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M Sánchez-Luna, N González-Pacheco, J Belik, M Santos, F Tendillo
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has been proposed as an alternative method of invasive ventilation in immature infants to prevent ventilator lung injury. To better control the size of the high-frequency tidal volume and to prevent large tidal volumes, a new strategy of controlling the tidal volume during HFOV (VThf) has been developed, HFOV-volume guarantee (VG). Data from preclinical, neonatal animal studies in normal and surfactant-depleted lungs have demonstrated the feasibility of this technique to directly control the VThf in the normal compliance and low compliance situations...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Ashok Kumar, Gaobing Wu, Ziduo Liu
A thermo-stable purified serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT; 418 AA) was used for the carrier free immobilization using pectin as a coach molecule and formaldehyde as a cross-linker. The purified protein was cross linked with formaldehyde in the presence of pectin to form stable and active aggregates. The cross-linked enzyme aggregates [CLEAs] of SHMT showed improved catalytic properties and reusability. The SHMT-CLEAs showed a noteworthy change in the thermo-stability and activity compared to its free counterpart...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Anna Kann, Heinrich Hartmann, Astrid Besmehn, Peter Hausoul, Regina Palkovits
Formic acid is a promising hydrogen storage medium and can be produced by catalytic hydrogenation of CO2. We report molecular ruthenium complexes immobilized on phosphine polymers, presenting excellent productivity and selectivity in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 under mild conditions. The polymeric form of dppe exhibited the highest activity and turnover numbers up to 13,170 were obtained in a single run. This catalyst was already active at 40 °C and a catalyst loading of only 0.0006 mol%. Recycling experiments revealed a loss of activity after the first run, followed by a gradual decease in the subsequent runs...
April 25, 2018: ChemSusChem
Bohye Ahn, So Eun Park, Byung-Keun Oh, Young-Kee Kim
Magnetic cobalt ferrite/silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and methyl functionalized MSNs (methyl-MSNs) were used to enhance lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris culture through enhancement of gas-water mass transfer and increased dissolved concentration of CO2 . Methyl-MSNs enhanced CO2 -water mass transfer rate better than MSNs, and 0.3 wt% methyl-MSNs are more effective than 0.1 wt% MSNs. In the cultivation experiment, 0.3 wt% methyl-MSNs yielded the highest dry cell weight and subsequently, the highest mass transfer rate...
April 25, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Marc Robert, Tai-Chu Lau, Min Wang, Lingjing Chen
Associating a molecular earth-abundant metal based catalyst to a carbon based nanomaterial is a promising approach for the production of solar fuels from CO2. Upon appending a Co(II) quaterpyridine complex [Co(qpy)]2+ at the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, CO2 conversion into CO was realized in water at pH 7.3 with 100% catalytic selectivity and 100% Faradaic efficiency, at low catalyst loading and reduced overpotential. While a current density of 0.94 mA cm-2 was reached at -0.35 V vs. RHE (240 mV overpotential), 9...
April 25, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Brian A Rosen, Idan Hod
Electrochemical CO2 reduction provides a clean and viable alternative for mitigating the environmental aspects of global greenhouse gas emissions. To date, the simultaneous goals of CO2 reduction at high selectivity and activity have yet to be achieved. Here, the importance of engineering both sides of the electrode-electrolyte interface as a rational strategy for achieving this milestone is highlighted. An emphasis is placed on researchers contributing to the design of solid electrodes based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and electrolytes based on room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs)...
April 25, 2018: Advanced Materials
Chuanliang Li, Ligang Shao, Lijun Jiang, Xuanbing Qiu, Jilin Wei, Weiguang Ma
A resolved line pair was selected for simultaneous measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in the near-infrared (NIR) region. The spectral lines of CO and CO2 at 1.578 µm were measured by wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS)-2 f and the absorption was enhanced with a multipass absorption cell. The white noise was further reduced by averaging technology. The detection sensitivity (1σ) for the system is estimated at 2.63 × 10-7  cm-1 for direct absorption spectroscopy. The ultimate detection limits of CO2 and CO mixed with pure N2 at 75 Torr are 29 parts per million (ppm) and 47 ppm, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
V Tanos, K E Berry, M Frist, R Campo, R L DeWilde
Myomectomy aims to preserve fertility, treat abnormal uterine bleeding, and alleviate pain. It should cause minimal damage to the endometrium, while being tolerable and durable, and reduce the incidence of myoma recurrence and complications including bleeding, hematoma, adhesions, and gravid uterus perforation. Training and experience are crucial to reduce complications. The surgical strategy depends on imaging information on the myomas. The position of the optical and secondary ports will determine the degree of ergonomic surgery performance, time and difficulty of myoma enucleation, and the suturing quality...
