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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351428/control-of-appetite-blood-glucose-and-blood-pressure-during-melanocortin-4-receptor-activation-in-normoglycemic-and-diabetic-npy-deficient-mice
#1
Alexandre A da Silva, John Nathan Freeman, John E Hall, Jussara M do Carmo
Although central melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) blockade abolishes the CNS-mediated anorexogenic, antidiabetic and cardiovascular actions of leptin, chronic MC4R stimulation fails to completely mimic leptin's effects. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) and MC4R exert opposite effects on cardiovascular and metabolic functions, we tested its role in offsetting the long-term actions of MC4R activation. Wild-type (WT) and NPY-deficient (NPY-/-) mice were implanted with telemetry probes for measuring mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) 24-h/d...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351019/keystone-individuals-alter-ecological-and-evolutionary-consumer-resource-dynamics
#2
Denon Start
Intraspecific variation is central to our understanding of evolution and ecology, but these fields generally consider either the mean trait value or its variance. Alternatively, the keystone individual concept from behavioral ecology posits that a single individual with an extreme phenotype can have disproportionate and irreplaceable effects on group dynamics. Here, I generalize this concept to include nonbehavioral traits and broader ecological and evolutionary dynamics. I test for the effects of individuals with extreme phenotypes on the ecology and evolution of a gall-forming fly and its natural enemies that select for opposite gall sizes...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350913/environmentally-triggerable-retinoic-acid-inducible-gene-i-agonists-using-synthetic-polymer-overhangs
#3
Christian R Palmer, Max E Jacobson, Olga Fedorova, Anna M Pyle, John T Wilson
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that potently activates antiviral innate immunity upon recognition of 5' triphosphorylated double-stranded RNA (pppRNA). Accordingly, RNA ligands of the RIG-I pathway have recently emerged as promising antiviral agents, vaccine adjuvants, and cancer immunotherapeutics. However, RIG-I is expressed constitutively in virtually all cell types, and therefore administration of RIG-I agonists causes risk for systemic inflammation and possible dose-limiting toxicities...
January 19, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350680/effects-of-microrna-135a-on-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-migration-and-invasion-of-bladder-cancer-cells-by-targeting-gsk3%C3%AE-through-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#4
Xia-Wa Mao, Jia-Quan Xiao, Zhong-Yi Li, Yi-Chun Zheng, Nan Zhang
This study investigated the effects of microRNA-135a (miR-135a) targeting of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion of bladder cancer (BC) cells by mediating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. BC and adjacent normal tissues were collected from 165 BC patients. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR were used to detect the expression of GSK3β, β-catenin, cyclinD1, E-cadherin, vimentin and miR-135a in BC tissues and cells. Cells were assigned to blank, negative control (NC), miR-135a mimics, miR-135a inhibitors, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-GSK3β or miR-135a inhibitors+siRNA-GSK3β groups...
January 19, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349903/gp73-promotes-invasion-and-metastasis-of-bladder-cancer-by-regulating-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad2-signalling-pathway
#5
Han-Jie Yang, Ge-Liang Liu, Bo Liu, Tian Liu
This study investigated the effects of Golgi membrane protein 73 (GP73) on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and on bladder cancer cell invasion and metastasis through the TGF-β1/Smad2 signalling pathway. Paired bladder cancer and adjacent tissue samples (102) and normal bladder tissue samples (106) were obtained. Bladder cancer cell lines (T24, 5637, RT4, 253J and J82) were selected and assigned to blank, negative control (NC), TGF-β, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), TGF-β1+ TSP-1, GP73-siRNA-1, GP73-siRNA-2, GP73-siRNA-1+ TSP-1, GP73-siRNA-1+ pcDNA-GP73, WT1-siRNA and WT1-siRNA + GP73-siRNA-1 groups...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349575/parkin-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-cancer-a-double-edged-sword
#6
REVIEW
Khushnuma Wahabi, Ahmad Perwez, Moshahid A Rizvi
Parkin for more than a decade has been portrayed as a neuroprotector gene is now increasingly emerging as a multifaceted gene that can exert entirely opposite effects i.e., both cell proliferation and apoptosis. Parkinson's disease, a neurological disease, progresses due to excess in cell death, while, in case of cancer, cell death normally fails to occur. Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, was first identified as a gene implicated in autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism, but several evidences indicate that Parkin is a tumor suppressor gene, involved in a variety of cancers...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349242/the-negative-effects-on-mental-health-of-being-in-a-non-desired-occupation-in-an-increasingly-precarious-labour-market
#7
Catarina Canivet, Gunnar Aronsson, Claudia Bernhard-Oettel, Constanze Leineweber, Mahnaz Moghaddassi, Johanna Stengård, Hugo Westerlund, Per-Olof Östergren
