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neurite outgrowth

Chih-Jung Yao, Shuang-En Chuang, Ya-Yu Yang, Gi-Ming Lai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of human urine extract cell differentiation agent 2 (CDA-2) by the model of serum deprivation-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells and study the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Apoptosis of PC12 cells was induced by serum deprivation. CDA-2 at doses of 0.5-4 mg/mL was used to treat the serum-deprived PC12 cells. The cellular viability was measured by sulforhodamine B binding assay and the cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometer...
February 17, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Kenichi Harada, Katsuyoshi Zaha, Rina Bando, Ryo Irimaziri, Miwa Kubo, Yoshiki Koriyama, Yoshiyasu Fukuyama
(-)-Talaumidin (1), a 2,5-biaryl-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuran lignan, shows potent neurotrophic activities such as neurite-outgrowth promotion and neuroprotection. Previously, we found that (-)-(1S,2R,3S,4R)-stereoisomer 2 exhibited more significant activity than did the natural product talaumidin (1). However, the preparation of optically active (-)-2 requires a complicated synthetic route. To explore new neurotrophic compounds that can be obtained on a large scale, we established a short step synthetic route for talaumidin derivatives and synthesized fourteen analogues based on the structure of (-)-2...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jae Cheal Yoo, Nammi Park, Hye Young Choi, Jae-Yong Park, Gwan-Su Yi
Copine1 (CPNE1), has tandem C2 domains and an A domain. We previously demonstrated that CPNE1 directly induces neuronal differentiation via Protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation in the hippocampal progenitor cell line, HiB5. To better understand its cellular function, we carried out a yeast two-hybrid screening to find CPNE1 binding partners. Among the identified proteins, Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) appears to directly interact with CPNE1. Between CPNE1 and JAB1, the physical interaction was confirmed in vitro and in vivo...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Rui Jiang, Chao Zhang, Rui Gu, Han Wu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is caused by mechanical disruption of the spinal cord. This primary injury is followed by a devastating secondary SCI. It has been shown that various microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in secondary SCI. The present study explored the role of miR-489-3p on secondary SCI, and its underlying mechanisms. First, we determined the expression of miR-489-3p in blood samples of SCI patients and healthy controls. Further experiments were performed on human neural cell lines, treated with bupivacaine to induce neuron damage...
May 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
Yaqing Wang, Li Wang, Yujuan Zhu, Jianhua Qin
Nicotine has been recognized to trigger various neuronal disabilities in the fetal brain and long-lasting behavioral deficits in offspring. However, further understanding of fetal brain development under nicotine exposure is challenging due to the limitations of existing animal models. Here, we create a new brain organoid-on-a-chip system derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that allows us to model neurodevelopmental disorders under prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) at early stages. The brain organoid-on-a-chip system facilitates 3D culture, in situ neural differentiation, and self-organization of brain organoids under continuous perfused cultures in a controlled manner...
February 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Shizuka Takaku, Hideji Yako, Naoko Niimi, Tomoyo Akamine, Daiji Kawanami, Kazunori Utsunomiya, Kazunori Sango
Co-culture models of neurons and Schwann cells have been utilized for the study of myelination and demyelination in the peripheral nervous system; in most of the previous studies, however, these cells were obtained by primary culture with embryonic or neonatal animals. A spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell line IFRS1 from long-term cultures of adult Fischer rat peripheral nerves has been shown to retain fundamental ability to myelinate neurites in co-cultures with adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and nerve growth factor-primed PC12 cells...
