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Blood presssure

Rafael Golpe, Alfonso Mateos-Colino, Ana Testa-Fernández, Marta Pena-Seijo, Manuel Rodríguez-Enríquez, Carlos González-Juanatey, Francisco J Martín-Vázquez, Antonio Pose-Reino, Nuria Domínguez-Pin, Nuria Garnacho-Gayarre, Luis A Pérez-de-Llano
BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that there is a pathogenic link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, increased sympathetic tone has been described in several respiratory diseases. Our objective was to determine whether hypertension mediated by sympathetic overactivity is a mechanism that explains the association between COPD and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: Prospective nested case-control observational study; 67 COPD patients were matched 1:1 by sex and age to controls with smoking history...
2016: PloS One
Christian Ott, Markus P Schneider, Christian Delles, Markus P Schlaich, Roland E Schmieder
OBJECTIVE: The barrier function of the glomerular filter has been studied for decades. Albuminuria reflects a malfunction of this barrier, and in animals dysfunctional endothelial nitric-oxide (NO) synthase results in albuminuria. We aimed to analyze the importance of NO for the glomerular barrier function in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To assess the effect of endothelial dysfunction on albuminuria, we measured the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) both before and after the blockade of NO synthases (NOSs) with systemic infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) in two distinct study populations...
February 2011: Diabetes
Patricia Van der Niepen, Christophe Giot, Philippe van de Borne
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of isolated uncontrolled systolic blood pressure (on-treatment isolated systolic hypertension) in treated hypertensive patients and identify the characteristics and treatment strategy in these patients. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional survey in primary care. Participating physicians enrolled more than 13 consecutive treated hypertensive patients. Patients were considered to have isolated systolic hypertension when systolic blood pressure was at least 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure was less than 90 mmHg...
October 2008: Journal of Hypertension
Håkan Wåhlander, Andreas Westerlind, Göran Lindstedt, Per-Arne Lundberg, Daniel Holmgren
We evaluated the concentrations of the brain and atrial natriuretic peptides in the plasma as markers of ventricular function and volume load in children with functionally univentricular hearts. We studied 7 children aged from 0.5 to 0.7 years with functionally univentricular hearts who had undergone a first palliative operation, and 10 children aged from 1.8 to 3.7 years who had undergone a bidirectional Glenn anastomosis at ages ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 year. As a control group, we studied 14 children without heart defects aged from 0...
June 2003: Cardiology in the Young
Li-Jun Ma, Agnes B Fogo
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that genetic background plays an important role in the development of progressive glomerulosclerosis. The remnant kidney model (RKM) of progressive renal disease has been used extensively in rats. However, C57BL/6 mice are resistant to glomerulosclerosis with RKM induced by either pole amputation or renal artery ligation. A pole resection protocol, applied in 129/Sv mice, induced only mild glomerulosclerosis. We present here a highly reproducible, modified RKM approach to successfully establish a glomerulosclerosis model in mice...
July 2003: Kidney International
J Urzua, G Nunez, G Lema, R Canessa, C Sacco
INTRODUCTION: Distal arterial pressure normally differs from aortic pressure. This difference is modified by changes of vascular resistance. Hemodilution, due to decreased viscosity, decreases vascular resistance. Therefore, the difference between aortic and distal arterial pressures could be altered as well. We investigated whether acute hemodilution affected this difference in dogs. METHODS: Eleven mongrel dogs weighing 16.6 +/- 4.4 kg were anesthetized with pentobarbital and sufentanyl and mechanically ventilated...
December 1999: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Oscar H Cingolani, Xiao-Ping Yang, Maria A Cavasin, Oscar A Carretero
Hypertensive heart disease is characterized by early development of hypertrophy and fibrosis that leads to heart failure (HF). HF develops in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after 18 months; however, it is not clear whether hypertrophy leads to altered cardiac performance at an earlier age in these rats. We studied cardiac performance in 10- to 11-month-old SHR and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), using presssure-volume (PV) conductance catheter system to evaluate systolic and diastolic function in vivo at different preloads, including preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW), +dP/dt, and its relation to end-diastolic volume (+dP/dt-EDV) and preload-adjusted maximal power (PWR(max)-EDV(2)) as well as the time constant of left ventricular pressure decay, tau (tau), as an index of relaxation...
February 2003: Hypertension
A Gadano, R Moreau, J Heller, C Chagneau, F Vachiéry, C Trombino, A Elman, C Denié, D Valla, D Lebrec
BACKGROUND: Worsening cirrhosis may lead to increased renal O2 metabolism caused by activation of neurohumoral antinatriuretic substances. AIMS: To evaluate the relation between the severity of liver disease, sodium excretion, and neurohumoral antinatriuretic substances on the one hand and renal O2 metabolism on the other in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Renal O2 consumption and haemodynamics as well as plasma concentrations of noradrenaline, renin, and aldosterone were measured...
July 1999: Gut
H Madkour, M Gadallah, B Riveline, G E Plante, S G Massry
The long-term effects of indapamide or hydrochlorothiazide on blood presssure and renal function were examined in patents with impaired renal function and moderate hypertension. Both drugs controlled hypertension and blood pressure remained normal during the 2 years of the study. Despite this comparable control of hypertension, indapamide therapy was associated with a 28.5 +/- 4.4% increase in creatinine clearance, whereas treatment with hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a 17.4 +/- 3.0% decrease in creatinine clearance...
