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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343358/expression-of-the-cyanobacterial-enzyme-cyanase-increases-cyanate-metabolism-and-cyanate-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#1
Rashad Kebeish, Omar Al-Zoubi
Cyanate and its derivatives are considered as environmental hazardous materials. Cyanate is released to the environment through many chemical industries and mining wastewater. Cyanase enzyme converts cyanate into CO2 and NH3 in a bicarbonate-dependent reaction. At low cyanate concentrations, the endogenous plant cyanases play a vital role in cyanate detoxification. However, such cyanate biodegradation system is probably insufficient due to the excess cyanate concentrations at contaminated sites. In this study, we have transferred the activity of the cyanobacterial cyanase into Arabidopsis thaliana plants in order to enhance plant resistance against cyanate toxicity...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342774/hypercapnia-induced-brain-acidosis-effects-and-putative-mechanisms-on-acute-kainate-induced-seizures
#2
Xiu-Yu Shi, Lin-Yan Hu, Meng-Jia Liu, Li-Ping Zou
AIMS: This study investigated the mechanism of the anticonvulsant effects of carbogen containing 5% CO2 in a kainic acid (KA) rat model. MAIN METHODS: Four-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, carbogen, KA+air, and KA+carbogen. Carbogen containing 5% CO2 was applied immediately after KA injection, and cortical pH was recorded. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect the release of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate...
March 22, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342576/biological-co2-mitigation-from-coal-power-plant-by-chlorella-fusca-and-spirulina-sp
#3
Jessica Hartwig Duarte, Etiele Greque de Morais, Elisângela Martha Radmann, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa
CO2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360...
March 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342415/initial-report-on-methane-and-carbon-dioxide-emission-dynamics-from-sub-antarctic-freshwater-ecosystems-a-seasonal-study-of-a-lake-and-a-reservoir
#4
Oscar Gerardo-Nieto, María Soledad Astorga-España, Andrés Mansilla, Frederic Thalasso
The sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion is a part of the world where ecosystems have been understudied and where the CH4 cycling and emissions in lakes has not ever been reported. To fill that knowledge gap, a lake and a reservoir located at 53°S were selected and studied during three campaigns equally distributed over one year. Among the parameters measured were CH4 and CO2 emissions, as well their dissolved concentrations in the water column, which were determined with high spatial resolution. No ebullition was observed and the CH4 flux ranged from 0...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342414/impacts-of-soil-incorporation-of-pre-incubated-silica-rich-rice-residue-on-soil-biogeochemistry-and-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-under-flooding-and-drying
#5
Madison Y Gutekunst, Rodrigo Vargas, Angelia L Seyfferth
Incorporation of silica-rich rice husk residue into flooded paddy soil decreases arsenic uptake by rice. However, the impact of this practice on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and elemental cycling is unresolved particularly as amended soils experience recurrent flooding and drying cycles. We evaluated the impact of pre-incubated silica-rich rice residue incorporation to soils on pore water chemistry and soil GHG fluxes (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O) over a flooding and drying cycle typical of flooded rice cultivation...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342412/bacterial-community-responses-during-a-possible-co2-leaking-from-sub-seabed-storage-in-marine-polluted-sediments
#6
Ana R Borrero-Santiago, T Ángel DelValls, M Inmaculada Riba
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a viable option to reduce high concentrations of CO2 and mitigate their negative effects. This option has associated risks such as possible CO2 leakage from the storage sites. So far, negative effects deriving from a CO2 release have been reported for benthic macrofauna in both polluted and nonpolluted sediments. However, bacterial communities has no considered. In this work, risk assessment was carried out in order to evaluate the possible effects in a contaminated area considering bacterial responses (total number of cells, respiring activity, changes in the bacterial community composition and diversity)...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342359/synergetic-effect-between-adsorption-and-photodegradation-on-nanostructured-tio2-activated-carbon-fiber-felt-porous-composites-for-toluene-removal
#7
Min Li, Bin Lu, Qin-Fei Ke, Ya-Jun Guo, Ya-Ping Guo
