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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813692/enhancing-cell-growth-and-lutein-productivity-of-desmodesmus-sp-f51-by-optimal-utilization-of-inorganic-carbon-sources-and-ammonium-salt
#1
Youping Xie, Xurui Zhao, Jianfeng Chen, Xuqiu Yang, Shih-Hsin Ho, Baobei Wang, Jo-Shu Chang, Ying Shen
The type and concentration of inorganic carbon and nitrogen sources were manipulated to improve cell growth and lutein productivity of Desmodesmus sp. F51. Using nitrate as nitrogen source, the better cell growth and lutein accumulation were obtained under 2.5% CO2 supply when compared to the addition of NaHCO3 or Na2CO3. To solve the pH variation problem of ammonium consumption, the strategy of using dual carbon sources (NaHCO3 and CO2) was explored. A lower bicarbonate-C: ammonium-N ratio led to a lower culture pH as well as lower lutein productivity, but significantly enhanced the auto-flocculation efficiency of the microalgal cells...
August 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813604/experimental-study-and-mathematical-modeling-of-self-sustained-kinetic-oscillations-in-catalytic-oxidation-of-methane-over-nickel
#2
Elena A Lashina, Vasily V Kaichev, Andrey Aleksandrovich Saraev, Zakhar S Vinokurov, Nataliya A Chumakova, Gennadii Chumakov, Valerii I Bukhtiyarov
The self-sustained kinetic oscillations in the oxidation of CH4 over Ni foil have been studied at atmospheric pressure using an X-ray diffraction technique and mass spectrometry. It has been shown that the regular oscillations appear under oxygen-deficient conditions; CO, CO2, H2, and H2O are detected as the products. According to in situ X-ray diffraction measurements nickel periodically oxidizes to NiO initiating the reaction-rate oscillations. To describe the oscillations we have proposed a 5-stage mechanism of the partial oxidation of methane over Ni and a corresponding three-variable kinetic model...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813511/differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-corneal-epithelial-progenitor-cells-under-defined-conditions
#3
Canwei Zhang, Liqun Du, Kunpeng Pang, Xinyi Wu
The development of cell-based therapies using stem cells represents a significant breakthrough in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). The aim of this study was to develop a novel protocol to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into corneal epithelial progenitor cells (CEPCs), with similar features to primary cultured human limbal stem cells (LSCs), using a medium composed of DMEM/F12 and defined keratinocyte serum-free medium (KSFM) (1:1) under different carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813504/effect-of-co2-induced-seawater-acidification-on-growth-photosynthesis-and-inorganic-carbon-acquisition-of-the-harmful-bloom-forming-marine-microalga-karenia-mikimotoi
#4
Shunxin Hu, Bin Zhou, You Wang, Ying Wang, Xinxin Zhang, Yan Zhao, Xinyu Zhao, Xuexi Tang
Karenia mikimotoi is a widespread, toxic and non-calcifying dinoflagellate, which can release and produce ichthyotoxins and hemolytic toxins affecting the food web within the area of its bloom. Shifts in the physiological characteristics of K. mikimotoi due to CO2-induced seawater acidification could alter the occurrence, severity and impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 on the physiology of K. mikimotoi. Using semi-continuous cultures under controlled laboratory conditions, growth, photosynthesis and inorganic carbon acquisition were determined over 4-6 week incubations at ambient (390ppmv) and elevated pCO2 levels (1000 ppmv and 2000 ppmv)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813467/meat-consumption-reduction-in-italian-regions-health-co-benefits-and-decreases-in-ghg-emissions
#5
Sara Farchi, Manuela De Sario, Enrica Lapucci, Marina Davoli, Paola Michelozzi
INTRODUCTION: Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813429/the-impact-of-tree-age-on-biomass-growth-and-carbon-accumulation-capacity-a-retrospective-analysis-using-tree-ring-data-of-three-tropical-tree-species-grown-in-natural-forests-of-suriname