Precarious employment has been associated with poor mental health. Moreover, increasing labour market precariousness may cause individuals to feel 'locked-in', in non-desired workplaces or occupations, out of fear of not finding a new employment. This could be experienced as a 'loss of control', with similar negative health consequences. It is plausible that the extent to which being in a non-desired occupation (NDO) or being in precarious employment (PE) has a negative impact on mental health differs according to age group...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348873/impaired-epidermal-langerhans-cell-maturation-in-tgf%C3%AE-inducible-early-gene-1-tieg1-knockout-mice
#8
Xilin Zhang, Yi Yao, Wei-Zen Wei, Zeng-Quan Yang, Jun Gu, Li Zhou
TGF-β-inducible early gene 1 (TIEG1), also known as Krüppel-like factor 10 (Klf10), represents a major downstream transcription factor of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling. Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), a unique subpopulation of dendritic cells (DC), essentially mediates immune surveillance and tolerance. TGF-β1 plays a pivotal role in LC maintenance and function after birth, although the underpinning mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we hypothesized that TIEG1 might be involved in TGF-β1-mediated LC homeostasis and function...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348846/st6galnac1-plays-important-roles-in-enhancing-cancer-stem-phenotypes-of-colorectal-cancer-via-the-akt-pathway
#9
Tadashi Ogawa, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Aiko Murai, Toshihiko Nishidate, Kenji Okita, Liming Wang, Yuzuru Ikehara, Tetsuta Satoyoshi, Akihiro Usui, Terufumi Kubo, Munehide Nakastugawa, Takayuki Kanaseki, Tomohide Tsukahara, Goro Kutomi, Tomohisa Furuhata, Koichi Hirata, Noriyuki Sato, Toru Mizuguchi, Ichiro Takemasa, Toshihiko Torigoe
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a mortal disease due to treatment resistance, recurrence and distant metastasis. Emerging evidence has revealed that a small sub-population of cancer cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs)/ cancer-initiating cells (CICs) is endowed with high levels of tumor-initiating ability, self-renewal ability and differentiation ability and is responsible for treatment resistance, recurrence and distant metastasis. Eradication of CSCs/CICs is essential to improve current treatments. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CSCs/CICs are maintained are still elusive...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348629/the-suppressive-role-of-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-endometrial-cancer
#10
Xiaoyan Xin, Xianqin Zeng, Dilu Feng, Teng Hua, Shuangge Liu, Shuqi Chi, Qinghua Hu, Hongbo Wang
Studies have shown that calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in the progressions of several human cancers. However, the role of CaSR in endometrial cancer remains unknown. This study provides a preliminary analysis of the CaSR effect on endometrial cancer development. Ectopic CaSR expression by lentiviral transfection (CaSR-OV) in Ishikawa cells significantly increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels and cell apoptosis. E-cadherin and β-catenin expression and complex formation at the membrane were increased in CaSR-OV Ishikawa cells relative to control Ishikawa cells (vector)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348512/ca1-and-ca3-differentially-support-spontaneous-retrieval-of-episodic-contexts-within-human-hippocampal-subfields
#11
Halle R Dimsdale-Zucker, Maureen Ritchey, Arne D Ekstrom, Andrew P Yonelinas, Charan Ranganath
The hippocampus plays a critical role in spatial and episodic memory. Mechanistic models predict that hippocampal subfields have computational specializations that differentially support memory. However, there is little empirical evidence suggesting differences between the subfields, particularly in humans. To clarify how hippocampal subfields support human spatial and episodic memory, we developed a virtual reality paradigm where participants passively navigated through houses (spatial contexts) across a series of videos (episodic contexts)...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348394/hoxc6-predicts-invasion-and-poor-survival-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-driving-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#12
Pin-Dong Li, Peng Chen, Xin Peng, Charlie Ma, Wen-Jie Zhang, Xiao-Fang Dai
Aberrant expression of HOXC6 has been reported in several malignant tumors, yet little is known about the value of HOXC6 in invasion and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HOXC6 expression was positively correlated with high AFP level, liver cirrhosis, larger tumor, vascular invasion and BCLC stage. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that HOXC6 was an independent predictor for overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR). In addition, HOXC6 status could act as prognostic predictor in different risk subgroups...
January 15, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347917/does-different-information-disclosure-on-placebo-control-affect-blinding-and-trial-outcomes-a-case-study-of-participant-information-leaflets-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials-of-acupuncture
#13
Soyeon Cheon, Hi-Joon Park, Younbyoung Chae, Hyangsook Lee
BACKGROUND: While full disclosure of information on placebo control in participant information leaflets (PILs) in a clinical trial is ethically required during informed consent, there have been concerning voices such complete disclosures may increase unnecessary nocebo responses, breach double-blind designs, and/or affect direction of trial outcomes. Taking an example of acupuncture studies, we aimed to examine what participants are told about placebo controls in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, and how it may affect blinding and trial outcomes...
