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Low calorie sweeteners

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228424/widespread-sucralose-exposure-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial-in-healthy-young-adults
#1
Allison C Sylvetsky, Peter J Walter, H Martin Garraffo, Kim Robien, Kristina I Rother
Background: Low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) are found in many foods and beverages, but consumers may not realize their presence, and their role in appetite, weight, and health is controversial. Although consumption limits based on toxicologic safety are well established, the threshold required to exert clinically relevant metabolic effects is unknown.Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether individuals who do not report consumption of LCSs can be correctly characterized as "unexposed" and to investigate whether instructions to avoid LCSs are effective in minimizing exposure...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219529/challenges-and-prospects-of-xylitol-production-with-whole-cell-bio-catalysis-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Diptarka Dasgupta, Sheetal Bandhu, Dilip K Adhikari, Debashish Ghosh
Xylitol, as an alternative low calorie sweetener is well accepted in formulations of various confectioneries and healthcare products. Worldwide it is industrially produced by catalytic hydrogenation of pure d-xylose solution under high temperature and pressure. Biotechnological xylitol production is a potentially attractive replacement for chemical process, as it occurs under much milder process conditions and can be based on sugar mixtures derived from low-cost industrial and agri-waste. However, microbial fermentation route of xylitol production is not so far practiced industrially...
April 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214525/-is-there-an-optimal-diet-for-weight-management-and-metabolic-health
#3
George Thom, Mike Lean
Individuals can lose body weight and improve health status on a wide range of energy (calorie) restricted dietary interventions. In this paper, we have reviewed the effectiveness of the most commonly utilized diets, including low-fat, low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean approaches in addition to commercial slimming programmes, meal replacements and newly-popularized intermittent fasting diets. We also consider the role of artificial sweeteners in weight management. Low-fat diets tend to improve LDL-cholesterol most, whilst lower-carbohydrate diets may preferentially improve triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol, however differences between diets are marginal...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188449/xylitol-production-by-genetically-modified-industrial-strain-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-using-glycerol-as-co-substrate
#4
Anushree B Kogje, Anand Ghosalkar
Xylitol is commercially used in chewing gum and dental care products as a low calorie sweetener having medicinal properties. Industrial yeast strain of S. cerevisiae was genetically modified to overexpress an endogenous aldose reductase gene GRE3 and a xylose transporter gene SUT1 for the production of xylitol. The recombinant strain (XP-RTK) carried the expression cassettes of both the genes and the G418 resistance marker cassette KanMX integrated into the genome of S. cerevisiae. Short segments from the 5' and 3' delta regions of the Ty1 retrotransposons were used as homology regions for integration of the cassettes...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151926/trends-in-beverage-consumption-among-high-school-students-united-states-2007-2015
#5
Gabrielle Miller, Caitlin Merlo, Zewditu Demissie, Sarah Sliwa, Sohyun Park
Beverages play an important role in the diets of adolescents because they help to maintain hydration and can provide important nutrients, such as calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin C (1). However, some beverages, such as sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (e.g., soda or pop), provide calories with no beneficial nutrients. Beverage consumption patterns among American youth have changed over time; however, little is known about differences in consumption of various beverages by demographic characteristics such as grade in school, free/reduced price lunch eligibility, and race/ethnicity (2)...
February 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140467/a-survey-of-commercially-available-isomaltooligosaccharide-based-food-ingredients
#6
Lee R Madsen, Sarah Stanley, Peter Swann, Jack Oswald
Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) are included in many commercially available food products including protein/fiber bars, shakes, and other dietary supplements. Marketed as "high fiber," "prebiotic soluble fiber," and/or as a "low-calorie, low glycemic sweetener," IMO may be present in significant amounts, for example, more than 15 g/item or serving. Herein, high-pressure anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and high-pressure liquid chromatography with differential refractive index detection are used to compare 7 commercially available IMO-containing bulk food ingredients...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133510/investigation-of-the-regulatory-effects-of-saccharin-on-cytochrome-p450s-in-male-icr-mice
#7
Jun Hyeon Jo, Sunjoo Kim, Tae Won Jeon, Tae Cheon Jeong, Sangkyu Lee
Saccharin, the first artificial sweetener, was discovered in 1879 that do not have any calories and is approximately 200~700 times sweeter than sugar. Saccharin was the most common domestically produced sweetener in Korea in 2010, and it has been used as an alternative to sugar in many products. The interaction between artificial sweeteners and drugs may affect the drug metabolism in patients with diabetes, cancer, and liver damage, this interaction has not been clarified thus far. Here, we examined the effects of the potential saccharin-drug interaction on the activities of 5 cytochrome P450 (CYPs) in male ICR mice; further, we examined the effects of saccharin (4,000 mg/kg) on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion after pretreatment of mice with saccharin for 7 days and after concomitant administration of bupropion and saccharin...