February 12, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Karina Karis, Kattri-Liis Eskla, Maria Kaare, Karin Täht, Jana Tuusov, Tanel Visnapuu, Jürgen Innos, Mohan Jayaram, Tõnis Timmusk, Cynthia S Weickert, Marika Väli, Eero Vasar, Mari-Anne Philips
Neural adhesion proteins are crucial in the development and maintenance of functional neural connectivity. Growing evidence suggests that the IgLON family of neural adhesion molecules LSAMP, NTM, NEGR1, and OPCML are important candidates in forming the susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ). IgLON proteins have been shown to be involved in neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and neuronal connectivity, all of which have been shown to be altered in the brains of patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Angélique Quartier, Laure Chatrousse, Claire Redin, Céline Keime, Nicolas Haumesser, Anne Maglott-Roth, Laurent Brino, Stéphanie Le Gras, Alexandra Benchoua, Jean-Louis Mandel, Amélie Piton
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to androgens during brain development in male individuals may participate to increase their susceptibility to develop neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. However, little is known about the action of androgens in human neural cells. METHODS: We used human neural stem cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells to investigate targets of androgens. RESULTS: RNA sequencing revealed that treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) leads to subtle but significant changes in the expression of about 200 genes, encoding proteins of extracellular matrix or involved in signal transduction of growth factors (e...
January 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
David Pamies, Katharina Block, Pierre Lau, Laura Gribaldo, Carlos Pardo, Paula Barreras, Lena Smirnova, Daphne Wiersma, Liang Zhao, Georgina Harris, Thomas Hartung, Helena T Hogberg
Growing concern suggests that some chemicals exert (developmental) neurotoxicity (DNT and NT) and are linked to the increase in incidence of autism, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. The high cost of routine tests for DNT and neurotoxicity (NT) assessment make it difficult to test the high numbers of existing chemicals. Thus, more cost effective neurodevelopmental models are needed. The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in combination with the emerging human 3D tissue culture platforms, present a novel tool to predicting and study human toxicity...
February 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Ulku Selcen Demir, Reza Shahbazi, Semih Calamak, Sukru Ozturk, Merve Gultekinoglu, Kezban Ulubayram
Neurite outgrowth and elongation of neural cells is the most important subject that is considered in nerve tissue engineering. In this regard, aligned nanofibers have taken much attention in terms of providing guidance for newly outgrown neurites. The main objective of this study was to fabricate aligned polyurethane (PU) nanofibers by electrospinning process and decorate them with gold nanoparticles to further investigate the synergistic effects of nanotopography, biological (Nerve Growth Factor, NGF) and electrical stimulations on neurite outgrowth and elongation of PC-12 model cells...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Kouki Tadai, Tatsumasa Shioiri, Jun Tsuchimoto, Naoko Nagai, Hideto Watanabe, Nobuo Sugiura
Receptor type of protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPσ) functions as a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) receptor of neuronal cells in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Both chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) are important constituents of GAG ligands for RPTPσ, although they have opposite effects on neuronal cells. CS inhibits neurite outgrowth and neural regeneration through RPTPσ, whereas HS enhances them. We prepared recombinant RPTPσ N-terminal fragment containing the GAG binding site and various types of biotin-conjugated GAG (CS and HS) with chemical modification and chemo-enzymatic synthesis...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Eun-Ju Jin, Hyo Rim Ko, Inwoo Hwang, Byeong-Seong Kim, Jeong-Yun Choi, Kye Won Park, Sung-Woo Cho, Jee-Yin Ahn
Neurite growth is controlled by a complex molecular signaling network that regulates filamentous actin (F-actin) dynamics at the growth cone. The evolutionarily conserved ezrin, radixin, and moesin family of proteins tether F-actin to the cell membrane when phosphorylated at a conserved threonine residue and modulate neurite outgrowth. Here we show that Akt binds to and phosphorylates a threonine 573 residue on radixin. Akt-mediated phosphorylation protects radixin from ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation, thereby enhancing radixin protein stability, which permits proper neurite outgrowth and growth cone formation...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Koichi Saito, Noriyuki Suzuki, Kumiko Kobayashi
Animal experiments have occupied an important position in the safety assessment of chemicals. However, due to the rise in animal welfare as seen in the ban of animal experiments in European cosmetic development, the development of alternative methods for animal experiments has become very important in recent years. Development of in vitro tests for local toxicity such as irritation and sensitization tests is preceded. Meanwhile, alternative tests for systemic toxicity such as chronic and developmental toxicities are under development...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Changping Zheng, Huanhuan Qu, Wenfeng Liao, Teodora Bavaro, Marco Terreni, Matthieu Sollogoub, Kan Ding, Yongmin Zhang
