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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775975/misleading-new-insights-into-the-chrysotile-debate
#1
H-J Woitowitz, X Baur
Although there is no dispute among independent scientists about the carcinogenic and fibrogenic effects of chrysotile, the asbestos industry has been continuously and successfully acting to cast doubts on its harm. Another approach including asbestos insurance entities is to refuse compensation by raising the bar and fight criminal prosecution for asbestos-related diseases by the help of paid scientists. A recent publication on asbestos fibre burden in human lungs fits well in this context. The claim that chrysotile fibres are biopersistent in human lung is not based on the data provided by these authors, and, additionally, exhibits serious inconsistencies and obvious mismeasurements and significant methodological problems...
May 18, 2018: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775748/microrna-204-5p-regulates-3t3-l1-preadipocyte-proliferation-apoptosis-and-differentiation
#2
Jingjing Du, Peiwen Zhang, Mailin Gan, Xue Zhao, Yan Xu, Qiang Li, Yanzhi Jiang, Guoqing Tang, Mingzhou Li, Jinyong Wang, Xuewei Li, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
Obesity due to excessive lipid accumulation is closely associated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and inflammation. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie adipogenesis is crucial to develop treatments for diseases related to obesity. Here, we found that the microRNA-204-5p (miR-204-5p) was expressed at low levels in fat tissues from obese mice fed long-term with a high-fat diet (HFD). Overexpression or inhibition of miR-204-5p in vitro in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly inhibited or promoted 3T3-L1 proliferation, respectively, an effect mediated by regulating cell proliferation factors...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775678/synaptic-transmission-and-excitability-during-hypoxia-with-inflammation-and-reoxygenation-in-hippocampal-ca1-neurons
#3
Yoon-Sil Yang, Sook Jin Son, Joon Ho Choi, Jong-Cheol Rah
Although a number of experimental and clinical studies have shown that hypoxia typically accompanies acute inflammatory responses, the combinatorial effect of the two insults on basic neural function has not been thoroughly investigated. Previous studies have predominantly suggested that hypoxia reduces network activity; however, several studies suggest the opposite effect. Of note, inflammation is known to increase neural activity. In the current study, we examined the effects of limited oxygen in combination with an inflammatory stimulus, as well as the effects of reoxygenation, on synaptic transmission and excitability...
May 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775644/redox-signal-mediated-trpm2-promotes-ang-ii-induced-adipocyte-insulin-resistance-via-ca-2-dependent-camkii-jnk-cascade
#4
Min Gao, Yu Du, Jing-Wen Xie, Jing Xue, Yi-Ting Wang, Li Qin, Ming-Ming Ma, Yong-Bo Tang, Xiao-Yan Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Redox-sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+ -permeable, nonselective cation channel which plays a crucial role in various physiological processes. However, little is known whether TRPM2 is involved in adipocyte dysfunction during hypertension. In the present study, we determined the role of TRPM2 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Ang II-induced adipocyte insulin resistant model was conducted...
May 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775608/regulation-of-the-gyr-operon-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-overlapping-promoters-dna-topology-and-reiterative-transcription
#5
Rajiv Kumar Jha, Priyanka Tare, Valakunja Nagaraja
DNA gyrase introduces negative supercoils into DNA to maintain topological homeostasis. The genes encoding gyrase, gyrB and gyrA, form a dicistronic operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other actinobacteria. Earlier work indicated that DNA relaxation stimulates the expression of the gyr genes, a phenomenon termed relaxation-stimulated transcription (RST). The present study addresses the underlying mechanism of gyr operon regulation. The operon is regulated by overlapping and divergently oriented promoters located upstream of gyrB...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775414/venoarterial-communication-mediates-arterial-wall-shear-stress-induced-maternal-uterine-vascular-remodeling-during-pregnancy
#6
Nga Ling Ko, Liam John, Aaron Gelinne, Maurizio Mandala, George Osol
Although expansive remodeling of the maternal uterine circulation during pregnancy is essential for maintaining uteroplacental perfusion and normal fetal growth, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood. Using a rat model, surgical approaches were used to alter uterine hemodynamics and wall shear stress (WSS) in order to evaluate the effects of WSS and venoarterial communication (e.g. transfer of placentally derived growth signals from post-placental veins to pre-placental arteries) on gestational uterine vascular remodeling...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775286/multiple-architectures-and-mechanisms-of-latency-in-metallopeptidase-zymogens
#7
Joan L Arolas, Theodoros Goulas, Anna Cuppari, F Xavier Gomis-Rüth
