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callous unemotional traits

Patricia K Kerig, Crosby A Modrowski
The increasing prevalence of girls in the juvenile justice system suggests the importance of examining whether models of adolescent offending are differentiated by gender. Polyvictimization has emerged as a robust predictor of youth justice involvement, especially for girls, and research exploring mechanisms underlying the link between polyvictimization and offending suggests further gender differences in that callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been implicated in samples of boys whereas borderline personality (BP) traits have been implicated amongst girls...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
David J Cottrell, Alex Wright-Hughes, Michelle Collinson, Paula Boston, Ivan Eisler, Sarah Fortune, Elizabeth H Graham, Jonathan Green, Allan O House, Michael Kerfoot, David W Owens, Eirini-Christina Saloniki, Mima Simic, Sandy Tubeuf, Amanda J Farrin
BACKGROUND: Self-harm in adolescents is common and repetition rates high. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce self-harm. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of family therapy (FT) compared with treatment as usual (TAU). DESIGN: A pragmatic, multicentre, individually randomised controlled trial of FT compared with TAU. Participants and therapists were aware of treatment allocation; researchers were blind to allocation...
March 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Evelien Platje, Stephan C J Huijbregts, Stephanie H M van Goozen, Arne Popma, Maaike Cima, Hanna J T Swaab
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are thought to characterize children exhibiting persistent and severe conduct problems (CPs). Reward and punishment sensitivity have often been investigated, yet executive function problems have mostly been studied in adults. Moreover, the level of co-occurring CPs is important to take into account. Therefore, the current study investigated differences in reward responsivity, punishment sensitivity, and executive functioning (EF) between four subgroups of general community boys ( N = 346, Mage = 14...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Nora Maria Raschle, Willeke Martine Menks, Lynn Valérie Fehlbaum, Martin Steppan, Areti Smaragdi, Karen Gonzalez-Madruga, Jack Rogers, Roberta Clanton, Gregor Kohls, Anne Martinelli, Anka Bernhard, Kerstin Konrad, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Christine M Freitag, Graeme Fairchild, Stephane A De Brito, Christina Stadler
Callous-unemotional traits are characterized by a lack of empathy, a disregard for others' feelings and shallow or deficient affect, such as a lack of remorse or guilt. Neuroanatomical correlates of callous-unemotional traits have been demonstrated in clinical samples (i.e., adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders). However, it is unknown whether callous-unemotional traits are associated with neuroanatomical correlates within normative populations without clinical levels of aggression or antisocial behavior...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Raquel Seijas, Mateu Servera, Gloria García-Banda, G Leonard Burns, Jonathan Preszler, Christopher T Barry, Kaylee Litson, Christian Geiser
Limited prosocial emotions (LPE, also referred to as callous-unemotional [CU] traits) are considered to reflect a more trait- than state-like construct. Our first objective was to determine the amount true score variance in CU/LPE that was consistent (trait consistency) over two occasions (12-month interval) of measurement versus specific (occasion-specificity) to each occasion. Our second objective was to determine the convergent validity of the consistent (trait) and occasion-specific (state) variance in CU/LPE symptom ratings within and across settings...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Yoel Elizur, Lior Y Somech
Parenting intervention (PI) is an effective treatment for children's conduct problems (CP) that has been shown to be mediated by improved parenting practices and parenting self-efficacy. Recently, Hitkashrut's randomized controlled trial demonstrated that ineffective parenting (IP) mediated effects on callous-unemotional (CU) traits and effortful control (EC), while controlling for more general treatment effects on CP. These temperament and personality-based features predict the formation of early-onset antisocial trajectories with poor long-term prognosis...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Alexis M Garcia, Paulo A Graziano, Katie C Hart
This study examined the role of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP) and their response to time-out (TO). One hundred ninety preschoolers (76% boys, Mage = 4.92) with at-risk/clinically elevated levels of EBP participated in an 8-week summer treatment program (STP-PreK). Total number of minutes spent daily in TO for intentional aggression (IA) and repeated non-compliance (RNC) were recorded during the initial (T1) and final (T2) phases of the STP-PreK. After accounting for severity of EBP and levels of TO at T1, higher levels of CU traits predicted greater total levels of TO at T2...
February 19, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sarah L Anderson, Yao Zheng, Robert J McMahon
Despite strong evidence of the relationship between conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and substance use, it is unclear how callous-unemotional (CU) traits predict substance use over and above CD symptoms, and their potential interaction. This study used data from 753 participants followed from grade 7 to 2-years post-high school. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits predicted the onset of cigarette use, alcohol misuse, and a substance use composite at grade 7 only when no CD symptoms were present. Among those without CD symptoms, boys showed greater change in the odds of using cigarettes, and were more likely to misuse alcohol or use any substance at grade 7 than girls...
February 17, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Andrew D Grotzinger, Frank D Mann, Megan W Patterson, Jennifer L Tackett, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
Although testosterone is associated with aggression in the popular imagination, previous research on the links between testosterone and human aggression has been inconsistent. This inconsistency might be because testosterone's effects on aggression depend on other moderators. In a large adolescent sample ( N = 984, of whom 460 provided hair samples), we examined associations between aggression and salivary testosterone, hair testosterone, and hair cortisol. Callous-unemotional traits, parental monitoring, and peer environment were examined as potential moderators of hormone-behavior associations...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Harma Meffert, Laura C Thornton, Patrick M Tyler, Mary L Botkin, Anna K Erway, Venkata Kolli, Kayla Pope, Stuart F White, R James R Blair
BACKGROUND: Previous work has shown that amygdala responsiveness to fearful expressions is inversely related to level of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e. reduced guilt and empathy) in youth with conduct problems. However, some research has suggested that the relationship between pathophysiology and CU traits may be different in those youth with significant prior trauma exposure. METHODS: In experiment 1, 72 youth with varying levels of disruptive behavior and trauma exposure performed a gender discrimination task while viewing morphed fear expressions (0, 50, 100, 150 fear) and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent responses were recorded...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Arjun Sethi, Sagari Sarkar, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Essi Viding, Marco Catani, Declan G M Murphy, Michael C Craig
We recently reported that emotional detachment in adult psychopathy was associated with structural abnormalities in the dorsal 'default-mode' network (DMN). However, it is unclear whether these differences are present in young people at risk of psychopathy. The most widely recognised group at risk for psychopathy are children/adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. We therefore examined the microstructure of the dorsal DMN in 27 CD youths (14-with/13-without CU traits) compared to 16 typically developing controls using DTI tractography...
