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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637277/measuring-co2-and-hco3-permeabilities-of-isolated-chloroplasts-using-a-mims-18o-approach
#1
Dimitri Tolleter, Vincent Chochois, Richard Poiré, G Dean Price, Murray R Badger
To support photosynthetic CO2 fixation by Rubisco, the chloroplast must be fed with inorganic carbon in the form of CO2 or bicarbonate. However, the mechanisms allowing the rapid passage of this gas and this charged molecule through the bounding membranes of the chloroplast envelope are not yet completely elucidated. We describe here a method allowing us to measure the permeability of these two molecules through the chloroplast envelope using a membrane inlet mass spectrometer and 18O-labelled inorganic carbon...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636403/applying-precision-medicine-to-trial-design-using-physiology-extracorporeal-co2-removal-for-ards
#2
Ewan C Goligher, Marcelo B P Amato, Arthur S Slutsky
In clinical trials of therapies for ARDS, the average treatment effect in the study population may be attenuated because individual patient responses vary widely. This inflates sample size requirements and increases the cost and difficulty of conducting successful clinical trials. One solution is to enrich the study population with patients most likely to benefit based on predicted patient response to treatment (predictive enrichment). In this perspective, we apply the precision medicine paradigm to the emerging use of extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) for ultra-protective ventilation in ARDS...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636338/contributions-of-local-farming-to-urban-sustainability-in-the-northeast-united-states
#3
Benjamin P Goldstein, Michael Z Hauschild, John E Fernández, Morten Birkved
Food consumption is an important contributor to a city's environmental impacts (carbon emissions, land occupation, water use, etc.) Urban farming (UF) has been advocated as a means to increase urban sustainability by reducing food-related transport and tapping into local resources. Taking Boston as an illustrative Northeast U.S. city, we developed a novel method to estimate sub-urban, food-borne carbon and land footprints using multiregion-input-output modeling and nutritional surveys. Computer simulations utilizing primary data explored UF's ability to reduce these footprints using select farming technologies, building on previous city-scale UF assessments which have hitherto been dependent on proxy data for UF...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636099/spectators-or-participants-how-can-setac-become-more-engaged-in-international-climate-change-research-programs
#4
Ralph G Stahl, Jennifer L Stauber, William H Clements
Environmental toxicologists and chemists have been crucial to evaluating the chemical fate and toxicological effects of environmental contaminants, including chlorinated pesticides, before and after Rachel Carson's publication of Silent Spring in 1962. Like chlorinated pesticides previously, global climate change is widely considered to be one of the most important environmental challenges of our time. Over the past 30 yr, climate scientists and modelers have shown that greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 cause radiative forcing (climate forcing) and lead to increased global temperatures...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635998/heterogeneous-catalytic-hydrogenation-of-co2-by-metal-oxides-defect-engineering-perfecting-imperfection
#5
Jia Jia, Chenxi Qian, Yuchan Dong, Young Feng Li, Hong Wang, Mireille Ghoussoub, Keith T Butler, Aron Walsh, Geoffrey A Ozin
Metal oxides with their myriad compositions, structures and bonding exhibit an incredibly diverse range of properties. It is however the defects in metal oxides that endow them with a variety of functions and it is the ability to chemically tailor the type, population and distribution of defects on the surface and in the bulk of metal oxides that delivers utility in different applications. In this Tutorial Review, we discuss how metal oxides with designed defects can be synthesized and engineered, to enable heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of gaseous carbon dioxide to chemicals and fuels...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635274/oxidation-state-dependent-binding-properties-of-the-active-site-in-a-mo-containing-formate-dehydrogenase
#6
William E Robinson, Arnau Bassegoda, Erwin Reisner, Judy Hirst
Molybdenum-containing formate dehydrogenase H from Escherichia coli (EcFDH-H) is a powerful model system for studies of the reversible reduction of CO2 to formate. However, the mechanism of FDH catalysis is currently debated, and whether the primary Mo coordination sphere remains saturated or one of the ligands dissociates to allow direct substrate binding during turnover is disputed. Here, we describe how oxidation state-dependent changes at the active site alter its inhibitor binding properties. Using protein film electrochemistry we show that formate oxidation by EcFDH-H is inhibited strongly and competitively by N3-, OCN-, SCN-, NO2- and NO3-, whereas CO2 reduction is inhibited only weakly and not competitively...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635263/crystalline-nanochannels-with-pendant-azobenzene-groups-steric-or-polar-effects-on-gas-adsorption-and-diffusion
#7
Hubiao Huang, Hiroshi Sato, Takuzo Aida
An azobenzene-containing, zirconium-based metal-organic framework ((Azo)MOF), upon irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light at 365 ± 10 nm, underwent trans-to-cis isomerization of its azobenzene pendants to furnish the cis-isomer content of 21% ((Azo)MOF(21%)) in 30 min at the photostationary state and underwent backward isomerization into (Azo)MOF(1%) upon either irradiation with visible light (420-480 nm) or heating. When the cis-isomer content increased, the diffusion rate and amount of CO2 adsorbed into the nanochannels of (Azo)MOF decreased considerably...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634605/functionalised-cyclodextrin-based-metal-organic-frameworks
#8
K J Hartlieb, A W Peters, T C Wang, P Deria, O K Farha, J T Hupp, J F Stoddart
CD-MOF, an extended framework incorporating the C8 symmetric cyclic oligosaccharide, γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), is based on the coordination of alkali metal cations to alternating α-1,4-linked d-glucopyranosyl units on the primary and secondary faces of the γ-CD tori. Here, we report the synthesis and characterisation of an amino-functionalised CD-MOF that is isostructural with pristine CD-MOF and adsorbs CO2 permanently.