2018: BioMed Research International
Francisco O Borges, Cátia Figueiredo, Eduardo Sampaio, Rui Rosa, Tiago F Grilo
Ocean acidification (OA) poses a global threat to marine biodiversity. Notwithstanding, marine organisms may maintain their performance under future OA conditions, either through acclimation or evolutionary adaptation. Surprisingly, the transgenerational effects of high CO2 exposure in crustaceans are still poorly understood. For the first time, the present study investigated the transgenerational effect of OA, from hatching to maturity, of a key amphipod species (Gammarus locusta). Negative transgenerational effects were observed on survival of the acidified lineage, resulting in significant declines (10-15%) compared to the control groups in each generation...
April 20, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Bo Zheng, Qiang Zhang, Steven J Davis, Philippe Ciais, Chaopeng Hong, Meng Li, Fei Liu, Dan Tong, Haiyan Li, Kebin He
The carbon intensity of economic activity, or CO2 emissions per unit GDP, is a key indicator of the climate impacts of a given activity, business, or region. Although it is well-known that the carbon intensity of countries varies widely according to their level of economic development and dominant industries, few studies have assessed disparities in carbon intensity at the level of cities due to limited availability of data. Here, we present a detailed new inventory of emissions for 337 Chinese cities (every city in mainland China including 333 prefecture-level divisions and 4 province-level cities, Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing) in 2013, which we use to evaluate differences of carbon intensity between cities and the causes of those differences...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lie Xiao, Guo Bin Liu, Peng Li, Sha Xue
A water control pot experiment was conducted in climate controlled chambers to study soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial community structure and their rhizosphere effects in the rhizosphere and non rhizosphere soil of Bothriochloa ischaemum at elevated CO2 concentrations (800 μmol·mol-1 ) under three water regimes, i.e., well watered (75%-80% of field capacity, FC), moderate drought stress (55%-60% of FC), and severe drought stress (35%-40% of FC). The results showed that elevated CO2 concentration and drought stress did not have significant impacts on the content of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere and bulk soils or their rhizosphere effects...
October 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yu Ran Li, Xing Chang Wang, Chuan Kuan Wang, Fan Liu, Quan Zhi Zhang
Plant temperature is an important parameter for estimating energy balance and vegetation respiration of forest ecosystem. To examine spatial variation in diurnal courses of stem temperatures (Ts ) and its influencing factors, we measured the Ts with copper constantan thermocouples at different depths, heights and azimuths within the stems of two broadleaved tree species with contrasting bark and wood properties, Betula platyphylla and Fraxinus mandshurica. The results showed that the monthly mean diurnal courses of the Ts largely followed that of air temperature with a 'sinusoi dal' pattern, but the Ts lagged behind the air temperature by 0 h at the stem surface to 4 h at 6 cm depth...
