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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474832/detection-of-west-nile-virus-lineage-2-in-culex-pipiens-mosquitoes-associated-with-disease-outbreak-in-greece-2017
#1
Konstantinos Mavridis, Emmanouil A Fotakis, Ilias Kioulos, Spiridoula Mpellou, Spiros Konstantas, Evangelia Varela, Sandra Gewehr, Vasilis Diamantopoulos, John Vontas
During July-October 2017 a WNV outbreak took place in the Peloponnese, Southern Greece with five confirmed deaths. During routine monitoring survey in the Peloponnese, supported by the local Prefecture, we have confirmed the presence of all three Culex pipiens biotypes in the region, with a high percentage of Culex pipiens/molestus hybrids (37.0%) which are considered a highly competent vector of WNV. Kdr mutations related to pyrethroid resistance were found at relatively low levels (14.3% homozygosity) while no mosquitoes harboring the recently identified chitin synthase diflubenzuron-resistance mutations were detected in the region...
February 20, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474683/the-response-of-mesophyll-conductance-to-short-term-variation-in-co2-in-the-c4-plants-setaria-viridis-and-zea-mays
#2
Nerea Ubierna, Anthony Gandin, Asaph B Cousins
Mesophyll conductance (gm) limits rates of C3 photosynthesis but little is known about its role in C4 photosynthesis. If gm were to limit C4 photosynthesis, it would likely be at low CO2 concentrations (pCO2). However, data on C4-gm across ranges of pCO2 are scarce. We describe the response of C4-gm to short-term variation in pCO2, at three temperatures in Setaria viridis, and at 25 °C in Zea mays. Additionally, we quantified the effect of finite gm calculations of leakiness (ϕ) and the potential limitations to photosynthesis imposed by stomata, mesophyll, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) across pCO2...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474563/effects-of-heat-stress-during-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-on-metabolic-responses-in-growing-pigs
#3
K M Seelenbinder, L D Zhao, M D Hanigan, M W Hulver, R P McMillan, L H Baumgard, J T Selsby, J W Ross, N K Gabler, R P Rhoads
Heat stress and immune challenges negatively impact nutrient allocation and metabolism in swine, especially due to elevated heat load. In order to assess the effects of heat stress during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection on metabolism, 9-week old crossbred barrows were individually housed, fed ad libitum, divided into four treatments: thermo-neutral (TN), thermo-neutral PRRSV infected (TP), heat stress (HS), and heat stress PRRSV infected (HP), and subjected to two experimental phases...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474404/role-of-acid-sensing-ion-channels-in-hypoxia-and-hypercapnia-induced-ventilatory-responses
#4
Neil D Detweiler, Kenneth G Vigil, Thomas C Resta, Benjimen R Walker, Nikki L Jernigan
Previous reports indicate roles for acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in both peripheral and central chemoreception, but the contributions of ASICs to ventilatory drive in conscious, unrestrained animals remain largely unknown. We tested the hypotheses that ASICs contribute to hypoxic- and hypercapnic-ventilatory responses. Blood samples taken from conscious, unrestrained mice chronically instrumented with femoral artery catheters were used to assess arterial O2, CO2, and pH levels during exposure to inspired gas mixtures designed to cause isocapnic hypoxemia or hypercapnia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473991/an-amorphous-noble-metal-free-electrocatalyst-enables-n2-fixation-under-ambient-conditions
#5
Chade Lv, Chunshuang Yan, Gang Chen, Yu Ding, Jingxue Sun, Yansong Zhou, Guihua Yu
The N2 fixation via the electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) under ambient conditions is regarded as a potential approach to achieve NH3 production, which still heavily relies on the Haber-Bosch process at the cost of huge energy and massive production of CO2. In this paper, we report a noble-metal-free Bi4V2O11/CeO2 hybrid with amorphous phase (BVC-A) as cathode for electrocatalytic NRR. The amorphous Bi4V2O11 owns significant defects, which play a role as active sites. The CeO2 not only serves as "trigger" to induce the amorphous structure, but also establishes band alignment with Bi4V2O11 for rapid interfacial charge transfer...