January 27, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Nicola Wright, Jonathan Hill, Helen Sharp, Andrew Pickles
BACKGROUND: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are characterized by a lack of responsiveness to the emotions of others, particularly negative emotions. A parenting environment where the child's own distress emotions are sensitively responded to may help foster the child's ability to respond to the emotions of others. We tested whether maternal sensitivity to distress, and other parenting characteristics, were associated with CU traits over the preschool period, and examined whether this was mediated via infant attachment status...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Ela Polek, Peter B Jones, Pasco Fearon, Jeannette Brodbeck, Michael Moutoussis, Nspn Consortium, Ray Dolan, Peter Fonagy, Edward T Bullmore, Ian M Goodyer
BACKGROUND: Personality with stable behavioural traits emerges in the adolescent and young adult years. Models of putatively distinct, but correlated, personality traits have been developed to describe behavioural styles including schizotypal, narcissistic, callous-unemotional, negative emotionality, antisocial and impulsivity traits. These traits have influenced the classification of their related personality disorders. We tested if a bifactor model fits the data better than correlated-factor and orthogonal-factor models and subsequently validated the obtained factors with mental health measures and treatment history...
January 26, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Marc Jambon, Judith G Smetana
Drawing on the framework of social domain theory, this multi-method, multi-informant longitudinal study examined whether callous-unemotional (CU) tendencies moderated the association between U.S. 4 to 7 year olds' (n = 135; Mage = 5.65, 50% male; 75% White) ability to differentiate hypothetical, prototypical moral and conventional transgressions along theoretical criteria and teacher (n = 49) and parent (n = 128, 91% mothers) ratings of physical aggression. Deficits in domain distinction ability were associated with greater teacher-reported aggression both concurrently and 9 months later, but only for children high in CU traits...
January 22, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Peng-Wei Wang, Ray C Hsiao, Li Ming Chen, Yu-Hsien Sung, Huei-Fan Hu, Cheng-Fang Yen
PURPOSE: This study examined associations between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and involvement in school bullying among 613 Taiwanese adolescents. METHODS: CU traits were determined using the self-reported Chinese versions of the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (C-ICUT) and the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire (C-SBEQ). The study used logistic regression analysis to assess associations between CU traits and types of involvement in school bullying, with controls for the effect of age, sex, and residential background...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Amy L Byrd, Samuel W Hawes, Jeffrey D Burke, Rolf Loeber, Dustin A Pardini
Abnormalities in reward and punishment processing are implicated in the development of conduct problems (CP), particularly among youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, no studies have examined whether CP children with high versus low CU traits exhibit differences in the neural response to reward and punishment. A clinic-referred sample of CP boys with high versus low CU traits (ages 8-11; n = 37) and healthy controls (HC; n = 27) completed a fMRI task assessing reward and punishment processing...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Michaela M Mozley, Crosby A Modrowski, Patricia K Kerig
Research has demonstrated an association between childhood trauma exposure and adolescent aggression. This association may be explained by rejection sensitivity, defined as anger, or anxiety in the anticipation of rejection, which can be a consequence of trauma exposure. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits also are associated with trauma exposure and aggressive behavior; however, research has not yet investigated the interactive roles that rejection sensitivity and CU traits play in the relation between trauma exposure and aggression...
January 5, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Gemma Hammerton, Jon Heron, Liam Mahedy, Barbara Maughan, Matthew Hickman, Joseph Murray
BACKGROUND: Low resting heart rate (RHR) is a consistent biological correlate of antisocial behaviour (ASB), however potential mechanisms have been largely unexplored. We hypothesise that lower RHR will be associated with higher ASB levels in mid-adolescence and persistence into adulthood, and that these associations will be explained, in part, by sensation seeking and callous-unemotional traits. METHODS: ASB was assessed repeatedly with young people from ages 15 to 21 years in a population-based birth cohort (ALSPAC)...
January 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Ignazio Puzzo, Kiran Seunarine, Kate Sully, Angela Darekar, Chris Clark, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Graeme Fairchild
Adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) and elevated callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been reported to present with a more severe and persistent pattern of antisocial behaviour than those with low levels of CU traits. However, relatively few studies have investigated whether there are differences in brain structure between these subgroups.We acquired diffusion tensor imaging data and used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to compare adolescents with CD and high levels of CU traits (CD/CU+; n = 18, CD and low levels of CU traits (CD/CU-; n = 17) and healthy controls (HC; n = 32) on measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial (AD), radial (RD) and mean (MD) diffusivity...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Elise M Cardinale, Abigail A Marsh
In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a Limited Prosocial Emotions specifier was added to the conduct disorder diagnostic criteria to designate a subgroup of children who exhibit callous unemotional (CU) traits. The Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits (ICU) is the only dedicated measure of CU traits and was influential in the development of the Limited Prosocial Emotions specifier. Despite its role in the research and diagnosis of CU traits, some questions have persisted regarding the internal consistency and validity of the ICU and its three subscales: callous, uncaring, and unemotional...
December 1, 2017: Assessment
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