Metallopeptidases cleave polypeptides bound in the active-site cleft of catalytic domains through a general base/acid mechanism. This involves a solvent molecule bound to a catalytic zinc and general regulation of the mechanism through zymogen-based latency. Sixty reported structures from 11 metallopeptidase families reveal that prosegments, mostly N-terminal of the catalytic domain, block the cleft regardless of their size. Prosegments may be peptides (5-14 residues), which are only structured within the zymogens, or large moieties (<227 residues) of one or two folded domains...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775218/unilateral-movement-preparation-causes-task-specific-modulation-of-tms-responses-in-the-passive-opposite-limb
#8
Lilian Chye, Stephan Riek, Aymar de Rugy, Richard G Carson, Timothy J Carroll
Corticospinal excitability is modulated for muscles on both sides of the body during unilateral movement preparation. For the effector, there is a progressive increase in excitability, and a shift in direction of muscle twitches evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) toward the impending movement. By contrast, the directional characteristics of excitability changes in the opposite (passive) limb have not been fully characterized. Here we assessed how preparation of voluntary forces towards four spatially distinct visual targets with the left wrist alters muscle twitches and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by TMS of left motor cortex...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775182/optically-dark-excitonic-states-mediated-exciton-and-biexciton-valley-dynamics-in-monolayer-wse-sub-2-sub
#9
Minghua Zhang, Jiyong Fu, A C Dias, Fanyao Qu
We present a theory to address the photoluminescence (PL) intensity and valley polarization (VP) dynamics in monolayer WSe$_2$, under the impact of excitonic dark states of both excitons and biexcitons. We find that the PL intensity of all excitonic channels including intravalley exciton (X$_{\rm b}$), intravalley biexciton (XX$_{\rm k,k}$) and intervalley biexciton (XX$_{\rm k,k^\prime}$) in particular for the {XX$_{\rm k,k}$} PL is enhanced by laser excitation fluence. In addition, our results indicate the anomalous temperature dependence of PL, i...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775133/preservation-of-electrophysiological-functional-connectivity-after-partial-corpus-callosotomy-case-report
#10
Kaitlyn Casimo, Fabio Grassia, Sandra L Poliachik, Edward Novotny, Andrew Poliakov, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Prior studies of functional connectivity following callosotomy have disagreed in the observed effects on interhemispheric functional connectivity. These connectivity studies, in multiple electrophysiological methods and functional MRI, have found conflicting reductions in connectivity or patterns resembling typical individuals. The authors examined a case of partial anterior corpus callosum connection, where pairs of bilateral electrocorticographic electrodes had been placed over homologous regions in the left and right hemispheres...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775107/heavy-metals-contamination-and-accumulation-in-submerged-macrophytes-in-an-urban-river-in-china
#11
Guangqiu Lu, Bei Wang, Cuiping Zhang, Shuying Li, Jiliang Wen, Guoli Lu, Chunrong Zhu, Yuanqing Zhou
Deteriorating urban water quality has attracted considerable attention in China. We investigated the contamination levels and distribution of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yuxi River water and sediments, and assessed the heavy metal accumulation capability of five species of submerged macrophytes: Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, Potamogeton pectinatus L., Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle, Myriophyllum spicatum L., and Potamogeton crispus L. Samples were collected from upstream and downstream locations in different season...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774939/-feasibility-and-preliminary-technical-experience-of-single-incision-plus-one-port-laparoscopic-total-gastrectomy-combined-with-%C3%AF-shaped-esophagojejunal-anastomosis-in-surgical-treatment-of-gastric-cancer
#12
Guangsheng Du, Enlai Jiang, Yuan Qiu, Wensheng Wang, Shuai Wang, Yunbo Li, Ke Peng, Xiang Li, Hua Yang, Weidong Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility, safety, and preliminary technical experience of single incision plus one port laparoscopic total gastrectomy combined with π-shaped esophagojejunal anastomosis (SILT-π) in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. METHODS: Clinical data of 5 gastric cancer patients undergoing SILT-π operation at the Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of the Army Medical University from August to October 2017 were retrospectively analyzed...
May 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774636/formation-of-supramolecular-clusters-at-the-interface-of-zeolite-x-following-the-adsorption-of-rare-earth-cations-and-their-impact-on-the-macroscopic-properties-of-the-zeolite
#13
Roberta Guzzinati, Elena Sarti, Martina Catani, Valentina Costa, Antonella Pagnoni, Annalisa Martucci, Elisa Rodeghero, Donatella Capitani, Massimiliana Pietrantonio, Alberto Cavazzini, Luisa Pasti
The adsorption behavior of neodymium (Nd3+) and yttrium (Y3+) cations on synthetic FAU zeolite 13X in its sodium form (Na13X) has been investigated by means of an approach based on both macroscopic (namely, adsorption isotherm determination and thermal analysis) and microscopic measurements (including solid-state NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction). The multidisciplinary study has revealed some unexpected features. Firstly, adsorption constants of cations are not correlated to their ionic radii (or hydration enthalpy)...
