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Low calorie sweeteners

Bernadene A Magnuson, Michael C Carakostas, Nadia H Moore, Sylvia P Poulos, Andrew G Renwick
With continued efforts to find solutions to rising rates of obesity and diabetes, there is increased interest in the potential health benefits of the use of low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCSs). Concerns about safety often deter the use of LNCSs as a tool in helping control caloric intake, even though the safety of LNCS use has been affirmed by regulatory agencies worldwide. In many cases, an understanding of the biological fate of the different LNSCs can help health professionals to address safety concerns...
November 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Ting Gong, Quan-Wei Wei, Da-Gan Mao, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe, Kazuyoshi Taya, Fang-Xiong Shi
Saccharin sodium consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to its highly intense sweetness without any associated calories, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Herein, we demonstrated that dose-response relationships existed for with regard to administration of saccharin or sucrose to mice for 35 days, and this association involved testis- expressed sweet-tasting molecules (taste receptor type 1 subunit 3, T1R3; G protein alpha-gustducin, G-alpha). Mouse body weights and testis weights in middle- and low-dose saccharin-treated groups were increased with up-expressions of molecules involved in testicular sweet taste and steroidogenic (middle saccharin: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, StAR; P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, CYP11A1; 17-alpha-Hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase, CYP17A1; low saccharin: StAR)...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Joost Overduin, Tinh-Hai Collet, Nenad Medic, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Faye Forsyth, Cheryl Stephenson, Marja W Kanning, Rianne M A J Ruijschop, I Sadaf Farooqi, Agatha A van der Klaauw
There is considerable interest in the effect of foods containing high intensity sweeteners on satiation. However, less is known about low-calorie bulk sweeteners such as erythritol. In this randomized three-way crossover study, we studied 10 lean and 10 obese volunteers who consumed three test meals on separate occasions: (a) control sucrose meal; (b) isovolumic meal with partial replacement of sucrose by erythritol; (c) isocaloric meal which contained more erythritol but equivalent calories to the control meal...
September 9, 2016: Appetite
Nuria Martinez-Saez, Alba Tamargo García, Inés Domínguez Pérez, Miguel Rebollo-Hernanz, Marta Mesías, Francisco J Morales, María A Martín-Cabrejas, Maria Dolores Del Castillo
The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Nouf S Gadah, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Peter J Rogers
The vast majority of preload-test-meal studies that have investigated the effects on energy intake of disguised nutrient or other food/drink ingredient manipulations have used a cross-over design. We argue that this design may underestimate the effect of the manipulation due to carry-over effects. To test this we conducted comparable cross-over (n = 69) and parallel-groups (n = 48) studies testing the effects of sucrose versus low-calorie sweetener (sucralose) in a drink preload on test-meal energy intake...
August 24, 2016: Appetite
Karina R Lora, Brenda Davy, Valisa Hedrick, Ann M Ferris, Michael P Anderson, Dorothy Wakefield
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between high-calorie beverage consumption and weight gain requires an accurate report of dietary intake. A critical need exists to develop and test the psychometrics of brief quantitative tools for minority pediatric populations. OBJECTIVE: To modify the adult beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ-15) for Hispanic preschool-aged children (BEVQ-PS) and test its validity and test-retest reliability in children aged 3 to 5 years...
August 20, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Heather D'Angelo, Alice Ammerman, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Laura Linnan, Leslie Lytle, Kurt M Ribisl
Access to supermarkets is lacking in many rural areas. Small food stores are often available, but typically lack healthy food items such as fresh produce. We assessed small food store retailer willingness to implement 11 healthy store strategies to increase the availability, display, and promotion of healthy foods and decrease the availability, display, and promotion of tobacco products. Interviews were conducted with 55 small food store retailers in three rural North Carolina counties concurrently with store observations assessing current practices related to the strategies...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Community Health
Fred Molitor, Sharon B Sugerman, Stan Sciortino
OBJECTIVE: To examine among low-income mothers the consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), high-fat foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and overall diet quality in relation to levels of reach of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) interventions across 2,907 California census tracts. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone survey conducted from April through October, 2014 using the Automated Self-administered 24-Hour Recall dietary assessment...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Su Liu, Dongmei Yu, Qiya Guo, Xun Wang, Xiaoli Xu, Fengmei Jia, Jie Li, Liyun Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To understand the status and trend of added sugar containing food consumption from 2002 to 2012. METHODS: Using dietary data from the Chinese Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002 and the Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012, to analyze the consumption status of added sugar containing food in these two years and to compare the difference between the past ten years in China. RESULTS: From 2002 to 2012, consumption rate of added sugar containing food increased from 20...
May 2016: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Eric D Claus, Karen A Hudson, Francesca M Filbey, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Krista M Lisdahl, Alberta S Kong
Many adolescents struggle with overweight/obesity, which exponentially increases in the transition to adulthood. Overweight/obesity places youth at risk for serious health conditions, including type 2 diabetes. In adults, neural substrates implicated in addiction (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), striatum, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area) have been found to be relevant to risk for overweight/obesity. In this study, we examined three hypotheses to disentangle the potential overlap between addiction and overweight/obesity processing by examining (1) brain response to high vs...
July 9, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jessica N Kuzma, Gail Cromer, Derek K Hagman, Kara L Breymeyer, Christian L Roth, Karen E Foster-Schubert, Sarah E Holte, David S Weigle, Mario Kratz
BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight...