February 23, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473936/differential-survivorship-of-congeneric-ornamental-fishes-under-forecasted-climate-changes-are-related-to-anaerobic-potential
#6
Luciana Mara Fé Gonçalves, Maria de Nazaré Paula da Silva, Adalberto Luis Val, Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida-Val
Two Amazonian closely related tetras - cardinal Paracheirodon axelrodi and green neon P. simulans - were artificially acclimatized to environmental chambers mimicking future climate change scenarios (mild, moderate and extreme), using a microcosm facility. P. simulans survived (100%) to all scenarios after 30 days exposure, while P. axelrodi presented decreasing survival percentages according to environmental severity. These differences may be the reflection of distinct natural acclimatization to microhabitats between the species, which differ in thermal conditions...
February 19, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473922/kinetics-of-the-reaction-of-co-3-%C3%AB-h-2-o-n-n-0-1-2-with-nitric-acid-a-key-reaction-in-tropospheric-negative-ion-chemistry
#7
Christian van der Linde, Wai Kit Tang, Chi-Kit Siu, Martin K Beyer
A significant fraction of nitrate in the troposphere is formed in the reactions of HNO3 with the carbonate radical anion CO3 ˙- and the mono- and dihydrated species CO3 ˙- (H2 O)1,2 . A reaction mechanism was proposed in earlier flow reactor studies, which is investigated here in more detail by quantum chemical calculations and experimental reactivity studies of mass selected ions under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Bare CO3 ˙- forms NO3 - (OH˙) as well as NO3 - , with a total rate coefficient of 1.0 × 10-10 cm3 s-1 ...
February 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473675/contemporary-oxygenator-design-shear-stress-related-oxygen-and-carbon-dioxide-transfer
#8
Rik H J Hendrix, Yuri M Ganushchak, Patrick W Weerwind
Design of contemporary oxygenators requires better understanding of the influence of hydrodynamic patterns on gas exchange. A decrease in blood path width or an increase in intraoxygenator turbulence for instance, might increase gas transfer efficiency but it will increase shear stress as well. The aim of this clinical study was to examine the association between shear stress and oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer in different contemporary oxygenators during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The effect of additional parameters related to gas transfer efficiency, that is, blood flow, gas flow, sweep gas oxygen fraction (FiO2 ), hemoglobin concentration, the amount of hemoglobin pumped through the oxygenator per minute-Qhb, and shunt fraction were contemplated as well...
February 23, 2018: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473227/amorphizing-of-cu-nanoparticles-toward-highly-efficient-and-robust-electrocatalyst-for-co-2-reduction-to-liquid-fuels-with-high-faradaic-efficiencies
#9
Yan-Xin Duan, Fan-Lu Meng, Kai-Hua Liu, Sha-Sha Yi, Si-Jia Li, Jun-Min Yan, Qing Jiang
Conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) into valuable chemicals, especially liquid fuels, through electrochemical reduction driven by sustainable energy sources, is a promising way to get rid of dependence on fossil fuels, wherein developing of highly efficient catalyst is still of paramount importance. In this study, as a proof-of-concept experiment, first a facile while very effective protocol is proposed to synthesize amorphous Cu NPs. Unexpectedly, superior electrochemical performances, including high catalytic activity and selectivity of CO2 reduction to liquid fuels are achieved, that is, a total Faradaic efficiency of liquid fuels can sum up to the maximum value of 59% at -1...
