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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821138/biocompatible-chitin-carbon-nanotubes-composite-hydrogels-as-neuronal-growth-substrates
#1
Shuangquan Wu, Bo Duan, Ang Lu, Yanfeng Wang, Qifa Ye, Lina Zhang
In the past decades, extensive studies have demonstrated that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) could promote cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of neuronal cells. However, the potential cytotoxicity in biological systems severely restricted the utilization of CNTs as substrates for neural growth. In this study, biocompatible chitin/carbon nanotubes (Ch/CNT) composite hydrogels were developed via blending modified CNTs with chitin solution in 11wt% NaOH/4wt% urea aqueous system, and subsequently regenerating in ethanol...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818727/neuroprotective-effects-of-plant-polysaccharides-a-review-of-the-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Qing-Han Gao, Xueyan Fu, Rui Zhang, Zhisheng Wang, Muzhen Guo
Polysaccharides are an important class of phytochemicals, and many studies have demonstrated their beneficial effects in the context of a number of pathologies including neurological disorders. Numerous studies have indicated that polysaccharides exhibit neuroprotection through a variety of mechanisms. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature to consolidate studies for the period 2010-2016, and assessed the protection mechanisms on brain function of polysaccharide-rich extracts from natural sources...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817455/jak-kinase-3-signaling-in-microgliogenesis-from-the-spinal-nestin-progenitors-in-both-development-and-response-to-injury
#3
Sumit Barua, Jee-In Chung, A Young Kim, Soo-Yeon Lee, Soo Hwan Lee, Eun Joo Baik
During spinal cord development, endogenous progenitors expressing nestin can migrate into the target and differentiate into neurons and other glial cells. Microglial cells can also be derived from nestin progenitor cells, even in the adult brain. Knockdown of Jak kinase 3 (Jak3) signaling can increase neurogenesis with longer neurite outgrowth in cortical progenitor cells. This study investigated the effect of Jak3 signaling on differentiation from nestin progenitor cells using E13.5 spinal progenitor cell cultures...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815692/amelioration-of-atopic-like-skin-conditions-in-nc-tnd-mice-by-topical-application-with-distilled-alpinia-intermedia-gagnep-extracts
#4
Yosuke Amagai, Chihiro Katsuta, Yoshihiro Nomura, Kumiko Oida, Kenshiro Matsuda, Hyosun Jang, Ginnae Ahn, Tetsuyoshi Hamasaki, Hiroshi Matsuda, Akane Tanaka
Alpinia intermedia, a perennial plant that belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, has been used in folk medicine for a long time in the southern region of Japan. Because skin care is an effective approach that enables patients to manage their atopic dermatitis (AD), various herbal ingredients with few adverse effects have been evaluated for use in AD patients in recent years. In this study, we examined whether distilled extracts obtained from A. intermedia were beneficial for AD-like skin conditions in NC/Tnd mice...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808446/neuron-specific-fluorescence-reporter-based-live-cell-tracing-for-transdifferentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-neurons-by-chemical-compound
#5
Do Won Hwang, Hyun Woo Kwon, Jaeho Jang, Hee Jung Jung, Kwang Rok Kim, Dong Soo Lee
Although transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neurons increases the possibility of therapeutic use of MSCs for neurodevelopmental disorders, the use of MSCs has the limitation on differentiation efficiency to neuronal lineage and lack of an easy method to monitor the transdifferentiation. In this study, using time-lapse live cell imaging, we assessed the neuronal differentiation of MSCs induced by a small molecule "NHPDQC (N-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(3-phenylprophyl)-1,2-dihydroquinoxaline-6-carboxamide, C18H17N3O3)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808237/coding-and-small-non-coding-transcriptional-landscape-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-cortical-tubers-implications-for-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#6
