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Camila Bolfarini Bento, Solange Filoso, Leonardo Machado Pitombo, Heitor Cantarella, Raffaella Rossetto, Luiz Antonio Martinelli, Janaina Braga do Carmo
Sugarcane is a widespread bioenergy crop in tropical regions, and the growing global demand for renewable energy in recent years has led to a dramatic expansion and intensification of sugarcane agriculture in Brazil. Currently, extensive areas of low-intensity pasture are being converted to sugarcane, while management in the remaining pasture is becoming more intensive, i.e., includes tilling and fertilizer use. In this study, we assessed how such changes in land use and management practices alter emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, N2O and CH4 by measuring in situ fluxes for one year after conversion from low-intensity pasture to conventional sugarcane agriculture and management-intensive pasture...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Jing Sun, Lina Wei, Yanzi Wang, Zhiping Zhao, Wenfang Liu
In recent years, the application of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in CO2 removal has attracted great interest. However, obtaining high enzyme recovery activity is difficult in existing immobilization techniques. In this work, water plasma-treated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were modified via 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (KH550) or γ-(2, 3-epoxypropoxy) propyl trimethoxy silane (KH560), and then CA was attached. The immobilization process was optimized and the catalytic properties of PVDF-attached CA were characterized...
December 9, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Shu-Yuan Pan, Tai-Chun Chung, Chang-Ching Ho, Chin-Jen Hou, Yi-Hung Chen, Pen-Chi Chiang
Both steelmaking via an electric arc furnace and manufacturing of portland cement are energy-intensive and resource-exploiting processes, with great amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and alkaline solid waste generation. In fact, most CO2 capture and storage technologies are currently too expensive to be widely applied in industries. Moreover, proper stabilization prior to utilization of electric arc furnace slag are still challenging due to its high alkalinity, heavy metal leaching potentials and volume instability...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hidenori Hashimoto, Tsutomu Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Ozeki, Sanehiro Muromachi
Ionic clathrate hydrates can selectively capture small gas molecules such as CO2, N2, CH4 and H2. We investigated CO2 + N2 mixed gas separation properties of ionic clathrate hydrates formed with tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB), tetra-n-butylammonium chloride (TBAC), tetra-n-butylphosphonium bromide (TBPB) and tetra-n-butylphosphonium chloride (TBPC). The results showed that CO2 selectivity of TBAC hydrates was remarkably higher than those of the other hydrates despite less gas capacity of TBAC hydrates...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jacob N W Howe, Alexander M Piotrowski
Ice core records show that atmospheric CO2 concentrations and Antarctic temperature were lower during the 'lukewarm interglacials' from 800 to 430 ka than the subsequent five interglacials. These different interglacial 'strengths' have been hypothesised to be controlled by Antarctic overturning circulation. How these variations in Antarctic overturning relate to Northern Atlantic overturning circulation, a major driver of Northern Hemisphere climate, is uncertain. Here we present a high-resolution record of authigenic neodymium isotopes-a water mass tracer that is independent of biological processes-and use it to reconstruct Atlantic overturning circulation during the last 800 kyr...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
Soroush Saheb-Alam, Abhijeet Singh, Malte Hermansson, Frank Persson, Anna Schnürer, Britt-Marie Wilén, Oskar Modin
The enrichment of CO2-reducing microbial bio-cathodes is challenging. Previous research has shown that a promising approach could be to first enrich bio-anodes and then lower the potential so the electrodes are converted into bio-cathodes. However, the effect of such a transition on the microbial community on the electrode has not been studied. The goal of this study was, thus, to compare the start-up of bio-cathodes from pre-enriched anodes with direct start-up from bare electrodes and to investigate changes in microbial community composition...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Pinar Senay Özbay, Sonja Stieb, Cristina Rossi, Oliver Riesterer, Andreas Boss, Tobias Weiss, Felix Kuhn, Klaas Paul Pruessmann, Daniel Nanz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Quantitative susceptibility mapping has been previously used to differentiate lesions in patients with brain tumors. The aim of this work was to characterize the response of magnetic susceptibility differences in malignant brain tumors and surrounding edema to hyperoxic and hypercapnic respiratory challenges. METHODS: Images of malignant brain tumor patients (2 glioblastoma multiforme, 2 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 brain metastasis) with clinical MRI exams (contrast-enhanced T1w) were acquired at 3T...