May 18, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774591/causal-estimands-and-confidence-intervals-associated-with-wilcoxon-mann-whitney-tests-in-randomized-experiments
#14
Michael P Fay, Erica H Brittain, Joanna H Shih, Dean A Follmann, Erin E Gabriel
Although the P value from a Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test is used often with randomized experiments, it is rarely accompanied with a causal effect estimate and its confidence interval. The natural parameter for the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test is the Mann-Whitney parameter, ϕ, which measures the probability that a randomly selected individual in the treatment arm will have a larger response than a randomly selected individual in the control arm (plus an adjustment for ties). We show that the Mann-Whitney parameter may be framed as a causal parameter and show that it is not equal to a closely related and nonidentifiable causal effect, ψ, the probability that a randomly selected individual will have a larger response under treatment than under control (plus an adjustment for ties)...
May 17, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774515/eating-disorder-or-oesophageal-achalasia-during-adolescence-diagnostic-difficulties
#15
REVIEW
Aurélie Letranchant, Bénédicte Pigneur, Martine Flament, Nathalie Godart
Marine was a fourteen and a half-year-old adolescent female hospitalized for an eating disorder (ED) of the anorexic type with purging behaviors. She has had a complicated life course, made up of disruptions and discontinuities, both family and school. Since the age of five, Marine had been intermittently treated in psychiatry for a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder. The current illness started with spontaneous and induced vomiting associated with major weight loss (body mass index, 15.27 kg m-2 )...
May 17, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774303/myotonia-permanens-with-nav1-4-g1306e-displays-varied-phenotypes-during-course-of-life
#16
Frank Lehmann-Horn, Adele D'Amico, Enrico Bertini, Mauro Lomonaco, Luciano Merlini, Kevin R Nelson, Heike Philippi, Gabriele Siciliano, Frank Spaans, Karin Jurkat-Rott
Introduction: Myotonia permanens due to Nav1.4-G1306E is a rare sodium channelopathy with potentially life-threatening respiratory complications. Our goal was to study phenotypic variability throughout life. Methods: Clinical neurophysiology and genetic analysis were performed. Using existing functional expression data we determined the sodium window by integration. Results: In 10 unrelated patients who were believed to have epilepsy, respiratory disease or Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, we made the same prima facie diagnosis and detected the same heterologous Nav1...
September 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773988/microglia-p2y-13-receptors-prevent-astrocyte-proliferation-mediated-by-p2y-1-receptors
#17
Clara Quintas, Nuno Vale, Jorge Gonçalves, Glória Queiroz
Cerebral inflammation is a common feature of several neurodegenerative diseases that requires a fine interplay between astrocytes and microglia to acquire appropriate phenotypes for an efficient response to neuronal damage. During brain inflammation, ATP is massively released into the extracellular medium and converted into ADP. Both nucleotides acting on P2 receptors, modulate astrogliosis through mechanisms involving microglia-astrocytes communication. In previous studies, primary cultures of astrocytes and co-cultures of astrocytes and microglia were used to investigate the influence of microglia on astroglial proliferation induced by ADPβS, a stable ADP analog...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773784/coulombic-enhanced-hetero-radical-pairing-interactions
#18
Xujun Zheng, Yang Zhang, Ning Cao, Xin Li, Shuoqing Zhang, Renfeng Du, Haiying Wang, Zhenni Ye, Yan Wang, Fahe Cao, Haoran Li, Xin Hong, Andrew C-H Sue, Chuluo Yang, Wei-Guang Liu, Hao Li
Spin-spin interactions between two identical aromatic radicals have been studied extensively and utilized to establish supramolecular recognition. Here we report that spin-pairing interactions could also take place between two different π-electron radicals, namely a bipyridinium radical cation (BPY+• ) and a naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) radical anion (NDI─• ). The occurrence of this type of previously unreported hetero radical-pairing interactions is attributed to enhancement effect of Coulombic attraction between these two radicals bearing opposite charges...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773379/production-of-nanofibrillated-cellulose-with-superior-water-redispersibility-from-lime-residues-via-a-chemical-free-process
#19
Saranya Jongaroontaprangsee, Naphaporn Chiewchan, Sakamon Devahastin
Water removal during drying of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) generally results in the formation of hydrogen bonds between fibers, leading to irreversible fiber agglomeration and hence their poor water redispersibility. The feasibility of using lime residues after juice extraction to produce dried NFC possessing superior redispersibility was here investigated. After autoclaving at 110-130 °C for 2 h, high-shear homogenization at 3800 × g for 15 min and high-pressure homogenization at 40 MPa for 5 passes, NFC having the diameters of 5-28 nm and crystallinity index of 44-46% could be obtained...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773149/paradoxical-effect-of-social-support-among-people-living-with-hiv-a-diary-study-investigating-the-buffering-hypothesis
#20
Marcin Rzeszutek, Ewa Gruszczyńska
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the buffering role of time-varying received and provided support in the relationship between stress and end-of-day mood among people living with HIV. In addition, the moderating role of intimate relationships in this buffering effect was verified. METHODS: The participants included 115 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HIV infection. The data were collected using an online diary method. For five consecutive days (from Monday to Friday), participants completed an online time-stamped questionnaire in the evening to assess their end-of day-mood, stress related to a central hassle on any given day and social support that was received and provided...
June 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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