#6
Michael Köhl, Prem R Neupane, Neda Lotfiomran
The world's forests play a pivotal role in the mitigation of global climate change. By photosynthesis they remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store carbon in their biomass. While old trees are generally acknowledged for a long carbon residence time, there is no consensus on their contribution to carbon accumulation due to a lack of long-term individual tree data. Tree ring analyses, which use anatomical differences in the annual formation of wood for dating growth zones, are a retrospective approach that provides growth patterns of individual trees over their entire lifetime...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813146/a-monomeric-tricobalt-ii-substituted-dawson-type-polyoxometalate-decorated-by-a-metal-carbonyl-group-p2w15o56co3-h2o-3-oh-3mn-co-3-8
#7
Jiage Jia, Yanjun Niu, Panpan Zhang, Dongdi Zhang, Pengtao Ma, Chao Zhang, Jingyang Niu, Jingping Wang
A monomeric tricobalt(II)-substituted phosphotungstate polyanion, [H9P2W15O62Co3](9-), is stabilized by the attachement of an organometallic group, {Mn(CO)3}, for the first time. The resulting polyoxometalate-supported [Mn(CO)3](+) complex (1) can be used as an efficient catalyst in the cycloaddition of CO2 with epoxides under mild reaction conditions with pyrrolidinium bromide as a cocatalyst. Besides, magnetic measurements show that the compound exhibits weaker ferromagnetic interactions at low temperature...
August 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812872/effect-of-mineral-dissolution-precipitation-and-co2-exsolution-on-co2-transport-in-geological-carbon-storage
#8
Ruina Xu, Rong Li, Jin Ma, Di He, Peixue Jiang
Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) in deep saline aquifers is an effective means for storing carbon dioxide to address global climate change. As the time after injection increases, the safety of storage increases as the CO2 transforms from a separate phase to CO2(aq) and HCO3(-) by dissolution and then to carbonates by mineral dissolution. However, subsequent depressurization could lead to dissolved CO2(aq) escaping from the formation water and creating a new separate phase which may reduce the GCS system safety...
August 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812677/species-specific-responses-to-ocean-acidification-should-account-for-local-adaptation-and-adaptive-plasticity
#9
Cristian A Vargas, Nelson A Lagos, Marco A Lardies, Cristian Duarte, Patricio H Manríquez, Victor M Aguilera, Bernardo Broitman, Steve Widdicombe, Sam Dupont
Global stressors, such as ocean acidification, constitute a rapidly emerging and significant problem for marine organisms, ecosystem functioning and services. The coastal ecosystems of the Humboldt Current System (HCS) off Chile harbour a broad physical-chemical latitudinal and temporal gradient with considerable patchiness in local oceanographic conditions. This heterogeneity may, in turn, modulate the specific tolerances of organisms to climate stress in species with populations distributed along this environmental gradient...
March 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812661/human-population-growth-offsets-climate-driven-increase-in-woody-vegetation-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
Martin Brandt, Kjeld Rasmussen, Josep Peñuelas, Feng Tian, Guy Schurgers, Aleixandre Verger, Ole Mertz, John R B Palmer, Rasmus Fensholt
The rapidly growing human population in sub-Saharan Africa generates increasing demand for agricultural land and forest products, which presumably leads to deforestation. Conversely, a greening of African drylands has been reported, but this has been difficult to associate with changes in woody vegetation. There is thus an incomplete understanding of how woody vegetation responds to socio-economic and environmental change. Here we used a passive microwave Earth observation data set to document two different trends in land area with woody cover for 1992-2011: 36% of the land area (6,870,000 km(2)) had an increase in woody cover largely in drylands, and 11% had a decrease (2,150,000 km(2)), mostly in humid zones...