January 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109417/associations-of-cooking-with-dietary-intake-and-obesity-among-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-participants
#8
Lindsey Smith Taillie, Jennifer M Poti
INTRODUCTION: Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) may help ease economic and time constraints of cooking, helping low-income households prepare healthier meals. Therefore, frequent cooking may be more strongly associated with improved dietary outcomes among SNAP recipients than among income-eligible non-recipients. Alternately, increased frequency of home-cooked meals among SNAP participants may be beneficial simply by replacing fast food intake. This study quantified the association between home cooking and fast food with diet intake and weight status among SNAP recipients...
February 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106207/natural-sweetener-agave-inhibits-gastric-emptying-in-rats-by-a-cholecystokinin-2-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-dependent-mechanism
#9
E Bihter Gürler, Dilek Özbeyli, Hülya Buzcu, Sezin Bayraktar, İrem Carus, Beyza Dağ, Yasemin Geriş, Seda Jeral, Berrak Ç Yeğen
Low-calorie sweeteners are considered to be beneficial in calorie control, but the impact of these sweeteners on gastric emptying is not well described. The purpose of this study was to compare the gastric emptying rate of agave nectar with those of glucose and fructose, and to evaluate the interaction of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1, CCK-2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in agave-induced alterations in gastric emptying. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with gastric cannulas. Following the recovery, the gastric emptying rates of glucose, fructose and agave at 12...
January 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087414/consumption-of-low-calorie-sweeteners-among-children-and-adults-in-the-united-states
#10
Allison C Sylvetsky, Yichen Jin, Elena J Clark, Jean A Welsh, Kristina I Rother, Sameera A Talegawkar
BACKGROUND: Consumption of low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) has increased markedly during the past several decades, yet the prevalence of LCS consumption in recent years is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe LCS consumption in the United States and to characterize consumption by sociodemographic subgroups, source, frequency, eating occasion, and location. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2009 to 2012...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013555/primary-and-secondary-metabolites-of-an-european-edible-mushroom-and-its-nutraceutical-value-suillus-bellinii-inzenga-kuntze
#11
Alessandro Venditti, Claudio Frezza, Fabio Sciubba, Mauro Serafini, Armandodoriano Bianco
In this work, we report the study on the composition in primary and secondary metabolites of the polar and less-polar fractions obtained from the fruiting bodies of Suillus bellinii (Inzenga) Kuntze collected from Central Italy. Thirteen compounds were identified through a series of classical chromatographic methods and through spectroscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS)), namely suillin (1), ergosterol (2), glutamic acid (3), isoleucine (4), leucine (5), threonine (6), tyrosine (7), valine (8), D-mannitol (9), sucrose (10), D-sorbitol (11), fumaric acid (12) and alanine (13)...
December 26, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979110/sweetness-prediction-of-natural-compounds
#12
Jean-Baptiste Chéron, Iuri Casciuc, Jérôme Golebiowski, Serge Antonczak, Sébastien Fiorucci
Based on the most exhaustive database of sweeteners with known sweetness values, a new quantitative structure-activity relationship model for sweetness prediction has been set up. Analysis of the physico-chemical properties of sweeteners in the database indicates that the structure of most potent sweeteners combines a hydrophobic scaffold functionalized by a limited number of hydrogen bond sites (less than 4 hydrogen bond donors and 10 acceptors), with a moderate molecular weight ranging from 350 to 450g·mol(-1)...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880832/chronic-low-calorie-sweetener-use-and-risk-of-abdominal-obesity-among-older-adults-a-cohort-study
#13
Chee W Chia, Michelle Shardell, Toshiko Tanaka, David D Liu, Kristofer S Gravenstein, Eleanor M Simonsick, Josephine M Egan, Luigi Ferrucci
INTRODUCTION: Low-calorie sweetener use for weight control has come under increasing scrutiny as obesity, especially abdominal obesity, remain entrenched despite substantial low-calorie sweetener use. We evaluated whether chronic low-calorie sweetener use is a risk factor for abdominal obesity. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We used 8268 anthropometric measurements and 3096 food diary records with detailed information on low-calorie sweetener consumption in all food products, from 1454 participants (741 men, 713 women) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging collected from 1984 to 2012 with median follow-up of 10 years (range: 0-28 years)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753624/biological-fate-of-low-calorie-sweeteners
#14
REVIEW
Bernadene A Magnuson, Michael C Carakostas, Nadia H Moore, Sylvia P Poulos, Andrew G Renwick
With continued efforts to find solutions to rising rates of obesity and diabetes, there is increased interest in the potential health benefits of the use of low- and no-calorie sweeteners (LNCSs). Concerns about safety often deter the use of LNCSs as a tool in helping control caloric intake, even though the safety of LNCS use has been affirmed by regulatory agencies worldwide. In many cases, an understanding of the biological fate of the different LNSCs can help health professionals to address safety concerns...
