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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734252/river-sequesters-atmospheric-carbon-and-limits-the-co2-degassing-in-karst-area-southwest-china
#1
Tao Zhang, Jianhong Li, Junbing Pu, Jonathan B Martin, Mitra B Khadka, Feihong Wu, Li Li, Feng Jiang, Siyu Huang, Daoxian Yuan
CO2 fluxes across water-air interfaces of river systems play important roles in regulating the regional and global carbon cycle. However, great uncertainty remains as to the contribution of these inland water bodies to the global carbon budget. Part of the uncertainty stems from limited understanding of the CO2 fluxes at diurnal and seasonal frequencies caused by aquatic metabolism. Here, we measured surface water characteristics (temperature, pH, and DO, DIC, Ca(2+) concentrations) and CO2 fluxes across the air-water interface at two transects of Guijiang River, southwest China to assess the seasonal and diurnal dynamics of fluvial carbon cycling and its potential role in regional and global carbon budgets...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734218/the-evaluation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-biodegradation-kinetics-in-soil-amended-with-organic-fertilizers-and-bulking-agents
#2
Dariusz Włóka, Agnieszka Placek, Agnieszka Rorat, Marzena Smol, Małgorzata Kacprzak
The aim of this study was to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soils fertilized with organic amendments (sewage sludge, compost), bulking agents (mineral sorbent, silicon dioxide in form of nano powder), and novel compositions of those materials. The scope of conducted works includes a cyclic CO2 production measurements and the determinations of PAHs content in soil samples, before and after 3-months of incubation. Obtained results show that the use of both type of organic fertilizers have a positive effect on the PAHs removal from soil...
July 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732405/increased-n2o-emission-by-inhibited-plant-growth-in-the-co2-leaked-soil-environment-simulation-of-co2-leakage-from-carbon-capture-and-storage-ccs-site
#3
You Jin Kim, Wenmei He, Daegeun Ko, Haegeun Chung, Gayoung Yoo
Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is continuing to increase due to anthropogenic activity, and geological CO2 storage via carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology can be an effective way to mitigate global warming due to CO2 emission. However, the possibility of CO2 leakage from reservoirs and pipelines exists, and such leakage could negatively affect organisms in the soil environment. Therefore, to determine the impacts of geological CO2 leakage on plant and soil processes, we conducted a greenhouse study in which plants and soils were exposed to high levels of soil CO2...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732133/ionization-and-collision-induced-dissociation-of-steroid-bis-glucuronides
#4
Argitxu Esquivel, Xavier Matabosch, Aristotelis Kotronoulas, Georgina Balcells, Jesús Joglar, Rosa Ventura
Studies on steroid metabolism are of utmost importance to improve the detection capabilities of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse in sports drug testing. In humans, glucuronoconjugates are the most abundant phase II metabolites of AAS. Bis-glucuronidation is a reaction where two separated functional groups on the same molecule are conjugated with glucuronic acid. These metabolites have not been studied in depth for steroids and could be interesting markers for doping control. The aim of the present work was to study the ionization and collision induced dissociation of steroid bis-glucuronides to be able to develop mass spectrometric analytical strategies for their detection in urine samples after AAS administration...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731900/micro-and-macro-circulatory-changes-during-sepsis-and-septic-shock-in-a-rat-model
#5
Tianfeng Hua, Xiaobo Wu, Wei Wang, Hao Li, Jennifer Bradley, Mary Ann Peberdy, Joseph P Ornato, Wanchun Tang
Microcirculation is the motor of sepsis. In the present study, we investigated whether microcirculatory alterations occur prior to changes of systemic hemodynamics in a rat model of cecum ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. We further investigated renal microcirculatory changes during sepsis and compared those with buccal microcirculation. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a sham control group (n = 6) and a CLP group (n = 6). Perfused microvessel density (PVD) and microvascular flow index (MFI) were evaluated using sidestream dark field (SDF) video microscopy at baseline, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, and 360 minutes following CLP...
July 20, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731572/endoscopic-surgical-technique-for-benign-fibrotic-strictures-of-the-upper-esophageal-sphincter
#6
Shun-Ichi Chitose, Kiminori Sato, Mioko Fukahori, Sachiyo Hamakawa, Akari Koga, Shintaro Sueyoshi, Hirohito Umeno
A 43-year-old man with complaints of increased difficulty of swallowing and weight loss underwent videofluorographic examination of swallowing, which revealed severely reduced cricopharyngeal opening. Endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy was performed using a modified technique (mECPM). A benign fibrotic stricture of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) was identified under visualization of a distending operating laryngoscope. A vertical midline incision in the strictured mucosa and submucosal resection of the cricopharyngeal muscle were performed using a CO2 laser...