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812604/stand-age-and-species-richness-dampen-interannual-variation-of-ecosystem-level-photosynthetic-capacity
#11
Talie Musavi, Mirco Migliavacca, Markus Reichstein, Jens Kattge, Christian Wirth, T Andrew Black, Ivan Janssens, Alexander Knohl, Denis Loustau, Olivier Roupsard, Andrej Varlagin, Serge Rambal, Alessandro Cescatti, Damiano Gianelle, Hiroaki Kondo, Rijan Tamrakar, Miguel D Mahecha
The total uptake of carbon dioxide by ecosystems via photosynthesis (gross primary productivity, GPP) is the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. A key ecosystem functional property determining GPP is the photosynthetic capacity at light saturation (GPPsat), and its interannual variability (IAV) is propagated to the net land-atmosphere exchange of CO2. Given the importance of understanding the IAV in CO2 fluxes for improving the predictability of the global carbon cycle, we have tested a range of alternative hypotheses to identify potential drivers of the magnitude of IAV in GPPsat in forest ecosystems...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812322/reactivity-of-silanes-with-tbuponop-ruthenium-dichloride-facile-synthesis-of-chloro-silyl-ruthenium-compounds-and-subsequent-reactivity
#12
James Matthew Boncella, Nickolas H Anderson, Aaron M Tondreau
The coordination of tBuPONOP (tBuPONOP = 2,6-bis(ditertbutylphosphinito)pyridine) to different ruthenium starting materials, to generate (tBuPONOP)RuCl2, was investigated. The 16-electron species (tBuPONOP)Ru(H)Cl was produced from the reaction of triethylsilane with (tBuPONOP)RuCl2. Reactions of (tBuPONOP)RuCl2 with both phenylsilane or diphenylsilane afforded the 16-electron hydrido-silyl species (tBuPONOP)Ru(H)(PhSiCl2) and (tBuPONOP)Ru(H)(Ph2SiCl), respectively. Reactions of all three of these complexes with silver triflate afforded the simple salt metathesis products of (tBuPONOP)Ru(H)(OTf), (tBuPONOP)Ru(H)(PhSiCl(OTf)), and (tBuPONOP)Ru(H)(Ph2Si(OTf))...
August 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812169/bond-strength-of-etch-and-rinse-and-self-etch-adhesive-systems-to-enamel-and-dentin-irradiated-with-a-novel-co2-9-3%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-short-pulsed-laser-for-dental-restorative-procedures
#13
Peter Rechmann, N Bartolome, R Kinsel, R Vaderhobli, B M T Rechmann
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of CO2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel and dentin. Two hundred enamel and 210 dentin samples were irradiated with a 9.3 µm carbon dioxide laser (Solea, Convergent Dental, Inc., Natick, MA) with energies which either enhanced caries resistance or were effective for ablation. OptiBond Solo Plus [OptiBondTE] (Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA) and Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakTE] (Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT) were used...
August 15, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812164/efficacy-of-fractional-lasers-in-treating-alopecia-a-literature-review
#14
Marina Perper, Adam S Aldahan, Rachel A Fayne, Christopher P Emerson, Keyvan Nouri
Hair loss stemming from different types of alopecia, such as androgenic alopecia and alopecia areata, negatively affects over half the population and, in many circumstances, causes serious psychosocial distress. Current treatment options for alopecia, such as minoxidil, anthralin, and intralesional corticosteroids, vary efficacy and side effect profiles. It is known that low-level laser/light therapies (LLLT), or photobiomodulations, such as the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, He-Ne laser, and excimer laser, are relatively affordable, user-friendly, safe, and effective forms of treatment for hair loss...