The low quantum efficiency and limited adsorption efficiency of TiO2 makes it only fit for the removal of VOCs with low concentrations. Herein, we for the first time fabricated nanostructured TiO2/activated carbon fiber felt (TiO2/ACFF) porous composites by the in situ deposition of TiO2 microspheres on the carbon fibers in ACFF. Interestingly, the TiO2 microspheres exhibit hierarchical nanostructures constructed by nanocrystals as building blocks. The TiO2/ACFF porous composites possess excellent adsorption and photodegradation properties for toluene because of the synergetic effects between the nanostructured TiO2 and ACFF...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340476/temporal-patterns-of-co2-and-ch4-in-a-rural-area-in-northern-spain-described-by-a-harmonic-equation-over-2010-2016
#8
Beatriz Fernández-Duque, Isidro A Pérez, M Luisa Sánchez, M Ángeles García, Nuria Pardo
The present paper seeks to improve our knowledge concerning the evolution of CO2 and CH4 in terms of monthly trends, growth rate and seasonal variations in the lower atmosphere. Dry continuous measurements of CO2 and the CH4 mixing ratio were carried out over five and a half years (from 15 October 2010 to 29 February 2016) by multi-point sampling at 1.8, 3.7 and 8.3m, using a Picarro analyzer at a rural site in the Low Atmosphere Research Centre (CIBA), on the upper Spanish plateau. Data were divided into diurnal and nocturnal records...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340452/a-study-of-photosynthetic-biogas-upgrading-based-on-a-high-rate-algal-pond-under-alkaline-conditions-influence-of-the-illumination-regime
#9
Mariana Franco-Morgado, Cynthia Alcántara, Adalberto Noyola, Raúl Muñoz, Armando González-Sánchez
Microalgal-bacterial processes have emerged as environmental friendly systems for the cost-effective treatment of anaerobic effluents such as biogas and nutrients-laden digestates. Environmental parameters such as temperature, irradiation, nutrient concentration and pH effect the performance of the systems. In this paper, the potential of a microalgal-bacterial photobioreactor operated under high pH (≈9.5) and high alkalinity to convert biogas into biomethane was evaluated. The influence of the illumination regime (continuous light supply vs 12h/12h light/dark cycles) on the synthetic biogas upgrading efficiency, biomass productivity and nutrient removal efficiency was assessed in a High-Rate Algal Pond interconnected to a biogas absorption bubble column...
March 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340436/a-comparative-study-on-biochemical-methane-potential-of-algal-substrates-implications-of-biomass-pre-treatment-and-product-extraction
#10
Faiz Ahmad Ansari, Shantanu Wahal, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Ismail Rawat, Faizal Bux
Dried powdered algae (SDPA), heat treated algae (MHTA), lipid extracted algae (LEA) and protein extracted algae (PEA) were digested to determine biomethane potential. The average CH4 production rate was ∼2.5-times higher for protein and lipid extracted algae than for whole algae (SDPA and MHTA) whilst the cumulative CH4 production was higher for pre-treated algae. Highest cumulative CH4 production (318.7mlCH4g(-1)VS) was observed for MHTA followed by SDPA (307.4mlCH4g(-1)VS). CH4/CO2 ratios of 1.5 and 0.7 were observed for MHTA and LEA respectively...
March 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340435/optimization-of-hydrogen-dispersion-in-thermophilic-up-flow-reactors-for-ex-situ-biogas-upgrading
#11
Ilaria Bassani, Panagiotis G Kougias, Laura Treu, Hugo Porté, Stefano Campanaro, Irini Angelidaki
This study evaluates the efficiency of four novel up-flow reactors for ex situ biogas upgrading converting externally provided CO2 and H2 to CH4, via hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The gases were injected through stainless steel diffusers combined with alumina ceramic sponge or through alumina ceramic membranes. Pore size, input gas loading and gas recirculation flow rate were modulated to optimize gas-liquid mass transfer, and thus methanation efficiency. Results showed that larger pore size diffusion devices achieved the best kinetics and output-gas quality converting all the injected H2 and CO2, up to 3...
March 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340433/feasibility-of-carbon-dioxide-sequestration-by-spongiochloris-sp-microalgae-during-petroleum-wastewater-treatment-in-airlift-bioreactor
#12
Abdeldjalil Abid, Faten Saidane, Moktar Hamdi
The aim of this work was to study the ability of using Hydrocabonoclastic native microbial and Spongiochloris sp microalgae in airlift bioreactors couples in order to restore hydrocarbons wastewater and develop the capacity of natural systems to reduce greenhouse effect through maximal control of CO2 gas emission in atmosphere. The kinetic parameters of CO2 gas fixation level and conversion it into biological material by microalgae as the biodegradation process effect in hydrocarbon have been evaluated. The result present that maximum specific growth rate μmax of Spongiochloris sp was (0...