July 21, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731569/diversity-in-thermal-affinity-among-key-piscivores-buffers-impacts-of-ocean-warming-on-predator-prey-interactions
#7
Rebecca L Selden, Ryan D Batt, Vincent S Saba, Malin L Pinsky
Asymmetries in responses to climate change have the potential to alter important predator-prey interactions, in part by altering the location and size of spatial refugia for prey. We evaluated the effect of ocean warming on interactions between four important piscivores and four of their prey in the U.S. Northeast Shelf by examining species overlap under historical conditions (1968-2014) and with a doubling in CO2 . Because both predator and prey shift their distributions in response to changing ocean conditions, the net impact of warming or cooling on predator-prey interactions was not determined a priori from the range extent of either predator or prey alone...
July 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731528/improving-succinate-productivity-by-engineering-a-cyanobacterial-co2-concentrating-system-ccm-in-escherichia-coli
#8
Mengyong Xiao, Xinna Zhu, Changhao Bi, Yanhe Ma, Xueli Zhang
Biologically fixation of CO2 has great potential as a significant carbon source for biosynthesis, which is also a major way to reduce CO2 accumulation in atmosphere. Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation is the key step of anaerobic succinate production in Escherichia coli. In this reaction, one mole CO2 is assimilated with PEP to form oxaloacetate by PEP carboxykinase (PCK). The preferred substrate of PCK is CO2 , which is very limited in cytoplasm. In this study, the carbon concentration mechanism (CCM) of cyanobacteria was introduced into E...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731365/chemical-composition-and-antimigraine-activity-of-essential-oil-of-angelicae-dahuricae-radix
#9
Jingbo Sun, He Li, Jinghui Sun, Huimin Liu, Jianguang Chen, Chunmei Wang
The aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and the effect of essential oil of Angelicae dahuricae radix on a nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced rat model of migraine. The CO2 supercritical fluid extraction method was optimized for the extraction of essential oil of A. dahuricae radix (EOAD) and its chemical composition was determined. The migraine model was established by subcutaneous injection of NTG (10 mg/kg) 1 h after the last administration of EOAD. The therapeutic effect of EOAD and its underlying mechanism were assessed by monitoring behavioral changes, levels of nitric oxide (NO) in serum and brain tissues, plasma levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and endothelin (ET), and ET/NO ratio...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731320/fabrication-of-nanostructured-omniphobic-and-superomniphobic-surfaces-with-inexpensive-co2-laser-engraver
#10
Anudeep Pendurthi, Sanli Movafaghi, Wei Wang, Soran Shadman, Azer Yalin, Arun K Kota
Superomniphobic surfaces (i.e. surfaces that are extremely repellent to both high surface tension liquids like water and low surface tension liquid like oils and alcohols) can be fabricated through a combination of surface chemistry that imparts low solid surface energy with a re-entrant surface texture. Recently, surface texturing with lasers has received significant attention because laser texturing is scalable, solvent-free, and can produce a monolithic texture on virtually any material. In this work, we fabricated nanostructured omniphobic and superomniphobic surfaces with a variety of materials using a simple, inexpensive and commercially available CO2 laser engraver...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731086/microfluidic-and-nanofluidic-phase-behaviour-characterization-for-industrial-co2-oil-and-gas
#11
REVIEW
Bo Bao, Jason Riordon, Farshid Mostowfi, David Sinton
Microfluidic systems that leverage unique micro-scale phenomena have been developed to provide rapid, accurate and robust analysis, predominantly for biomedical applications. These attributes, in addition to the ability to access high temperatures and pressures, have motivated recent expanded applications in phase measurements relevant to industrial CO2, oil and gas applications. We here present a comprehensive review of this exciting new field, separating microfluidic and nanofluidic approaches. Microfluidics is practical, and provides similar phase properties analysis to established bulk methods with advantages in speed, control and sample size...
July 21, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730359/improving-cu-ii-sorption-by-biochar-via-pyrolyzation-under-co2-the-importance-of-inherent-inorganic-species
#12
Ran Wen, Bo Yuan, Yang Wang, Weimin Cao, Yuan Liu, Yi Jia, Qiang Liu
Biochar from Spartina alterniflora (SA) and rice straw (RS) under N2/CO2 were evaluated for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solution. The result indicates SA biochar prepared at 700 °C under CO2 can achieve a Cu(II) sorption capacity of 89.12 ± 2.77 mg/g, which is higher than that from N2 by about 50%. CO2 can promote the development of multi-porous structure, enhance specific surface area, and increase the amounts of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on biochar. In addition, CO2 can inhibit the thermal decomposition of inorganic carbonate, such as MgCO3 and CaCO3 in biochar...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730325/single-stage-photofermentative-biohydrogen-production-from-sugar-beet-molasses-by-different-purple-non-sulfur-bacteria
#13
Emrah Sagir, Ebru Ozgur, Ufuk Gunduz, Inci Eroglu, Meral Yucel
Biohydrogen production via fermentative routes offers considerable advantages in waste recycling and sustainable energy production. This can be realized by single-stage dark or photofermentative processes, or by a two-stage integrated process; the latter offering the higher production yields due to complete conversion of sugar substrates into H2 and CO2. However, problems arising from the integration of these two processes limit its scale-up and implementation. Hence, high efficiency one-step fermentative biohydrogen production processes from sugar-rich wastes are preferable...