August 16, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812079/computational-evaluation-of-aluminophosphate-zeotypes-for-co2-n2-separation
#15
Michael Fischer
Zeolites and structurally related materials (zeotypes) have received considerable attention as potential adsorbents for selective carbon dioxide adsorption. Within this group, zeotypes with aluminophosphate composition (AlPOs) could be an interesting alternative to the more frequently studied aluminosilicate zeolites. So far, however, only a few AlPOs have been characterised experimentally in terms of their CO2 adsorption properties. In this study, force-field based grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were used to evaluate the potential of AlPOs for CO2/N2 separation, a binary mixture that constitutes a suitable model system for the removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811489/high-temperature-stress-during-flowering-and-grain-filling-offsets-beneficial-impact-of-elevated-co2-on-assimilate-partitioning-and-sink-strength-in-rice
#16
Ashish K Chaturvedi, Rajeev N Bahuguna, Divya Shah, Madan Pal, S V Krishna Jagadish
Elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]) environments have been predicted to improve rice yields under future climate. However, a concomitant rise in temperature could negate e[CO2] impact on plants, presenting a serious challenge for crop improvement. High temperature (HT) stress tolerant NL-44 and high yielding basmati Pusa 1121 rice cultivars, were exposed to e[CO2] (from panicle initiation to maturity) and a combination of e[CO2] + HT (from heading to maturity) using field based open top chambers. Elevated [CO2] significantly increased photosynthesis, seed-set, panicle weight and grain weight across both cultivars, more prominently with Pusa 1121...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811375/temperature-increase-reduces-global-yields-of-major-crops-in-four-independent-estimates
#17
Chuang Zhao, Bing Liu, Shilong Piao, Xuhui Wang, David B Lobell, Yao Huang, Mengtian Huang, Yitong Yao, Simona Bassu, Philippe Ciais, Jean-Louis Durand, Joshua Elliott, Frank Ewert, Ivan A Janssens, Tao Li, Erda Lin, Qiang Liu, Pierre Martre, Christoph Müller, Shushi Peng, Josep Peñuelas, Alex C Ruane, Daniel Wallach, Tao Wang, Donghai Wu, Zhuo Liu, Yan Zhu, Zaichun Zhu, Senthold Asseng
Wheat, rice, maize, and soybean provide two-thirds of human caloric intake. Assessing the impact of global temperature increase on production of these crops is therefore critical to maintaining global food supply, but different studies have yielded different results. Here, we investigated the impacts of temperature on yields of the four crops by compiling extensive published results from four analytical methods: global grid-based and local point-based models, statistical regressions, and field-warming experiments...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811237/the-in-validity-of-volatile-poct-parameters-from-patients-beyond-normothermia
#18
Michael A Gruber, Stefan Felbermeir, Regina Lindner, Martin Kieninger
BACKGROUND: A common characteristic of all blood gas analyzers on the market is that measurements are processed at 37°C, not at the real patients´ temperature. Subsequently temperature-sensitive parameters can be mathematically corrected (alpha-stat method) or used directly (pH-stat method). National rules in Germany (Rili-BAEK) demand defined accuracy and precision without any restriction to samples´ temperatures or corrections. As consequence in the investigation at hand we tried to find out whether blood gas analyzers can fulfill the regulations for pCO2 and pO2 when normothermia of the matrix is not given...
August 12, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811163/climate-change-co2-and-defense-the-metabolic-redox-and-signaling-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Graham Noctor, Amna Mhamdi
Ongoing human-induced changes in the composition of the atmosphere continue to stimulate interest in the effects of high CO2 on plants, but its potential impact on inducible plant defense pathways remains poorly defined. Recently, several studies have reported that growth at elevated CO2 is sufficient to induce defenses such as the salicylic acid pathway, thereby increasing plant resistance to pathogens. These reports contrast with evidence that defense pathways can be promoted by photorespiration, which is inhibited at high CO2...
August 12, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811145/characterization-of-methane-oxidation-in-a-simulated-landfill-cover-system-by-comparing-molecular-and-stable-isotope-mass-balances
#20
Marcel Schulte, Maik A Jochmann, Tobias Gehrke, Andrea Thom, Tim Ricken, Martin Denecke, Torsten C Schmidt
Biological methane oxidation may be regarded as a method of aftercare treatment for landfills to reduce climate relevant methane emissions. It is of social and economic interest to estimate the behavior of bacterial methane oxidation in aged landfill covers due to an adequate long-term treatment of the gas emissions. Different approaches assessing methane oxidation in laboratory column studies have been investigated by other authors recently. However, this work represents the first study in which three independent approaches, ((i) mass balance, (ii) stable isotope analysis, and (iii) stoichiometric balance of product (CO2) and reactant (CH4) by CO2/CH4-ratio) have been compared for the estimation of the biodegradation by a robust statistical validation on a rectangular, wide soil column...
August 12, 2017: Waste Management
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