James D Mills, Anand M Iyer, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Anika Bongaarts, Jasper J Anink, Bart Janssen, Till S Zimmer, Wim G Spliet, Peter C van Rijen, Floor E Jansen, Martha Feucht, Johannes A Hainfellner, Pavel Krsek, Josef Zamecnik, Katarzyna Kotulska, Sergiusz Jozwiak, Anna Jansen, Lieven Lagae, Paolo Curatolo, David J Kwiatkowski, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Lars von Oerthel, Marco F Hoekman, Jan A Gorter, Peter B Crino, Angelika Mühlebner, Brendon P Scicluna, Eleonora Aronica
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disorder that results from a mutation in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes leading to constitutive activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). TSC is associated with autism, intellectual disability and severe epilepsy. Cortical tubers are believed to represent the neuropathological substrates of these disabling manifestations in TSC. In the presented study we used high-throughput RNA sequencing in combination with systems-based computational approaches to investigate the complexity of the TSC molecular network...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807492/neuropsychiatric-involvement-in-lupus-is-associated-with-the-nogo-a-ngr1-pathway
#7
Hong-Wei Lei, Jing-Yuan Wang, Qiu-Jie Dang, Fan Yang, Xin Liu, Ji-Hui Zhang, Yang Li
Neuroinflammation- and neurodegeneration-induced nerve injury may represent important components of neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE). Myelin-associated neurite outgrowth inhibitor (Nogo)-a and its receptor, NgR1, limit recovery of the adult central nervous system after injury. We detected a soluble Nogo-a product in the cerebral spinal fluid of patients with NPSLE. In a mouse model of lupus, aging was associated with an increase in Nogo-a positive neurons, diminished myelin sheaths, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokines, and impaired cognition and memory...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803751/insulin-prevents-aberrant-mitochondrial-phenotype-in-sensory-neurons-of-type-1-diabetic-rats
#8
Mohamad-Reza Aghanoori, Darrell R Smith, Subir Roy Chowdhury, Mohammad Golam Sabbir, Nigel A Calcutt, Paul Fernyhough
Diabetic neuropathy affects approximately 50% of diabetic patients. Down-regulation of mitochondrial gene expression and function has been reported in both human tissues and in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that loss of direct insulin signaling in diabetes contributes to loss of mitochondrial function in DRG neurons and to development of neuropathy. Sensory neurons obtained from age-matched adult control or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats were cultured with or without insulin before determining mitochondrial respiration and expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain and insulin signaling-linked proteins...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801670/ectodomain-shedding-of-limbic-system-associated-membrane-protein-lsamp-by-adam-metallopeptidases-promotes-neurite-outgrowth-in-drg-neurons
#9
Ricardo L Sanz, Gino B Ferraro, Marie-Pier Girouard, Alyson E Fournier
IgLONs are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion proteins implicated in the process of neuronal outgrowth, cell adhesion and subdomain target recognition. IgLONs form homophilic and heterophilic complexes on the cell surface that repress or promote growth depending on the neuronal population, the developmental stage and surface repertoire of IgLON family members. In the present study, we identified a metalloproteinase-dependent mechanism necessary to promote growth in embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells (DRGs)...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800073/electronegative-low-density-lipoprotein-l5-impairs-viability-and-ngf-induced-neuronal-differentiation-of-pc12-cells-via-lox-1
#10
Jiz-Yuh Wang, Chiou-Lian Lai, Ching-Tien Lee, Chen-Yen Lin
There have been striking associations of cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis) and hypercholesterolemia with increased risk of neurodegeneration including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a cardiovascular risk factor, plays a crucial role in AD pathogenesis; further, L5, a human plasma LDL fraction with high electronegativity, may be a factor contributing to AD-type dementia. Although L5 contributing to atherosclerosis progression has been studied, its role in inducing neurodegeneration remains unclear...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798490/investigation-of-neuronal-pathfinding-and-construction-of-artificial-neuronal-networks-on-3d-arranged-porous-fibrillar-scaffolds-with-controlled-geometry
#11
Dongyoon Kim, Seong-Min Kim, Seyeong Lee, Myung-Han Yoon