October 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Fu Cai, Na Mi, Rui Peng Ji, Xian Li Zhao, Kui Qiao Shi, Yang Yang, Hui Zhang, Yu Shu Zhang
For deeply understanding water consumption characteristics and disaster-causing mechanism of spring maize under drought stress, continuous no-water complementing for 40 days and subsequent rewatering treatments were conducted in jointing (T1 ) and tasseling (T2 ) stages of spring maize 'Danyu 39'. In the meantime, leaf and root water potential, main variables associated with photosynthesis including net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), transpiration rate (Tr ), stomatal conduc-tance (gs ), intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci ) and stem flow rate (SF) were dynamically observed and the characteristics of their responses to drought and subsequent rehydration were investigated...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Run Chu, Nian Lai Chen
The effects of different intensities of UV-B radiation on photosynthetic characteristics, photosynthetic pigment content and chloroplast ultrastructure of Phragmites australis were studied in this paper. The results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and the degree of degradation increased with the increasing irradiation intensity. The intercellular CO2 content increased and the photosynthetic efficiency decreased significantly compared with the control...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yong Qing Lu, Yang Dai, Xiu Ying Yu, Fu-Lan Yu, Shou Lin Jiang, Zong Yuan Zhou, Fa Jun Chen
In recent years, the two issues of climate change including elevated CO2 etc., and resistance of transgenic Bt crops against non-target insect pests have received widespread attention. Elevated CO2 can affect the herbivorous insects. To date, there is no consensus about the effect of elevated CO2 on the suck-feeding insect pests (non-target insect pests of transgenic Bt crops). Its effects on the suck-feeding behavior have rarely been reported. In this study, CO2 levels were set up in artificial climate chamber to examined the effects of ambient (400 μL·L-1 ) and double-ambient (800 μL·L-1 ) CO2 levels on the suck-feeding behavior, growth, development, and reproduction of the non-target insect pest of transgenic Bt rice, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Zi Piao Ye, Hua Jing Kang, Shi Hua Duan, Yi Juan Wang
The availability of CO2 , a substrate for photosynthesis, affects the photosynthesis process and photosynthate production. Using the Li-6400-40B, we measured the photosynthetic electron transport rate and the photosynthetic light-response curves of soybean (Glycine max) leaves at different CO2 concentrations (300, 400, 500 and 600 μmol·mol-1 ). By fitting these parameters with a mechanistic model characterizing the light response of photosynthesis, we obtained aseries of photosynthetic parameters, eco-physiological parameters, as well as the physical parameters of photosynthetic pigments...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Mi Zhang, Xue Fa Wen, Lei Ming Zhang, Hui Min Wang, Yi Wen Guo, Gui Rui Yu
Extreme high temperature is one of important extreme weathers that impact forest ecosystem carbon cycle. In this study, applying CO2 flux and routine meteorological data measured during 2003-2012, we examined the impacts of extreme high temperature and extreme high temperature event on net carbon uptake of subtropical coniferous plantation in Qianyanzhou. Combining with wavelet analysis, we analyzed environmental controls on net carbon uptake at different temporal scales, when the extreme high temperature and extreme high temperature event happened...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Li Li Liu, Jiang Hua Ling, Li Tie, Jiao Yue Wang, Long Fei Bing, Feng Ming Xi
Under the background of "missing carbon sink" mystery and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology development, this paper summarized the lime material flow process carbon sink from the lime carbonation principles, impact factors, and lime utilization categories in chemical industry, metallurgy industry, construction industry, and lime kiln ash treatment. The results showed that the lime carbonation rate coefficients were mainly impacted by materials and ambient conditions; the lime carbon sink was mainly in chemical, metallurgy, and construction industries; and current researches focused on the mechanisms and impact factors for carbonation, but their carbon sequestration calculation methods had not been proposed...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Wen Jun He, Guang Xuan Han, Yan Ning Xu, Xi Tao Zhang, An Dong Wang, Chun Guang Che, Bao Yu Sun, Xiao Shuai Zhang
As a unique hydrological characteristic, the tidal action can strongly affect carbon balance in a salt marsh despite their short duration. Using the eddy covariance technique, we measured the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its environmental factors and tidal change over a salt marsh in the Yellow River Delta. It aimed to investigate the effect of tidal process and drying and wetting cycles induced by tides on NEE. The results showed that the tidal process promoted the daytime CO2 uptake, but it didn't clearly affect the nighttime CO2 release...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xiang Zeng Xu, Jin Yan Zhang, Guang Hui Zhang, Guang Qiang Long, Sheng Chao Yang, Zhong Jian Chen, Fu Gang Wei, Jun Wen Chen
To explore the effects of light intensity on photosynthetic characteristics and light adaptation of the shade-demanding species Panax notoginseng, the responses of photosynthesis to photosynthetic photon flux density, CO2 and sunflecks in the two-year-old Panax notoginseng were investigated under different levels of light intensity (29.8%, 9.6%, 5.0%, 1.4% and 0.2% of full sunlight). Meanwhile, chlorophyll a fluorescence parameter and light energy partitioning were also recorded and calculated in the responsive process...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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