Ganglioside GM3 is implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Due to GM3 exposes on the outer surface of cell membranes, it is strongly associated with cell adhesion, motility and differentiation. Neurite outgrowth is a key process in the development of functional neuronal circuits and regeneration of the nervous system after injury. In the present study, we used enzymatic hydrolysis and chemical synthesis to obtain novel galactose containing GM3 analogues. By enzymatic hydrolysis to prepare GM3 building block, we can avoid multiple chemical procedures...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hannah I Bishop, Melanie M Cobb, Michael Kirmiz, Laxmi K Parajuli, Danielle Mandikian, Ashleigh M Philp, Mikhail Melnik, Juha Kuja-Panula, Heikki Rauvala, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Karl D Murray, James S Trimmer
Voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels play important roles in regulating neuronal excitability. Kv channels comprise four principal α subunits, and transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic auxiliary subunits that modify diverse aspects of channel function. AMIGO-1, which mediates homophilic cell adhesion underlying neurite outgrowth and fasciculation during development, has recently been shown to be an auxiliary subunit of adult brain Kv2.1-containing Kv channels. We show that AMIGO-1 is extensively colocalized with both Kv2...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Domenica Convertino, Stefano Luin, Laura Marchetti, Camilla Coletti
Graphene displays properties that make it appealing for neuroregenerative medicine, yet its interaction with peripheral neurons has been scarcely investigated. Here, we culture on graphene two established models for peripheral neurons: PC12 cells and DRG primary neurons. We perform a nano-resolved analysis of polymeric coatings on graphene and combine optical microscopy and viability assays to assess the material cytocompatibility and influence on differentiation. We find that differentiated PC12 cells display a remarkably increased neurite length on graphene (up to 27%) with respect to controls...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mehdi Jorfi, Carla D'Avanzo, Rudolph E Tanzi, Doo Yeon Kim, Daniel Irimia
Neurospheroids are commonly used for in vitro disease modeling and drug screening. However, the heterogeneity in size of the neurospheroids mixtures available through current methods limits their utility when employed for basic mechanistic studies of neurodegenerative diseases or screening for new interventions. Here, we generate neurospheroids from immortalized neural progenitor cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells that are uniform in size, into large-scale arrays. In proof of concept experiments, we validate the neurospheroids array as a sensitive and robust tool for screening compounds over extended time...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chada Raji Reddy, Amol Gorgile Tukaram, Siddique Z Mohammed, Uredi Dilipkumar, Bathini Nagendra Babu, Sumana Chakravarty, Dwaipayan Bhattacharya, Pranav C Joshi, René Grée
Longanlactone analogues were synthesized using a route featuring Friedel-Crafts acylation, Sonogashira coupling and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions. Structure-activity relationships were investigated for neurotrophic activity. Compound 6 was found to have the most potent neurotrophic activity among all the synthesized analogues in Neuro2a cells as evidenced by a battery of in vitro/cell based assays for assessment of neurogenic and potential neurotrophic activity including neurite outgrowth assay and real time PCR for popular markers of augmented neurotrophic activity...
January 12, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Osama Garwain, Kaitlyn Valla, Suzanne Scarlata
Cells have developed lineage-specific mechanisms to control proliferation and drive morphologic changes upon differentiation. A hallmark of differentiation is the assembly of signaling molecules that transduce extracellular signals, such as the production of the G protein-regulated enzyme phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ), which generates calcium signals from sensory stimuli. We found that in most cancerous cell lines there is positive correlation between PLCβ1 levels and cell proliferation. In cells of neuronal lineage, however, reducing PLCβ1 levels increases the rate of proliferation...
January 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yung-Chiang Liu, I-Chi Lee, Kin Fong Lei
An in vitro model mimicking the in vivo environment of the brain must be developed to study neural communication and regeneration and to obtain an understanding of cellular and molecular responses. In this work, a multilayered neural network was successfully constructed on a biochip by guiding and promoting neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation and network formation. The biochip consisted of 3 × 3 arrays of cultured wells connected with channels. Neurospheroids were cultured on polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films in the culture wells...
February 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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