June 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634368/preparation-and-properties-of-a-hyperbranch-structured-polyamine-adsorbent-for-carbon-dioxide-capture
#9
Hui He, Yajie Hu, Shuixia Chen, Linzhou Zhuang, Beibei Ma, Qinghua Wu
A fibrous adsorbent with amino-terminated hyperbranch structure (PP-AM-HBP-NH2) was prepared by grafting hyperbranched polyamine (HBP-NH2) onto the acrylamide-modified polypropylene (PP) fibers. The grafting of AM on PP fibers provided the active sites for introducing HBP-NH2 onto the PP fibers. This kind of "grafting to" procedure to synthesize hyperbranch-structured fiber could overcome the disadvantages of stepwise growth procedure, avoiding the complicated synthesis process and the requirement of strict experimental conditions...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633912/life-cycle-assessment-and-life-cycle-costs-for-pre-disaster-waste-management-systems
#10
Yohei Wakabayashi, Tsai Peii, Tomohiro Tabata, Takashi Saeki
This study develops a method of environmental and economic evaluation of an integrated disaster waste management system that considers the spatial scale of removal, transport, and treatment of disaster waste. A case study was conducted on combustibles, which is a type of disaster waste derived from dwellings, in Mie Prefecture, Japan. First, we calculated the quantity and the spatial distribution of disaster waste derived from dwellings and tsunami debris produced as a result of a large-scale earthquake. The quantity of disaster waste was estimated as 7,178,000t with functioning flood-preventing facilities and 11,956,000t without functioning flood prevention facilities...
June 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633366/magnesium-deficiency-induced-alterations-of-gas-exchange-major-metabolites-and-key-enzymes-differ-among-roots-and-lower-and-upper-leaves-of-citrus-sinensis-seedlings
#11
Chun-Ping Li, Yi-Ping Qi, Jiang Zhang, Lin-Tong Yang, Dan-Hong Wang, Xin Ye, Ning-Wei Lai, Ling-Ling Tan, Dan Lin, Li-Song Chen
Magnesium (Mg)-deficiency is a widespread problem adversely affecting the quality and yield of crops, including citrus. 'Xuegan' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] seedlings were irrigated every other day with nutrient solution at an Mg concentration of 0 mM (Mg-deficiency) or 1 mM (Mg-sufficiency) for 16 weeks. Thereafter, biomass, leaf mass per area, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), pigments in the upper and lower leaves, Mg, gas exchange, organic acids, nonstructural carbohydrates, total soluble proteins, amino acids, phenolics and anthocyanins, and key enzymes related to organic acid, amino acid and phenolic metabolisms in the roots, and upper and lower leaves were assayed in order to test the hypothesis that Mg-deficiency-induced alterations of gas exchange, major metabolites and key enzymes may differ among the roots, and upper and lower leaves...
June 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633328/identification-and-characterization-of-a-solute-carrier-cia8-involved-in-inorganic-carbon-acclimation-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#12
Marylou C Machingura, Joanna Bajsa-Hirschel, Susan M Laborde, Joshua B Schwartzenburg, Bratati Mukherjee, Ananya Mukherjee, Steve V Pollock, Britta Förster, G Dean Price, James V Moroney
The supply of inorganic carbon (Ci) at the site of fixation by Rubisco is a key parameter for efficient CO2 fixation in aquatic organisms including the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells, when grown on limiting CO2, have a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that functions to concentrate CO2 at the site of Rubisco. Proteins thought to be involved in inorganic carbon uptake have been identified and localized to the plasma membrane or chloroplast envelope. However, current CCM models suggest that additional molecular components are involved in Ci uptake...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633304/molecular-aspects-of-the-biophysical-co2-concentrating-mechanism-and-its-regulation-in-marine-diatoms
#13
Yoshinori Tsuji, Kensuke Nakajima, Yusuke Matsuda
Diatoms operate a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that drives upwards of 20% of annual global primary production. Recent progress in CCM research in the marine pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum revealed that this diatom directly takes up HCO3- from seawater through low-CO2-inducible plasma membrane HCO3- transporters, which belong to the solute carrier (SLC) 4 family. Apart from this, studies of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in diatoms have revealed considerable diversity in classes and localization among species...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633287/genetic-diseases-and-aneuploidies-can-be-detected-with-a-single-blastocyst-biopsy-a-successful-clinical-approach
#14
Maria Giulia Minasi, Francesco Fiorentino, Alessandra Ruberti, Anil Biricik, Elisabetta Cursio, Ettore Cotroneo, Maria Teresa Varricchio, Matteo Surdo, Francesca Spinella, Ermanno Greco
STUDY QUESTION: Can simultaneous detection of aneuploidies and genetic diseases or chromosomal aberrations in blastocysts reduce the chance of transferring embryos with low implantation potential, guaranteeing good clinical outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: The screening for chromosomal aneuploidies revealed that 50.6% of blastocysts diagnosed free of genetic disease or balanced, were aneuploid, therefore avoiding the transfer of blastocysts potentially resulting in implantation failures, miscarriages, or in some cases, in health affected live births...