January 18, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347904/social-skills-training-and-play-group-intervention-for-children-with-oppositional-defiant-disorders-conduct-disorder-mediating-mechanisms-in-a-head-to-head-comparison
#14
Josepha Katzmann, Anja Goertz-Dorten, Christopher Hautmann, Manfred Doepfner
OBJECTIVE: Social-cognitive information processing, social skills, and social interactions are problem-maintaining variables for aggressive behavior in children. We hypothesized that these factors may be possible mediators of the mechanism of change in the child-centered treatment of conduct disorders (CDs). The aim of the present study (Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT01406067) was to examine putative mechanisms of change for the decrease in oppositional-defiant behavior resulting from child-centered treatment of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) or CD...
January 19, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347804/active-nematic-gels-as-active-relaxing-solids
#15
Stefano S Turzi
I propose a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standard theories, activity is not introduced as an additional term of the stress tensor, but it is added as an external remodeling force that competes with the passive relaxation dynamics and drags the system out of equilibrium...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347786/dynamics-of-a-magnetic-active-brownian-particle-under-a-uniform-magnetic-field
#16
Glenn C Vidal-Urquiza, Ubaldo M Córdova-Figueroa
The dynamics of a magnetic active Brownian particle undergoing three-dimensional Brownian motion, both translation and rotation, under the influence of a uniform magnetic field is investigated. The particle self-propels at a constant speed along its magnetic dipole moment, which reorients due to the interplay between Brownian and magnetic torques, quantified by the Langevin parameter α. In this work, the time-dependent active diffusivity and the crossover time (τ^{cross})-from ballistic to diffusive regimes-are calculated through the time-dependent correlation function of the fluctuations of the propulsion direction...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347752/noise-driven-current-reversal-and-stabilization-in-the-tilted-ratchet-potential-subject-to-tempered-stable-l%C3%A3-vy-noise
#17
Mathew L Zuparic, Alexander C Kalloniatis, Dale O Roberts
We consider motion of a particle in a one-dimensional tilted ratchet potential subject to two-sided tempered stable Lévy noise characterized by strength Ω, fractional index α, skew θ, and tempering λ. We derive analytic solutions to the corresponding Fokker-Planck Lévy equations for the probability density. Due to the periodicity of the potential, we carry out reduction to a compact domain and solve for the analog of steady-state solutions which we represent as wrapped probability density functions. By solving for the expected value of the current associated with the particle motion, we are able to determine thresholds for metastability of the system, namely when the particle stabilizes in a well of the potential and when the particle is in motion, for example as a consequence of the tilt of the potential...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347709/interaction-of-a-planar-reacting-shock-wave-with-an-isotropic-turbulent-vorticity-field
#18
César Huete, Tai Jin, Daniel Martínez-Ruiz, Kun Luo
Linear interaction analysis (LIA) is employed to investigate the interaction of reactive and nonreactive shock waves with isotropic vortical turbulence. The analysis is carried out, through Laplace-transform technique, accounting for long-time effects of vortical disturbances on the burnt-gas flow in the fast-reaction limit, where the reaction-region thickness is significantly small in comparison with the most representative turbulent length scales. Results provided by the opposite slow-reaction limit are also recollected...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347701/speed-of-light-pulses-in-the-massless-nonlinear-dirac-equation-with-a-potential
#19
Niurka R Quintero, Franz G Mertens, Fred Cooper, Avadh Saxena, A R Bishop
We consider the massless nonlinear Dirac (NLD) equation in 1+1 dimension with scalar-scalar self-interaction g^{2}/2(Ψ[over ¯]Ψ)^{2} in the presence of three external electromagnetic real potentials V(x), a potential barrier, a constant potential, and a potential well. By solving numerically the NLD equation, we find different scenarios depending on initial conditions, namely, propagation of the initial pulse along one direction, splitting of the initial pulse into two pulses traveling in opposite directions, and focusing of two initial pulses followed by a splitting...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347693/flow-instabilities-due-to-the-interfacial-formation-of-surfactant-fatty-acid-material-in-a-hele-shaw-cell
#20
Zahra Niroobakhsh, Matthew Litman, Andrew Belmonte
We present an experimental study of pattern formation during the penetration of an aqueous surfactant solution into a liquid fatty acid in a Hele-Shaw cell. When a solution of the cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride is injected into oleic acid, a wide variety of fingering patterns are observed as a function of surfactant concentration and flow rate, which are strikingly different than the classic Saffman-Taylor (ST) instability. We observe evidence of interfacial material forming between the two liquids, causing these instabilities...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
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