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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160407/oral-problems-and-self-confidence-in-preschool-children
#1
Monalisa Cesarino Gomes, Matheus França Perazzo, Érick Tássio Neves, Carolina Castro Martins, Saul Martins Paiva, Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of clinical oral factors, socioeconomic factors and parental sense of coherence on affected self-confidence in preschool children due to oral problems. A cross-sectional study with probabilistic sampling was conducted at public and private preschools with 769 five-year-old children and their parents/caretakers. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic characteristics as well as the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13) were administered...
July 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160041/associations-between-observed-temperament-in-preschoolers-and-parent-psychopathology
#2
Katie R Kryski, Thomas M Olino, Margaret W Dyson, C Emily Durbin, Daniel N Klein, Elizabeth P Hayden
Parent history of psychopathology is an established marker of children's own risk for later disorder and can therefore be used as a means of validating other risks, such as child temperament. While associations between children's temperament and parent psychopathology have been reported, few studies have used observational measures of child temperament or examined trait interactions, particularly between children's affective and regulatory traits such as effortful control (EC). In this bottom-up family study of 968 three-year-olds and their parents, we examined interactions between preschoolers' observed positive and negative affectivity (NA) and EC as predictors of a known marker of psychopathology risk: parent history of disorder...
November 21, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159579/examining-the-effectiveness-of-naturalistic-social-skills-training-in-developing-social-skills-and-theory-of-mind-in-preschoolers-with-asd
#3
Grzegorz Szumski, Joanna Smogorzewska, Paweł Grygiel, Ann-Marie Orlando
We compared the effectiveness of two programs for developing social skills, 'Play Time/Social Time' (PT/ST) and 'I Can Problem Solve' (ICPS), in improving the social skills and theory of mind (ToM) of preschoolers with ASD. The experiment took place in a classroom setting. Fifty-two children attended and data were analyzed with latent growth curve models. Comparison with a control group indicated that both programs were effective in developing social skills. The PT/ST program was more effective than ICPS in developing interaction skills; both programs improved children's ability to cope with difficult social situations...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159184/acute-asthma-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department-infections-are-the-main-triggers-of-exacerbations
#4
Arianna Dondi, Elisabetta Calamelli, Valentina Piccinno, Giampaolo Ricci, Ilaria Corsini, Carlotta Biagi, Marcello Lanari
Background: Asthma exacerbations are a common reason for Emergency Department (ED) visits in children. Aim: To analyze differences among age groups in terms of triggering factors and seasonality and to identify those with higher risk of severe exacerbations. Methods: We retrospectively revised the files of children admitted for acute asthma in 2016 in our Pediatric ED. Results: Visits for acute asthma were 603/23197 (2...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158765/usefulness-of-the-korean-developmental-screening-test-for-infants-and-children-for-the-evaluation-of-developmental-delay-in-korean-infants-and-children-a-single-center-study
#5
Chung-Hyuk Yim, Gun-Ha Kim, Baik-Lin Eun
Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test (K-DST) for infants and children for developmental delay assessment. Methods: This study was based on retrospective studies of the results of the K-DST, Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES), Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, and extensive tests conducted in 209 of 1,403 patients, of whom 758 underwent the K-DST at the Korea University Guro Hospital between January 2015 and December 2016 and 645 were referred from local clinics between January 2015 and June 2016...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157996/longitudinal-interactions-between-brain-and-cognitive-measures-on-reading-development-from-6-months-to-14-years
#6
Kaisa Lohvansuu, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Leena Ervast, Heikki Lyytinen, Paavo H T Leppänen
Dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder impairing learning to read. Brain responses of infants at genetic risk for dyslexia are abnormal already at birth, and associations from infant speech perception to preschool cognitive skills and reading in early school years have been documented, but there are no studies showing predicting power until adolescence. Here we show that in at-risk infants, brain activation to pseudowords at left hemisphere predicts 44% of reading speed at 14 years, and even improves the prediction after taking into account neurocognitive preschool measures of letter naming, phonology, and verbal short-term memory...