February 23, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473139/effects-of-soil-pyrene-contamination-on-growth-and-phenolics-in-norway-spruce-picea-abies-are-modified-by-elevated-temperature-and-co-2
#10
Yaodan Zhang, Virpi Virjamo, Wenchao Du, Ying Yin, Katri Nissinen, Line Nybakken, Hongyan Guo, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
With the constant accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and increasing temperature and CO2 levels, plants will inevitably be exposed to combined stress. Studies on the effects of such combined stresses are needed to develop mitigation and adaptation measures. Here, we investigated the effects of soil pyrene contamination (50 mg kg-1 ) on growth and phenolics of 1-year-old Norway spruce seedlings from five different origins in Finland at elevated temperature (+ 2 °C) and CO2 (+ 360 ppm)...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473114/treatment-of-post-burn-and-post-traumatic-atrophic-scars-with-fractional-co-2-laser-experience-at-a-tertiary-care-centre
#11
Abid Keen, Gousia Sheikh, Iffat Hassan, Yasmeen Jabeen, Shagufta Rather, Syed Mubashir, Insha Latif, Sumaya Zeerak, Muzafar Ahmad, Aqib Hassan, Peerzada Ashraf, Faizan Younis, Najamul Saqib
Scars are abnormal wound responses in predisposed individuals. They occur after any kind of wound and skin inflammation in predisposed individuals. Despite their benign nature, they can be aesthetically disabling. Although several approaches have been tried in their management, most of them have produced poor results. This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser treatment in the management of post-burn and post-traumatic scars. One hundred consecutive patients (77 females and 23 males) affected by post-burn scars as well as post-traumatic atrophic scars were treated with monthly sessions of fractional CO2 laser treatment...
February 23, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472939/dominant-species-in-subtropical-forests-could-decrease-photosynthetic-n-allocation-to-carboxylation-and-bioenergetics-and-enhance-leaf-construction-costs-during-forest-succession
#12
Yihua Xiao, Shirong Liu, Fuchun Tong, Bufeng Chen, Yuanwen Kuang
It is important to understand how eco-physiological characteristics shift in forests when elucidating the mechanisms underlying species replacement and the process of succession and stabilization. In this study, the dominant species at three typical successional stages (early-, mid-, and late-succession) in the subtropical forests of China were selected. At each stage, we compared the leaf construction costs (CC), payback time (PBT), leaf area based N content ( N A ), maximum CO2 assimilation rate ( P max ), specific leaf area (SLA), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE), and leaf N allocated to carboxylation ( N C ), and to bioenergetics ( N B )...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472572/onset-and-evolution-of-southern-annular-mode-like-changes-at-centennial-timescale
#13
P I Moreno, I Vilanova, R Villa-Martínez, R B Dunbar, D A Mucciarone, M R Kaplan, R D Garreaud, M Rojas, C M Moy, R De Pol-Holz, F Lambert
The Southern Westerly Winds (SWW) are the surface expression of geostrophic winds that encircle the southern mid-latitudes. In conjunction with the Southern Ocean, they establish a coupled system that not only controls climate in the southern third of the world, but is also closely connected to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and CO2 degassing from the deep ocean. Paradoxically, little is known about their behavior since the last ice age and relationships with mid-latitude glacier history and tropical climate variability...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472525/timescales-of-water-accumulation-in-magmas-and-implications-for-short-warning-times-of-explosive-eruptions
#14
M Petrelli, K El Omari, L Spina, Y Le Guer, G La Spina, D Perugini
Water plays a key role in magma genesis, differentiation, ascent and, finally, eruption. Despite the recognized crucial function of water, there are still several issues that continue to blur our view about its role in magmatic systems. What are the timescales of H2 O accumulation in crystallizing magmas? What are the ascent rates of water-rich residual melts leading to explosive eruptions? Here, we track the timescale of water accumulation in a residual melt resulting from crystallization of a hydrous CO2 -bearing magmatic mass stored at mid- to deep-crustal levels in a subduction-related geodynamic setting...
February 22, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472482/coral-reefs-will-transition-to-net-dissolving-before-end-of-century
#15
Bradley D Eyre, Tyler Cyronak, Patrick Drupp, Eric Heinen De Carlo, Julian P Sachs, Andreas J Andersson
Ocean acidification refers to the lowering of the ocean's pH due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. Coral reef calcification is expected to decrease as the oceans become more acidic. Dissolving calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) sands could greatly exacerbate reef loss associated with reduced calcification but is presently poorly constrained. Here we show that CaCO3 dissolution in reef sediments across five globally distributed sites is negatively correlated with the aragonite saturation state (Ωar ) of overlying seawater and that CaCO3 sediment dissolution is 10-fold more sensitive to ocean acidification than coral calcification...