August 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Alicia Rodríguez, Naresh Magan, Angel Medina
The objectives of this study were to compare the effect of different Stevia-based sugar substitutes (S1-S3), sucrose alone and a mixture of sucrose+S1 on: (a) humectant properties, (b) relative colonisation rates of sponge cake slices at 0.90 aw by strains of Aspergillus flavus, Eurotium amstelodami, Fusarium graminearum and Penicillium verrucosum at 20 and 25°C and (c) shelf-life periods in days prior to visible growth. Results showed that sucrose, S1 commercial sugar substitute and the mixture of sucrose+S1 in water solutions were able to reach water activity levels similar to those of glycerol and glucose mixtures...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Charlotte Bryant, John Mclaughlin
The importance of nutrient induced gut-brain signalling in the regulation of human food intake has become an increasing focus of research. Much of the caloric excess consumed comes from dietary sugars, but our knowledge about the mechanisms mediating the physiological and appetitive effects of sweet tastants in the human gut and gut-brain axis is far from complete. The comparative effects of natural sugars vs low calorie sweeteners are also poorly understood. Research in animal and cellular models has suggested a key functional role in gut endocrine cells for the sweet taste receptors previously well described in oral taste...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Sharon P G Fowler
For more than a decade, pioneering animal studies conducted by investigators at Purdue University have provided evidence to support a central thesis: that the uncoupling of sweet taste and caloric intake by low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) can disrupt an animal's ability to predict the metabolic consequences of sweet taste, and thereby impair the animal's ability to respond appropriately to sweet-tasting foods. These investigators' work has been replicated and extended internationally. There now exists a body of evidence, from a number of investigators, that animals chronically exposed to any of a range of LCSs - including saccharin, sucralose, acesulfame potassium, aspartame, or the combination of erythritol+aspartame - have exhibited one or more of the following conditions: increased food consumption, lower post-prandial thermogenesis, increased weight gain, greater percent body fat, decreased GLP-1 release during glucose tolerance testing, and significantly greater fasting glucose, glucose area under the curve during glucose tolerance testing, and hyperinsulinemia, compared with animals exposed to plain water or - in many cases - even to calorically-sweetened foods or liquids...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Jodi E Nettleton, Raylene A Reimer, Jane Shearer
Disruption in the gut microbiota is now recognized as an active contributor towards the development of obesity and insulin resistance. This review considers one class of dietary additives known to influence the gut microbiota that may predispose susceptible individuals to insulin resistance - the regular, long-term consumption of low-dose, low calorie sweeteners. While the data are controversial, mounting evidence suggests that low calorie sweeteners should not be dismissed as inert in the gut environment. Sucralose, aspartame and saccharin, all widely used to reduce energy content in foods and beverages to promote satiety and encourage weight loss, have been shown to disrupt the balance and diversity of gut microbiota...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Andrea Lugasi
Nowadays low calorie or intesive sweeteners are getting more and more popular. These sweeteners can be placed to the market and used as food additives according to the recent EU legislation. In the meantime news are coming out one after the other stating that many of these artificial intensive sweeteners can cause cancer - the highest risk has been attributed to aspartam. Low calorie sweeteners, just like all the other additives can be authorized after strickt risk assessment procedure according to the recent food law...
April 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Zsuzsanna Szűcs, Tatjána Ábel, Gabriella Lengyel
Low calorie sweeteners are used by many consumers as they can provide the sweet taste without calories and, therefore, they may have a beneficial effect on weight management. These positive outcomes are often questioned and accused of keeping up or increasing a liking for sweetness and leading to overconsumption of sugar containing food and beverages. The most recent studies failed to find any positive correlation between usage of low calorie sweeteners and craving for sweet taste. In randomized controlled trials consumption of low calorie sweeteners have accompanied with lower intake of sugar containing food, higher healthy eating index and better weight management...
April 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Susan Murray, Alastair Tulloch, Kristen Criscitelli, Nicole M Avena
The alarmingly high rates of overweight and obesity pose a serious global health threat. Numerous factors can result in weight gain, one of which is excess consumption of caloric sweeteners. In an effort to aid weight loss efforts, many people have switched from caloric sweeteners to low calorie sweeteners, which provide sweet taste without the accompanying calories. In this review, we present an overview of the animal literature produced in the last 5years highlighting the effects of sugar consumption on neural pathways involved in energy balance regulation and reward processing...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
John C Peters, Jimikaye Beck
For thirty years there has been a debate about whether low calorie sweeteners (LCS) provide a benefit for body weight management. Early studies showed that when consumed alone in a beverage appetite and food intake were increased. Some, observational longitudinal cohort studies reported an association between LCS usage and increasing BMI, suggesting that LCS may actually promote weight gain. In the ensuing decades numerous additional observational and experimental trials have been conducted with the experimental trials nearly uniformly showing a benefit for LCS, either in weight loss or weight gain prevention...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Peter J Rogers, Jeffrey M Brunstrom
The idea that food intake is motivated by (or in anticipation of) 'hunger' arising from energy depletion is apparent in both public and scientific discourse on eating behaviour. In contrast, our thesis is that eating is largely unrelated to short-term energy depletion. Energy requirements meal-to-meal are trivial compared with total body energy stores, and energy supply to the body's tissues is maintained if a meal or even several meals are missed. Complex and exquisite metabolic machinery ensures that this happens, but metabolic regulation is only loosely coupled with the control of energy intake...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
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