November 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157666/cognitive-flexibility-in-preschool-children-with-and-without-stuttering-disorders
#7
Naomi Eichorn, Klara Marton, Steven Pirutinsky
PURPOSE: Multifactorial explanations of developmental stuttering suggest that difficulties in self-regulation and weak attentional flexibility contribute to persisting stuttering. We tested this prediction by examining whether preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) shift their attention less flexibly than children who do not stutter (CWNS) during a modified version of the Dimension Card Change Sort (DCCS), a reliable measure of attention switching for young children. METHODS: Sixteen CWS (12 males) and 30 children CWNS (11 males) participated in the study...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157325/childhood-attachment-and-behavioral-inhibition-predicting-intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-adulthood
#8
Magdalena A Zdebik, Ellen Moss, Jean-François Bureau
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), the tendency to react negatively to uncertain situations, has been identified as an important cognitive component of anxiety disorders, yet little is known about its etiology. Links to temperament, particularly behavioral inhibition (BI), and insecure attachment have been proposed in the development of IU, but no prospective empirical investigation has been performed thus far. In the current study, attachment to caregiver and BI of 60 children were assessed at age 6, using observational measures...
November 21, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157066/association-between-small-for-gestational-age-and-low-birth-weight-with-attention-deficit-and-impaired-executive-functions-in-3-6-years-old-children
#9
M Shariat, J Gharaee, H Dalili, Y Mohammadzadeh, Sh Ansari, Z Farahani
BACKGROUND: Behavioral disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are frequently reported among children with history of small body size at birth and disproportionate intrauterine growth retardation. The current study aimed to investigate some factors like executive functions and attention deficit in children with history of Small for gestational age (SGA) and /or Low Birth Weight (LBW) at birth. METHODS: A historical cohort study was done and 3-6 years old preschool children (with past history of SGA/LBW) from some kindergartens and health centers were selected...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156924/-from-infant-to-child-feeding-in-different-stages
#10
Ana Isabel Jiménez Ortega, Rosa María Martínez García, Marta Velasco Rodríguez-Belvis, Jana Ruiz Herrero
Proper nutrition during childhood is necessary to: allow adequate growth and development, achieve optimal physical and psychic performance, maintain and improve health and recover more easily in disease processes.The first months of life (the infant stage) are a stage in which many rapid changes take place (anthropometric, body composition, maturation of organs and systems...), which suppose a high demand from nutritional point of view, in the quantitative aspect and especially in the qualitative aspect. After infant stage, preschool children feeding is an opportunity to acquire healthy habits and introduce new foods, textures, flavors, colors, etc...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156059/clinical-pearl-the-rule-of-8
#11
Kevin Lu Shen, Amit R Bhatt
Preschool-aged children typically perform worse than 20/20 on visual acuity testing in the absence of ocular or visual pathway abnormalities due to non-ocular issues, including concentration, cooperation, and/or confidence. As a result, vision screening for this age group can be a challenge. The "Rule of 8" is an easy-to-remember, highly effective mnemonic that clinicians can use to help differentiate children who are performing visual acuity testing at age-appropriate levels from those who may need further evaluation...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155492/the-prevalence-of-gluten-free-diet-use-among-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Eric Rubenstein, Laura Schieve, Chyrise Bradley, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Eric Moody, Kathleen Thomas, Julie Daniels
Our objective was to estimate prevalence of current or ever use of a gluten free diet (GFD) in children aged 30-68 months with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and population controls (POP); and to identify characteristics associated with ever having used GFD among children with ASD. We used data from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi-site, case-control study of children with ASD. Caregivers reported GFD use by their children through structured questionnaires about diet patterns, gastrointestinal (GI) issues, and ASD-specific treatments...
