptional and splicing machinery that is associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Biochemical, neuropathological, and genetic evidence suggests an important role for TCERG1 in Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. At present, the molecular mechanism underlying TCERG1-mediated neuronal effects is unknown. Here, we show that TCERG1 depletion led to widespread alterations in mRNA processing that affected different types of alternative transcriptional or splicing events, indicating that TCERG1 plays a broad role in the regulation of alternative splicing...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837099/tau-isoforms-imbalance-impairs-the-axonal-transport-of-the-amyloid-precursor-protein-in-human-neurons
#18
Valentina Lacovich, Sonia L Espindola, Matías Alloatti, Victorio Pozo Devoto, Lucas Cromberg, Mária Čarná, Giancarlo Forte, Jean-Marc Gallo, Luciana Bruno, Gorazd B Stokin, M Elena Avale, Tomás L Falzone
: Tau, as a microtubule-associated protein, participates in key neuronal functions such as the regulation of microtubule dynamics, axonal transport and neurite outgrowth. Alternative splicing of exon 10 in the tau primary transcript gives rise to protein isoforms with three (3R) or four (4R) microtubule binding repeats. While tau isoforms are balanced in the normal adult human brain, imbalances in 3R:4R ratio have been tightly associated to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834918/identification-of-novel-equine-equus-caballus-tendon-markers-using-rna-sequencing
#19
Jan M Kuemmerle, Felix Theiss, Michal J Okoniewski, Fabienne A Weber, Sonja Hemmi, Ali Mirsaidi, Peter J Richards, Paolo Cinelli
Although several tendon-selective genes exist, they are also expressed in other musculoskeletal tissues. As cell and tissue engineering is reliant on specific molecular markers to discriminate between cell types, tendon-specific genes need to be identified. In order to accomplish this, we have used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to compare gene expression between tendon, bone, cartilage and ligament from horses. We identified several tendon-selective gene markers, and established eyes absent homolog 2 (EYA2) and a G-protein regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 3 (GPRIN3) as specific tendon markers using RT-qPCR...
November 10, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825932/evaluation-of-pfos-mediated-neurotoxicity-in-rat-primary-neurons-and-astrocytes-cultured-separately-or-in-co-culture
#20
Zhenwei Li, Qi Liu, Chang Liu, Chunna Li, Yachen Li, Shuangyue Li, Xiaohui Liu, Jing Shao
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a potential neurotoxicant reported by epidemiological investigations and experimental studies, while the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Astrocytes not only support for the construction of neurons, but also conduct neuronal functions through glutamate-glutamine cycle in astrocyte-neuron crosstalk. In the present study, the effect of PFOS exposure on rat primary hippocampal neurons or cortex astrocytes was evaluated. Then the role of the astrocytes in PFOS-induced toxic effect on neurons was explored with astrocyte-neuron co-culture system...
November 5, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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