February 23, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472480/breakup-of-last-glacial-deep-stratification-in-the-south-pacific
#16
Chandranath Basak, Henning Fröllje, Frank Lamy, Rainer Gersonde, Verena Benz, Robert F Anderson, Mario Molina-Kescher, Katharina Pahnke
Stratification of the deep Southern Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum is thought to have facilitated carbon storage and subsequent release during the deglaciation as stratification broke down, contributing to atmospheric CO2 rise. Here, we present neodymium isotope evidence from deep to abyssal waters in the South Pacific that confirms stratification of the deepwater column during the Last Glacial Maximum. The results indicate a glacial northward expansion of Ross Sea Bottom Water and a Southern Hemisphere climate trigger for the deglacial breakup of deep stratification...
February 23, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472453/comment-on-the-whole-soil-carbon-flux-in-response-to-warming
#17
Jing Xiao, Fangjian Yu, Wanying Zhu, Chenchao Xu, Kaihang Zhang, Yiqi Luo, James M Tiedje, Jizhong Zhou, Lei Cheng
In a compelling study, Hicks Pries et al (Reports, 31 March 2017, p. 1420) showed that 4°C warming enhanced soil CO2 production in the 1-meter soil profile, with all soil depths displaying similar temperature sensitivity (Q10 ). We argue that some caveats can be identified in their experimental approach and analysis, and that these critically undermine their conclusions and hence their claim that the strength of feedback between the whole-soil carbon and climate has been underestimated in terrestrial models...
February 23, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471820/directly-mining-a-fungal-thermostable-%C3%AE-amylase-from-chinese-nong-flavor-liquor-starter
#18
Zhuolin Yi, Yang Fang, Kaize He, Dayu Liu, Huibo Luo, Dong Zhao, Hui He, Yanling Jin, Hai Zhao
BACKGROUND: Chinese Nong-flavor (NF) liquor is continuously and stably produced by solid-state fermentation technology for 1000 years, resulting in enrichment of special microbial community and enzymes system in its starter. Based on traditional culture-dependent methods, these functional enzymes are hardly obtained. According to our previous metatranscriptomic analysis, which identifies plenty of thermostable carbohydrate-active enzymes in NF liquor starter, the aim of this study is to provide a direct and efficient way to mine these thermostable enzymes...
February 22, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471790/gene-expression-correlated-with-delay-in-shell-formation-in-larval-pacific-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-exposed-to-experimental-ocean-acidification-provides-insights-into-shell-formation-mechanisms
#19
Pierre De Wit, Evan Durland, Alexander Ventura, Chris J Langdon
BACKGROUND: Despite recent work to characterize gene expression changes associated with larval development in oysters, the mechanism by which the larval shell is first formed is still largely unknown. In Crassostrea gigas, this shell forms within the first 24 h post fertilization, and it has been demonstrated that changes in water chemistry can cause delays in shell formation, shell deformations and higher mortality rates. In this study, we use the delay in shell formation associated with exposure to CO2 -acidified seawater to identify genes correlated with initial shell deposition...
February 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471655/long-lived-transient-anion-of-c-c-4-f-8-o
#20
J Kočišek, R Janečková, J Fedor
We report partial cross sections for electron attachment to c-C4 F8 O, a gas with promising technological applications in free-electron-rich environments. The dissociative electron attachment leads to a number of anionic fragments resulting from complex bond-breaking and bond-forming processes. However, the anion with the highest abundance is the non-dissociated (transient) parent anion which is formed around 0.9 eV electron energy. Its lifetime reaches tens of microseconds. We discuss the origin of this long lifetime, the anion's strong interactions with other molecules, and the consequences for electron-scavenging properties of c-C4 F8 O in denser environments, in particular for its use in mixtures with CO2 and N2 ...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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