November 20, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154654/variety-in-parental-use-of-want-relates-to-subsequent-growth-in-children-s-theory-of-mind
#13
Ted Ruffman, Aastha Puri, Olivia Galloway, Japher Su, Mele Taumoepeau
In 2 cross-lagged, longitudinal studies we contrasted parental talk about want in a single context versus multiple contexts. Study 1 examined thirty-two 2 year olds, with mothers describing pictures to children. Mothers could use want in zero, one, or multiple contexts. Children whose mothers used want in multiple contexts experienced a significantly larger gain in mental state terms over a 6-month period. Study 2 examined 50 preschoolers, measuring theory of mind (ToM) with tasks and mental state terms, then had parents intervene by reading booklets in which want was used in 1 or multiple contexts...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154650/classifying-trajectories-of-social-emotional-difficulties-through-elementary-school-impacts-of-the-chicago-school-readiness-project
#14
Dana Charles McCoy, Stephanie Jones, Amanda Roy, C Cybele Raver
Although research has shown fade-out of the cognitive benefits of classroom-based preschool interventions, less is known regarding the durability of social-emotional impacts. This study examines the extent to which the multicomponent Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP) intervention lowered risk of internalizing, externalizing, attention, and social difficulties from Head Start through elementary school for 602 low-income children. Results suggest that most children in this sample showed few social-emotional difficulties over time...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154646/developmental-stability-in-gender-typed-preferences-between-infancy-and-preschool-age
#15
Jillian E Lauer, Sibel D Ilksoy, Stella F Lourenco
Infants exhibit visual preferences for gender-typed objects (e.g., dolls, toy vehicles) that parallel the gender-typed play preferences of preschool-aged children, but the developmental stability of individual differences in early emerging gender-typed preferences has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal association between infants' (N = 51) performance on an object-preference task, administered between 6 and 13 months of age, and their play preferences at 4 years of age...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154593/shame-and-alienation-related-to-child-maltreatment-links-to-symptoms-across-generations
#16
Rebecca L Babcock Fenerci, Anne P DePrince
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated associations between appraisals of shame and alienation related to mothers' own experiences of child maltreatment and symptoms across generations-in mothers themselves as well as their toddler/preschool-aged children. METHOD: Mothers who survived maltreatment (N = 113) with a child between the ages of 2 and 5 were recruited to participate in an online study on Maternal Coping, Attachment and Health. Mother participants completed a series of questionnaires, including those that asked about posttrauma appraisals of their own maltreatment experiences as well as their child's and their own mental health symptoms...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154414/the-costs-and-benefits-of-investing-in-universal-preschool-evidence-from-a-spanish-reform
#17
Thomas van Huizen, Lisa Dumhs, Janneke Plantenga
This study provides a cost-benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education, focusing on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. Benefits in terms of child development and maternal employment are estimated using evidence on the causal effects of this reform. In the baseline estimation the benefit-cost ratio is over 4, indicating sizeable net societal benefits of the preschool investment. The results show that the child development effects are the major determinant of the cost-benefit ratio; the employment gains for parents appear to play a relatively minor role...
November 20, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154033/measuring-preschool-learning-engagement-in-the-laboratory
#18
Simone E Halliday, Susan D Calkins, Esther M Leerkes
Learning engagement is a critical factor for academic achievement and successful school transitioning. However, current methods of assessing learning engagement in young children are limited to teacher report or classroom observation, which may limit the types of research questions one could assess about this construct. The current study investigated the validity of a novel assessment designed to measure behavioral learning engagement among young children in a standardized laboratory setting and examined how learning engagement in the laboratory relates to future classroom adjustment...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154031/preschool-children-adapt-grasping-movements-to-upcoming-object-manipulations-evidence-from-a-dial-rotation-task
#19
Oliver Herbort, Juliane Büschelberger, Markus Janczyk
In adults, the motor plans for object-directed grasping movements reflects the anticipated requirements of intended future object manipulations. This prospective mode of planning has been termed second-order planning. Surprisingly, second-order planning is thought to be fully developed only by 10 years of age, when children master seemingly more complex motor skills. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that already 5- and 6-year-old children consistently use second-order planning but that this ability does not become apparent in tasks that are traditionally used to probe it...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151781/molecular-epidemiology-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-pathotypes-in-diarrheal-children-from-low-socioeconomic-status-communities-in-bihar-india-emergence-of-the-ctx-m-type
#20
Abhishek Mandal, Abhishek Sengupta, Ajay Kumar, Utpal K Singh, Anil K Jaiswal, Pradeep Das, Sushmita Das
Background: Childhood diarrheal diseases remain highly endemic in India, but the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli among children with diarrhea in Bihar remains elusive. In this study, we determine and characterize ESBL-producing E coli pathotypes among hospitalized diarrheal preschool children living in low socioeconomic level communities in Bihar, India. Materials and methods: The stool samples were collected everyday throughout the year for 2 consecutive years...
2017: Infectious Diseases
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