December 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Hyeyoung Lee, Seung-Muk Yi, Thomas M Holsen, Yong-Seok Seo, Eunhwa Choi
Climate-relevant CO2 emissions from waste incineration were compared using three methods: making use of CO2 concentration data, converting O2 concentration and waste characteristic data, and using a mass balance method following Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. For the first two methods, CO2 and O2 concentrations were measured continuously from 24 to 86 days. The O2 conversion method in comparison to the direct CO2 measurement method had a 4.8% mean difference in daily CO2 emissions for four incinerators where analyzed waste composition data were available...
December 5, 2017: Waste Management
Vamsee K Voora, Arailym Kairalapova, Thomas Sommerfeld, Kenneth D Jordan
In this work, we use a model (H2O)4 cluster, the bent CO2 molecule, and tetracyanoethylene as systems to explore the applicability of various electronic structure methods for characterizing non-valence correlation-bound anion states. The methods examined include the algebraic diagrammatic construction, various equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods, orbital-optimized MP2, and Brueckner coupled cluster doubles with perturbative triples. We demonstrate that the key to treating this challenging class of anions is the use of methods that include adequate orbital relaxation in response to long-range dispersion-like correlation effects...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Dongliang Xiong, Cyril Douthe, Jaume Flexas
Stomatal conductance (gs ) and mesophyll conductance (gm ) represent major constraints to photosynthetic rate (A), and these traits are expected to coordinate with leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ) across species, under both steady-state and dynamic conditions. However, empirical information about their coordination is scarce. In this study, Kleaf , gas exchange, stomatal kinetics and leaf anatomy in ten species including ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms were investigated to elucidate the correlation of H2 O and CO2 diffusion inside leaves under varying light conditions...
December 8, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mingnan Qu, James A Bunce, Richard C Sicher, Xiaocen Zhu, Bo Gao, Genyun Chen
Detached leaves at top canopy structures always experience higher solar irradiance and leaf temperature under natural conditions. The ability of tolerance to high temperature represents thermotolerance potential of whole-plants, but was less of concern. In this study, we used a heat-tolerant (B76) and a heat-susceptible (B106) maize inbred line to assess the possible mitigation of sudden heat shock (SHS) effects on photosynthesis (PN) and C4 assimilation pathway by elevated [CO2]. Two maize lines were grown in field-based open top chambers (OTCs) at ambient and elevated (+180 ppm) [CO2]...
2017: PloS One
Tianhan Kai, Min Zhou, Zhiyao Duan, Graeme A Henkelman, Allen J Bard
The electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 has been studied extensively and produces a number of products. The initial reaction in the CO2 reduction is often taken to be the 1e formation of the radical anion, CO2·. However, the electrochemical detection and characterization of CO2· is challenging because of the short lifetime of CO2·, which can dimerize and react with proton donors and even mild oxidants. Here, we report the generation and quantitative determination of CO2· in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) with the tip generation/substrate collection (TG/SC) mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jens Artz, Thomas E Müller, Katharina Thenert, Johanna Kleinekorte, Raoul Meys, André Sternberg, André Bardow, Walter Leitner
CO2 conversion covers a wide range of possible application areas from fuels to bulk and commodity chemicals and even to specialty products with biological activity such as pharmaceuticals. In the present review, we discuss selected examples in these areas in a combined analysis of the state-of-the-art of synthetic methodologies and processes with their life cycle assessment. Thereby, we attempted to assess the potential to reduce the environmental footprint in these application fields relative to the current petrochemical value chain...
December 8, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Wan Jae Dong, Chul Jong Yoo, Jong-Lam Lee
Nanostructured metal catalysts to convert CO2 to formate, which have been extensively studied over decades, have many problems such as durability, lifetime, high process temperature, and difficulty in controlling the morphology of nanostructures. Here, we report a facile method to fabricate monolithic nanoporous In-Sn alloy, a network of nanopores, induced by electroreduction of indium tin oxide nanobranches (ITO BRs). The electroreduction process concentrated a local electric field at the tip of the nanostructure, leading to current-assisted joule-heating to form a nanoporous In-Sn alloy...