Herein, we investigated the neurite pathfinding on electrospun microfibers with various fiber densities, diameters, and microbead islands, and demonstrated the development of 3D connected artificial neuronal network within a nanofiber-microbead-based porous scaffold. The primary culture of rat hippocampal embryonic neurons was deposited on geometry-controlled polystyrene (PS) fiber scaffolds while growth cone morphology, neurite outgrowth patterns, and focal adhesion protein expression were cautiously examined by microscopic imaging of immunostained and live neuronal cells derived from actin-GFP transgenic mice...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792773/easy-to-apply-polyoxazoline-based-coating-for-precise-and-long-term-control-of-neural-patterns
#12
Serge Weydert, Stefan Zürcher, Stefanie Tanner, Ning Zhang, Rebecca Ritter, Thomas Peter, Mathias J Aebersold, Greta Thompson-Steckel, Csaba Forró, Markus Rottmar, Flurin Stauffer, Irene A Valassina, Giulia Morgese, Edmondo M Benetti, Samuele Tosatti, János Vörös
Arranging cultured cells in patterns via surface modification is a tool used by biologists to answer questions in a specific and controlled manner. In the past decade, bottom-up neuroscience emerged as a new application, which aims to get a better understanding of the brain via reverse engineering and analyzing elementary circuitry in vitro. Building well-defined neural networks is the ultimate goal. Antifouling coatings are often used to control neurite outgrowth. Because erroneous connectivity alters the entire topology and functionality of minicircuits, the requirements are demanding...
August 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791738/metformin-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-and-neurite-outgrowth-through-ampk-activation-in-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Min-Ji Ahn, Goang-Won Cho
Metformin is an AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activator that plays a role in glucose energy metabolism and cell protection. It is widely used to treat several diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated whether AMPK activation upon treatment with metformin may promote neurite outgrowth during the progression of neuronal differentiation in human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). Differentiation of metformin-treated MSCs (Met-MSCs to Met-diMSCs) in the neuronal induction media resulted in an increase in the number of differentiated cells in a metformin concentration-dependent manner...
August 9, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778081/multiple-regulatory-aspects-of-histone-methyltransferase-ezh2-in-pb-induced-neurotoxicity
#14
Wei-Zhen Xue, Xiaozhen Gu, Yulan Wu, Danyang Li, Yi Xu, Hui-Li Wang
Pb is a pervasive environmental threat to human health. Although remarkable progress has been made in its neurotoxicity, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this widespread toxicant still remain elusive. In this study, the detailed roles of EZH2, a transcriptional repressor, in the regulation of Pb-led neurotoxicity were investigated, highlighting its sub-functionalization, compartmentalization, functional chaperones and downstream partners. Based on the findings, EZH2's protein levels were significantly reduced in response to Pb treatment; EZH2's gain-of-function trials recovered the dampened neurite outgrowth; EZH2' recruitment to ploycomb complex, as well as its interaction with cytosolic Vav1, was altered in a distinct manner, suggesting that EZH2's multiple roles were markedly redistributed in this context; EZH2's cytosolic and nuclear presence differed in their respective response towards Pb treatment; EZH2 directly occupied the promoters of EGR2, NGFR and CaMKK2, genes responsible for various nerve functions and repair mechanisms, and essentially contributed to their aberrant expression...
July 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777440/3d-differentiation-of-luhmes-cell-line-to-study-recovery-and-delayed-neurotoxic-effects
#15
Georgina Harris, Helena Hogberg, Thomas Hartung, Lena Smirnova
Current neurotoxicity testing and the study of molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration in vitro usually focuses on acute exposures to compounds. 3D Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) cells allow long-term treatment or pulse exposure in combination with compound washout to study delayed neurotoxic effects as well as recovery and neurodegeneration pathways. In this unit we describe 3D LUHMES culture and characterization. Characterization of the model involves immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and qPCR measurements...