February 22, 1996: American Journal of Cardiology
H Cain, K Spanel
Angiomatoid vascular convolusions may develop during the intrapulmonic course of the bronchial artery. The angiomatoid convolusions are arranged segmentally along the longitudinal axis of a bronchus. Histopathologic examinations of 26 cases reveal that the angiomatous lesions form from branches of the bronchial artery, arterial bronchopulmonic connections and their arteriovenous anastomoses, as well as from branches of the pulmonary artery and vein. Common morphologic findings include marked tortuosity with branching, variable lumens, stenosing intimal scars, thrombotic occlusions, pronounced longitudinal muscle bundles and focal necrosis of the vessel wall...
April 1, 1980: Klinische Wochenschrift
E Hanson
Coarctation of the aorta is characterized by a high blood pressure in the upper part of the body and a decreased blood pressure in the lower part. Without surgery it leads to an increased mortality from hypertensive manifestations. However, even after surgery 20--25 per cent of these patients are reported to have a persistent hypertension. Moreover, an increased cardiovascular mortality has been reported. The aim of the present investigations was to study the long-term results after coarctectomy with special emphasis on reactions to hard muscular work and to study some of the possible mechanisms behind this persistent hypertension...
1980: Scandinavian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Supplementum
E M Guirguis, M S Bell
This study investigated the efficacy and safety of the use of a size 8 1/2 surgical glove as a wrist tourniquet in hand surgery. A neonatal blood pressure cuff was placed under the wrist tourniquet to measure the presssures generated with use of this technique. The wrist tourniquet was applied in 25 consecutive procedures. Pressures generated with this technique ranged from 110 mm Hg to 260 mm Hg, with a mean pressure of 158 mm Hg. The average tourniquet time was 29 minutes, with the longest time being 135 minutes...
May 1990: Journal of Hand Surgery
F Kette, M H Weil, R J Gazmuri
OBJECTIVE: --To investigate the effects of hypertonic buffer solutions on coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and resuscitability during experimental closed-chest cardiac resuscitation. DESIGN: --Randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: --Mammalian research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: --Forty-four domestic pigs. INTERVENTIONS: --Cardiac arrest was induced by ventricular fibrillation in mechanically ventilated pigs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium...
October 16, 1991: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
W Berman, P J Ravenscroft, L B Sheiner, M A Heymann, K L Melmon, A M Rudolph
Electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes and carotid arterial and superior vena caval (SVC) catheters were placed in eight nonpregnant ewes and 11 fetuses (109-129 days gestation) to measure heart rate, arterial presssure, P-R interval, left ventricular pre-ejection period (PEP), and left ventricular ejection time (LVET), before and after digoxin infusion into the SVC. After the ewes were killed, the steady state concentration of digoxin in plasma was related to the concentration in midbrain and left ventricular free wall...
November 1977: Circulation Research
Y A Weiss, M E Safar, G M London, A C Simon, J A Levenson, P M Milliez
Repeat hemodynamic determinations were performed in 37 young men with borderline hypertension. The duration of the follow up study was 47 +/- three months. At each determination, those with borderline hypertension were compared to a group of matched normal subjects. Blood pressure increased from the first to the second determination, but the increase was significant only for systolic (P less than 0.001) and mean (P less than 0.01) arterial presssures. Cardiac index and heart rate, which were initially increased, decreased significantly (P less than 0...
March 1978: American Journal of Medicine
M D Clee, N Smith, G P McNeill, D S Wright
Using 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring, the incidence of cardiac dysrhythmias was investigated in 50 apparently healthy elderly subjects aged over 60 years. There was a high incidence of both ventricular and supraventricular ectopic beats, supraventricular tachycardia and sinus arrest. First- and second-degree block were also noted. The incidence of dysrhythmias bore no obvious relationship to age over 60, sex, blood presssure, cigarette smoking, caffeine and theophylline ingestion or resting 12-lead ECG abnormalities...
August 1979: Age and Ageing
S G Chrysant
1. The effects of prolonged high sodium intake (duration 3 months) and meclofenamate were studied in two groups of male spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats. 2. Group 1 (eight rats) received 1% NaCl in water and served as controls, and group 2 received 1% NaCl in water plus meclofenamate (3.5-4.0 mg daily). 3. Group 2 rats developed higher arterial pressure, renal vascular resistance and left ventricular weight and greater renal histological changes, with lower effective renal plasma flow, renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate, than group 1...
December 1979: Clinical Science (1979-)
P R Cooper, H Hagler, W K Clark, P Barnett
Decompressive craniectomy has been advocated as a treatment for the cerebral edema associated with massive head injury. Although craniectomy has been successful in lowering intracranial pressure after head injury, a comparison of computerized tomographic scans of comparable patients with traumatic brain edema treated by medical means or decompressive craniectomy showed that bony decompression resulted in apparent exacerbation of edema. To investigate the possibility of enhancement of brain edema by craniectomy, we produced standardized cold lesions in the brains of 10 dogs...
April 1979: Neurosurgery
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