July 20, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729874/systematic-analysis-of-hsf-family-genes-in-the-brassica-napus-genome-reveals-novel-responses-to-heat-drought-and-high-co2-stresses
#14
Xiaoyi Zhu, Chunqian Huang, Liang Zhang, Hongfang Liu, Jinhui Yu, Zhiyong Hu, Wei Hua
Drought and heat stress are major causes of lost plant crop yield. In the future, high levels of CO2, in combination of other abiotic stress factors, will become a novel source of stress. Little is known of the mechanisms involved in the acclimation responses of plants to this combination of abiotic stress factors, though it has been demonstrated that heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are involved in plant response to various abiotic stresses. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification and a systematic analysis of genes in the Hsf gene family in Brassica napus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728911/effects-of-riluzole-on-spinal-seizure-like-activity-in-the-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparation-of-newborn-rat
#15
Shih Tien Lin, Masayuki Ohbayashi, Toshinori Yamamoto, Hiroshi Onimaru, Mari Kogo
Riluzole blocks persistent Na(+) current, inhibits generation of neuronal bursts and decreases glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In previous studies of respiratory activity, riluzole suppressed inspiratory-related burst generation activity in rat slice or en bloc preparations. We examined riluzole's effects on inspiratory burst generation and drug-induced seizure-like activity in newborn rat en bloc preparations. Medulla-spinal cord preparations from postnatal day 0-3 Wistar rats were isolated under deep isoflurane anesthesia and were superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid equilibrated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2, pH 7...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728410/microbial-electrolytic-capture-separation-and-regeneration-of-co2-for-biogas-upgrading
#16
Xiangdan Jin, Yifeng Zhang, Xiaohu Li, Nannan Zhao, Irini Angelidaki
Biogas upgrading to natural gas quality is essential for the efficient use of biogas in various applications. Carbon dioxide (CO2) which constitutes a major part of the biogas is generally removed by physicochemical methods. However, most of the methods are expensive and often present environmental challenges. In this study, an innovative microbial electrolytic system was developed to capture, separate and regenerate CO2 for biogas upgrading without external supply of chemicals, and potentially to treat wastewater...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727783/the-impact-of-local-government-investment-on-the-carbon-emissions-reduction-effect-an-empirical-analysis-of-panel-data-from-30-provinces-and-municipalities-in-china
#17
Lingyun He, Fang Yin, Zhangqi Zhong, Zhihua Ding
Among studies of the factors that influence carbon emissions and related regulations, economic aggregates, industrial structures, energy structures, population levels, and energy prices have been extensively explored, whereas studies from the perspective of fiscal leverage, particularly of local government investment (LGI), are rare. Of the limited number of studies on the effect of LGI on carbon emissions, most focus on its direct effect. Few studies consider regulatory effects, and there is a lack of emphasis on local areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727446/reductive-outer-sphere-single-electron-transfer-is-an-exception-rather-than-the-rule-in-natural-and-engineered-chlorinated-ethene-dehalogenation
#18
Benjamin Heckel, Stefan Cretnik, Sarah Kliegman, Orfan Shouakar-Stash, Kristopher McNeill, Martin Elsner
Chlorinated ethenes (CEs) such as perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene are notorious groundwater contaminants. Although reductive dehalogenation is key to their environmental and engineered degradation, underlying reaction mechanisms remain elusive. Outer-sphere reductive single electron transfer (OS-SET) has been proposed for such different processes as Vitamin B12-dependent biodegradation and zero-valent metal-mediated dehalogenation. Compound-specific isotope effect (13C/12C, 37Cl/35Cl) analysis offers a new opportunity to test these hypotheses...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727249/dynamics-of-amino-acid-redistribution-in-the-carnivorous-venus-flytrap-dionaea-muscipula-after-digestion-of-13-c-15-n-labeled-prey
#19
Jörg Kruse, Peng Gao, Monika Eibelmeier, Saleh Alfarraj, Heinz Rennenberg
Amino acids represent an important component in the diet of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), and supply plants with much needed nitrogen resources upon capture of insect prey. Little is known about the significance of prey-derived carbon backbones of amino acids for the success of Dionaea's carnivorous life-style. The present study tracked changes in plant amino acid pools and their δ(13) C- and δ(15) N-signatures, after half of all traps per plant had been fed with contrasting amounts of double-labeled insect powder (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg per trap)...
July 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727232/functional-genomic-analysis-of-corals-from-natural-co2-seeps-reveals-core-molecular-responses-involved-in-acclimatization-to-ocean-acidification
#20
C D Kenkel, A Moya, J Strahl, C Humphrey, L K Bay
Little is known about the potential for acclimatization or adaptation of corals to ocean acidification and even less about the molecular mechanisms underpinning these processes. Here we examine global gene expression patterns in corals and their intracellular algal symbionts from two replicate population pairs in Papua New Guinea that have undergone long-term acclimatization to natural variation in pCO2 . In the coral host, only 61 genes were differentially expressed in response to pCO2 environment, but the pattern of change was highly consistent between replicate populations, likely reflecting the core expression homeostasis response to ocean acidification...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
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