March 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339181/oxidative-polyoxometalates-modified-graphitic-carbon-nitride-for-visible-light-co2-reduction
#13
Jie Zhou, Weichao Chen, Chunyi Sun, Lu Han, Chao Qin, Mengmeng Chen, Xinlong Wang, Enbo Wang, Zhongmin Su
Developing a photocatalysis system for converting CO2 to valuable fuels or chemicals is a promising strategy to address global warming and fossil fuel consumption. Exploring photocatalysts with high-performance and low-cost has been two ultimate goals toward photoreduction of CO2. Herein, noble-metal-free polyoxometalates (Co4) with oxidative ability was first introduced into g-C3N4 resulted in inexpensive hybrid materials (Co4@g-C3N4) with staggered band alignment. The staggered composited materials show a higher activity of CO2 reduction than bare g-C3N4...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338970/woody-plant-ecosystems-under-climate-change-and-air-pollution-response-consistencies-across-zonobiomes
#14
R Matyssek, A R Kozovits, G Wieser, J King, H Rennenberg
Forests store the largest terrestrial pools of carbon (C), helping to stabilize the global climate system, yet are threatened by climate change (CC) and associated air pollution (AP, highlighting ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)). We adopt the perspective that CC-AP drivers and physiological impacts are universal, resulting in consistent stress responses of forest ecosystems across zonobiomes. Evidence supporting this viewpoint is presented from the literature on ecosystem gross/net primary productivity and water cycling...
March 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338959/increase-in-leaf-temperature-opens-stomata-and-decouples-net-photosynthesis-from-stomatal-conductance-in-pinus-taeda-and-populus-deltoides-x-nigra
#15
Josef Urban, Miles W Ingwers, Mary Anne McGuire, Robert O Teskey
The effect of temperature on stomatal conductance (gs) and corresponding gas exchange parameters was studied in two tree species with contrasting leaf anatomy and ecophysiology-a broadleaf angiosperm, Populus deltoides x nigra (poplar), and a needle-leaf gymnosperm, Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Experiments were conducted in growth chambers across a leaf temperature range of 19-48°C. Manipulations of temperature were done in well-watered and drought soil conditions and under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) air CO2 concentrations...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338935/impact-of-the-ion-transportome-of-chloroplasts-on-the-optimization-of-photosynthesis
#16
Ildikò Szabò, Cornelia Spetea
Ions play fundamental roles in all living cells, and their gradients are often essential to fuel transport, regulate enzyme activities, and transduce energy within cells. Regulation of their homeostasis is essential for cell metabolism. Recent results indicate that modulation of ion fluxes might also represent a useful strategy to regulate one of the most important physiological processes taking place in chloroplasts, photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is highly regulated, due to its unique role as a cellular engine for growth in the light...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338833/a-humidity-shock-leads-to-rapid-temperature-dependent-changes-in-coffee-leaf-physiology-and-gene-expression
#17
El-Hadji Thioune, James McCarthy, Thomas Gallagher, Bruce Osborne
Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of above-normal atmospheric water deficits contemporaneous with periods of high temperatures. Here we explore alterations in physiology and gene expression in leaves of Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner caused by a sharp drop in relative humidity (RH) at three different temperatures. Both stomatal conductance (gs) and CO2 assimilation (A) measurements showed that gs and A values fell quickly at all temperatures after the transfer to low RH.  However, leaf relative water content measurements indicated that leaves nonetheless experienced substantial water losses, implying that stomatal closure and/or resupply of water was not fast enough to stop excessive evaporative losses...
February 8, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338800/a-steady-state-stomatal-model-of-balanced-leaf-gas-exchange-hydraulics-and-maximal-source-sink-flux
#18
Teemu Hölttä, Anna Lintunen, Tommy Chan, Annikki Mäkelä, Eero Nikinmaa
Trees must simultaneously balance their CO2 uptake rate via stomata, photosynthesis, the transport rate of sugars and rate of sugar utilization in sinks while maintaining a favourable water and carbon balance. We demonstrate using a numerical model that it is possible to understand stomatal functioning from the viewpoint of maximizing the simultaneous photosynthetic production, phloem transport and sink sugar utilization rate under the limitation that the transpiration-driven hydrostatic pressure gradient sets for those processes...
February 23, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338709/relationship-between-leaf-functional-traits-and-productivity-in-aquilaria-crassna-thymelaeaceae-plantations-a-tool-to-aid-in-the-early-selection-of-high-yielding-trees
#19
Arlene López-Sampson, Lucas A Cernusak, Tony Page
Physiological traits are frequently used as indicators of tree productivity. Aquilaria species growing in a research planting were studied to investigate relationships between leaf-productivity traits and tree growth. Twenty-eight trees were selected to measure isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) and monitor six leaf attributes. Trees were sampled randomly within each of four diametric classes (at 150 mm above ground level) ensuring the variability in growth of the whole population was represented...
February 15, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338697/a-catalytic-scalable-pauson-khand-reaction-in-a-plug-flow-reactor
#20
Jorge García-Lacuna, Gema Domínguez, Jaime Blanco-Urgoiti, Javier Pérez-Castells
A catalytic, scalable intra- and intermolecular Pauson-Khand reaction protocol using generally 5 mol% of Co2(CO)8 as the catalyst in a plug flow reactor (PFR) is shown.
March 24, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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