June 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633078/utilization-of-phosphogypsum-and-phosphate-tailings-for-cemented-paste-backfill
#15
Qiusong Chen, Qinli Zhang, Andy Fourie, Chen Xin
This research is an investigation of the feasibility of utilizing phosphogypsum (PG) and phosphate tailings (PTS) for cemented paste backfill. Some experiments were conducted with various combinations of PTS and PG as aggregates, along with slags and/or Portland cement as binders and CaO as an additive. The influence of the PG's ageing time on the consolidation of backfill was also explored. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS), the generated gases and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) were all tested and used in the analysis of backfill characteristics...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633067/microbial-electrosynthesis-of-butyrate-from-carbon-dioxide-production-and-extraction
#16
Pau Batlle-Vilanova, Ramon Ganigué, Sara Ramió-Pujol, Lluís Bañeras, Gerard Jiménez, Manuela Hidalgo, M Dolors Balaguer, Jesús Colprim, Sebastià Puig
To date acetate is the main product of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) from carbon dioxide (CO2). In this work a tubular bioelectrochemical system was used to carry out MES and enhance butyrate production over the other organic products. Batch tests were performed at a fixed cathode potential of -0.8V vs SHE. The reproducibility of the results according to previous experiments was validated in a preliminary test. According to the literature butyrate production could take place by chain elongation reactions at low pH and high hydrogen partial pressure (pH2)...
June 15, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632456/effect-of-carbon-dioxide-laser-on-increasing-vestibular-depth-in-cleft-lip-and-palate-patients
#17
Sogra Yassaei, Hossein Aghili, Alireza Navab Azam, Mahjobeh Gholdani Moghadam, Isa Safari
BACKGROUND: Shallow upper buccal sulcus deformity in cleft lip and palate patients is one of the common secondary deformities after primary cleft lip and palate repair; this deformity may prevent or complicate orthodontic and prosthodontic procedures causing aesthetic and functional problems. A number of methods are described to increase the anterior maxillary sulcus in these patients. PURPOSE: This study assessed the use of a carbon dioxide laser (CO2) to increase the sulcus depth...
June 20, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632392/lewis-acid-promoted-hydrogenation-of-co2-and-hcoo-by-amine-boranes-mechanistic-insight-from-computational-approach
#18
Lisa Roy, Boyli Ghosh, Ankan Paul
We employ quantum chemical calculations to study the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide by amine-boranes, NMe3BH3 ((Me3)AB) and NH3BH3 (AB) weakly bonded to a bulkier Lewis acid, Al(C6F5)3 (LA). Additionally, computations has also been conducted to elucidate the mechanism of hydrogenation of carbon dioxide by (Me3)AB while captured between one Lewis Base (P(o-tol3), (LB)) and two Lewis acids, Al(C6F5)3. In agreement to the experiments, our computational study predicts that hydride transfer to conjugated HCO2(‒), generated in the reaction of (Me3)AB-LA with CO2, is not feasible...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632386/synthesis-of-hierarchically-structured-hybrid-materials-by-controlled-self-assembly-of-metal-organic-framework-with-mesoporous-silica-for-co2-adsorption
#19
Chong Chen, Bingxue Li, Lijin Zhou, Zefeng Xia, Nengjie Feng, Jing Ding, Lei Wang, Hui Wan, Guofeng Guan
The HKUST-1@SBA-15 composites with hierarchical pore structure were constructed by in situ self-assembly of metal-organic framework (MOF) with mesoporous silica. The structure directing role of SBA-15 had an obvious impact on the growth of MOF crystals, which in turn affected the morphologies and structural properties of the composites. The pristine HKUST-1 and the composites with different contents of SBA-15 were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, TG, XPS, and CO2-TPD techniques...
June 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631882/tuning-surface-polarity-of-microporous-organic-polymers-for-co2-capture
#20
Qihua Yang, Jian Chen, He Li, MingMei Zhong
CO2 capture is very important for reducing CO2 concentration in atmosphere. Herein, we report the preparation of microporous polymers with tunable surface polarity for CO2 capture. -NH2, -SO3H and -SO3Li functionalized porous polymers have been successfully prepared by post-synthesis modification of microporous polymers (P-PhPh3 prepared with 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene as monomer and AlCl3 as catalyst) via chemical transformations such as nitration-reduction, sulfonation and cationic exchange. The CO2 adsorption selectivity (CO2/N2 and CO2/H2) and isosteric heats of the microporous polymers increase markedly after modification, P-PhPh3-NH2 and P-PhPh3-SO3Li afford higher CO2 uptake capacity than P-PhPh3 at pressure less than 0...
June 20, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
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