December 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dilip Kumar Maity, Arka Dey, Saheli Ghosh, Arijit Halder, Partha Pratim Ray, Debajyoti Ghoshal
Syntheses, structural characterizations, photoluminescence, and adsorption properties of three new azo-functionalized Cd(II)-MOFs, namely, {[Cd(azbpy)(msuc)]·2.5(H2O)}n (2), {[Cd(azbpy)(mglu)]·5(H2O)}n (3), and {[Cd1.5(azbpy)2(glu)]·(NO3)·MeOH}n (4) [where msuc2- = methylsuccinate; mglut2- = methylglutarate; glut2- = glutarate; azbpy = 4,4'-azobispyridine] have been reported. The compounds show different structures only with the variation of aliphatic dicarboxylates. The photoswitching behavior for the above-mentioned newly synthesized Cd(II)-MOFs along with one of our previously reported other azo-functionalized Cd(II)-MOF, namely, {[Cd(azbpy)(suc)]·2(H2O)}n (1), has been studied extensively...
December 8, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Allison R Kolbe, Asaph B Cousins
Mesophyll conductance (gm ) describes the movement of CO2 from the intercellular air spaces below the stomata to the site of initial carboxylation in the mesophyll. In contrast with C3 -gm , little is currently known about the intraspecific variation in C4 -gm or its responsiveness to environmental stimuli. To address these questions, gm was measured on five maize (Zea mays) lines in response to CO2 , employing three different estimates of gm . Each of the methods indicated a significant response of gm to CO2 ...
December 8, 2017: New Phytologist
Fengli Chen, Dongjie Bai, Yao Wang, Minghui He, Xiaoxia Gao, Yabing He
The combination of an angular diisophthalate ligand, 5,5'-(naphthyl-2,7-yl)diisophthalate (H4L), and copper ions under different solvothermal conditions afforded two polymorphous metal-organic frameworks (ZJNU-77 and ZJNU-78) with the same framework composition of [Cu2(L)(H2O)2], providing a platform to investigate the relationship between MOF polymorphism and gas adsorption properties. As determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, ZJNU-77 and ZJNU-78 exhibited three-dimensional networks crystallizing in different space groups...
December 8, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
S Senthilkumar, Minaxi S Maru, R S Somani, H C Bajaj, Subhadip Neogi
Amine-functionalised framework NH2-MIL-101(Al) was synthesized using a solvothermal and microwave method and characterized by PXRD, FT-IR, TGA, SEM-EDX, and BET surface area analysis. The desolvated framework, in the presence of co-catalyst tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), acted as an excellent heterogeneous catalyst for the solvent-free cycloaddition of carbon dioxide (CO2) with epoxides, affording five-membered cyclic carbonates. Using styrene oxide, the NH2-MIL-101(Al)/TBAB system showed more than 99% conversion, affording 96% yield and 99% selectivity with a turn over frequency of 23...
December 8, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Rhona J Taberham, Adnan Raza, Aiman Alzetani, Edwin B Woo, Martin H Chamberlain, George Koulaxouzidis, Khalid M Amer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to report the safety and efficacy of video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) plication of the diaphragm at our institution between 2006 and 2016. METHODS: Adult patients selected on etiology and combination of investigations including plain chest x-ray, computed tomography of chest and abdomen, lung functions in supine and sitting positions, radiological/ultrasonic screening for diaphragmatic movement, and phrenic nerve conduction studies...
December 6, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
Brian J Spiesman, Herika Kummel, Randall D Jackson
Long-term soil carbon (C) storage is essential for reducing CO2 in the atmosphere. Converting unproductive and environmentally sensitive agricultural lands to grasslands for bioenergy production may enhance C storage. However, a better understanding of the interacting effects of grass functional composition (i.e., relative abundance of C4 and C3 grass cover) and soil productivity on C storage will help guide sustainable grassland management. Our objective was to examine the relationship between grass functional composition and potential C storage and how it varies with potential soil productivity...
December 7, 2017: Oecologia
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