November 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683267/effects-of-daily-exposure-to-saccharin-and-sucrose-on-testicular-biologic-functions-in-mice
#15
Ting Gong, Quan-Wei Wei, Da-Gan Mao, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe, Kazuyoshi Taya, Fang-Xiong Shi
Saccharin sodium consumption is considered safe and beneficial, owing to its very intense sweetness without any associated calories, but supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Herein, we demonstrate that dose-response relationships existed with regard to administration of saccharin or sucrose to mice for 35 days, and this association involved testis-expressed sweet-tasting molecules (taste receptor type 1 subunit 3 [T1R3]; G protein alpha-gustducin [Galpha]). Mouse body weights and testis weights in middle- and low-dose saccharin-treated groups were increased with up-expressions of molecules involved in testicular sweet taste and steroidogenic (middle saccharin: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein [StAR]; P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme [CYP11A1]; 17-alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase [CYP17A1]; low saccharin: StAR)...
December 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620647/failure-of-sucrose-replacement-with-the-non-nutritive-sweetener-erythritol-to-alter-glp-1-or-pyy-release-or-test-meal-size-in-lean-or-obese-people
#16
Joost Overduin, Tinh-Hai Collet, Nenad Medic, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Faye Forsyth, Cheryl Stephenson, Marja W Kanning, Rianne M A J Ruijschop, I Sadaf Farooqi, Agatha A van der Klaauw
There is considerable interest in the effect of foods containing high intensity sweeteners on satiation. However, less is known about low-calorie bulk sweeteners such as erythritol. In this randomized three-way crossover study, we studied 10 lean and 10 obese volunteers who consumed three test meals on separate occasions: (a) control sucrose meal; (b) isovolumic meal with partial replacement of sucrose by erythritol; (c) isocaloric meal which contained more erythritol but equivalent calories to the control meal...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596399/use-of-spent-coffee-grounds-as-food-ingredient-in-bakery-products
#17
Nuria Martinez-Saez, Alba Tamargo García, Inés Domínguez Pérez, Miguel Rebollo-Hernanz, Marta Mesías, Francisco J Morales, María A Martín-Cabrejas, Maria Dolores Del Castillo
The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567550/cross-over-studies-underestimate-energy-compensation-the-example-of-sucrose-versus-sucralose-containing-drinks
#18
Nouf S Gadah, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Peter J Rogers
The vast majority of preload-test-meal studies that have investigated the effects on energy intake of disguised nutrient or other food/drink ingredient manipulations have used a cross-over design. We argue that this design may underestimate the effect of the manipulation due to carry-over effects. To test this we conducted comparable cross-over (n = 69) and parallel-groups (n = 48) studies testing the effects of sucrose versus low-calorie sweetener (sucralose) in a drink preload on test-meal energy intake...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554270/assessing-initial-validity-and-reliability-of-a-beverage-intake-questionnaire-in-hispanic-preschool-aged-children
#19
Karina R Lora, Brenda Davy, Valisa Hedrick, Ann M Ferris, Michael P Anderson, Dorothy Wakefield
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between high-calorie beverage consumption and weight gain requires an accurate report of dietary intake. A critical need exists to develop and test the psychometrics of brief quantitative tools for minority pediatric populations. OBJECTIVE: To modify the adult beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ-15) for Hispanic preschool-aged children (BEVQ-PS) and test its validity and test-retest reliability in children aged 3 to 5 years...
December 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540735/small-food-store-retailers-willingness-to-implement-healthy-store-strategies-in-rural-north-carolina
#20
Heather D'Angelo, Alice Ammerman, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Laura Linnan, Leslie Lytle, Kurt M Ribisl
Access to supermarkets is lacking in many rural areas. Small food stores are often available, but typically lack healthy food items such as fresh produce. We assessed small food store retailer willingness to implement 11 healthy store strategies to increase the availability, display, and promotion of healthy foods and decrease the availability, display, and promotion of tobacco products. Interviews were conducted with 55 small food store retailers in three rural North Carolina counties concurrently with store observations assessing current practices related to the strategies...
February 2017: Journal of Community Health
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