August 4, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770435/implication-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Koichi Kawada, Seisuke Mimori
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is categorized as a neurodevelopmental disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, Fifth Edition and is defined as a congenital impairment of the central nervous system. ASD may be caused by a chromosomal abnormality or gene mutation. However, these etiologies are insufficient to account for the pathogenesis of ASD. Therefore, we propose that the etiology and pathogenesis of ASD are related to the stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress, induced by valproic acid, increased in ASD mouse model, characterized by an unfolded protein response that is activated by this stress...
August 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768198/enhanced-neuronal-regeneration-in-the-cast-ei-mouse-strain-is-linked-to-expression-of-differentiation-markers-after-injury
#17
Véronique Lisi, Bhagat Singh, Michel Giroux, Elmer Guzman, Michio W Painter, Yung-Chih Cheng, Eric Huebner, Giovanni Coppola, Michael Costigan, Clifford J Woolf, Kenneth S Kosik
Peripheral nerve regeneration after injury requires a broad program of transcriptional changes. We investigated the basis for the enhanced nerve regenerative capacity of the CAST/Ei mouse strain relative to C57BL/6 mice. RNA sequencing of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) showed a CAST/Ei-specific upregulation of Ascl1 after injury. Ascl1 overexpression in DRG neurons of C57BL/6 mice enhanced their neurite outgrowth. Ascl1 is regulated by miR-7048-3p, which is downregulated in CAST/Ei mice. Inhibition of miR-7048-3p enhances neurite outgrowth...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760865/dystroglycan-maintains-inner-limiting-membrane-integrity-to-coordinate-retinal-development
#18
Reena Clements, Rolf Turk, Kevin P Campbell, Kevin M Wright
Proper neural circuit formation requires the precise regulation of neuronal migration, axon guidance and dendritic arborization. Mutations affecting the function of the transmembrane glycoprotein dystroglycan cause a form of congenital muscular dystrophy that is frequently associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Despite its importance in brain development, the role for dystroglycan in regulating retinal development remains poorly understood. Using a mouse model of dystroglycanopathy (ISPD(L79*) ) and conditional dystroglycan mutants of both sexes, we show that dystroglycan is critical for the proper migration, axon guidance and dendritic stratification of neurons in the inner retina...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758954/chemical-constituents-from-hericium-erinaceus-promote-neuronal-survival-and-potentiate-neurite-outgrowth-via-the-trka-erk1-2-pathway
#19
Cheng-Chen Zhang, Chen-Yu Cao, Miwa Kubo, Kenichi Harada, Xi-Tao Yan, Yoshiyasu Fukuyama, Jin-Ming Gao
Hericium erinaceus is a culinary-medicinal mushroom used traditionally in Eastern Asia to improve memory. In this work, we investigated the neuroprotective and neuritogenic effects of the secondary metabolites isolated from the MeOH extract of cultured mycelium of H. erinaceus and the primary mechanisms involved. One new dihydropyridine compound (6) and one new natural product (2) together with five known compounds (1,3-5,7) were obtained and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR and HRMS...
July 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756503/gestational-age-and-sex-influence-the-susceptibility-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-to-low-levels-of-mehg
#20
Karin Edoff, Marilena Raciti, Michaela Moors, Erik Sundström, Sandra Ceccatelli
The developing nervous system is highly susceptible to methylmercury (MeHg), a widespread environmental neurotoxic contaminant. A wide range of morphological and functional outcomes have been described; however, there are still open questions regarding the mechanisms behind the developmental neurotoxic effects induced by low-level exposure. In the present study, we have examined the effects of nanomolar concentrations of MeHg on primary fetal human progenitor cells (hNPCs) with special focus on the role played by developmental stage and sex on the neurotoxic outcome...
July 29, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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