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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580850/in%C3%A2-vivo-n-15-mrs-study-of-glutamate-metabolism-in-the-rat-brain
#1
Keiko Kanamori
In vivo (15)N MRS has made a unique contribution to kinetic studies of the individual pathways that control glutamate flux in the rat brain. This review covers the following topics: (1) the advantages and limitations of in vivo (15)N MRS and its indirect detection through coupled (1)H; (2) kinetic methods; (3) major findings from our and other laboratories in the areas: (a) the uptake of the neurotransmitter glutamate from the extracellular fluid into glia; (b) the metabolism of glutamate to glutamine; (c) glutamine transport to the extracellular fluid; (d) hydrolysis of neuronal glutamine to glutamate; and (e) contribution of transamination from leucine to replenish the glutamate nitrogen...
August 28, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25612120/severe-cutaneous-adverse-reaction-to-telaprevir
#2
Marina Shuster, Daihung Do, Vinod Nambudiri
A 50-year-old woman presented with diffuse, intensely pruritic pink-red papules on her trunk and extremities three weeks after starting combination therapy with ribavirin, telaprevir, and interferon. She also had cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, eosinophilia, and transaminitis consistent with a severe drug reaction to telaprevir. She was started on high potency topical steroids under inpatient observation and recovered within two weeks. Severe cutaneous eruptions secondary to telaprevir have resulted in black-box warnings for potentially fatal skin reactions, including Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN)...
January 2015: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25326371/phenol-toxicity-following-cutaneous-exposure-to-creolin%C3%A2-a-case-report
#3
David Vearrier, Dorian Jacobs, Michael I Greenberg
INTRODUCTION: Phenol is a caustic that may cause cutaneous or gastrointestinal burns depending on the route of exposure. Significant absorption may result in systemic toxicity. We present a case of topical phenol exposure resulting in cutaneous burns and systemic phenol toxicity. CASE REPORT: A 9-year-old girl was exposed to Creolin(®), a general-purpose disinfectant containing phenol, when her mother applied this product to her head and upper torso. The patient required endotracheal intubation due to depressed mental status; she had cutaneous erythema in the distribution of contact with the cleanser...
June 2015: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24770611/addressing-statin-adverse-effects-in-the-clinic-the-5-ms
#4
REVIEW
Daniel H Katz, Sunny S Intwala, Neil J Stone
With the release of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults, emphasis has been placed on using evidence-based intensity of therapy to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk, rather than focusing on goal cholesterol levels. Before initiating therapy, however, it is critical that physicians and patients discuss 4 key topics: (1) the benefit of ASCVD risk reduction, (2) medication adverse effects, (3) drug-drug interactions, and (4) patient preferences...
November 2014: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24390602/pi3-kinase-inhibitors-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#5
REVIEW
Julie E Chang, Brad S Kahl
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is being explored as a target of inhibition for B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, with agents specific for inhibition of the PI3K-δ subunit showing significant clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Idelalisib (CAL-101, GS-1101) and IPI-145 (INK-1147) are novel oral PI3K-δ inhibitors in development, with rates of objective response of 40-60 % and nodal responses exceeding 70 % in relapsed and refractory CLL. High rates of response have been seen in high-risk CLL (i...
March 2014: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24080060/nursing-perspectives-on-trastuzumab-emtansine-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-breast-cancer
#6
Laura Bourdeanu, Thehang Luu
Increased understanding of the molecular composition of breast cancer tumors has led to the development of targeted anticancer agents. Novel therapies directed against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer have been developed. One such agent, trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), is an antibody drug conjugate that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Phase I and II studies have determined a maximum tolerated dose, and several phase Ib/II, II, and III studies have shown improved tolerability and efficacy compared with the combination of trastuzumab and chemotherapy...
October 2013: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23852540/annular-erythema-and-photosensitivity-as-manifestations-of-efavirenz-induced-cutaneous-reactions-a-review-of-five-consecutive-cases
#7
Thuraya Isaacs, Mzudumile R Ngwanya, Sipho Dlamini, Rannakoe J Lehloenya
OBJECTIVES: In HIV-infected persons, a rash is the most common manifestation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors are a major cause of cutaneous reactions. While the characteristics of nevirapine-associated cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) have been well described, there are limited data on efavirenz-associated CADRs. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical features of consecutive cases of efavirenz-associated CADRs in a single referral centre diagnosed over a 3 year period...
December 2013: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22661238/integrative-medicine-as-adjunct-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis-the-role-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-dietary-supplements-and-other-modalities
#8
REVIEW
C DiNicola, A Kekevian, C Chang
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is becoming increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population, with rates reportedly as high as 18-25 %. Westernized medicine has traditionally used a combination of emollients, antihistamines, corticosteroids, and immunomodulating agents to combat this often frustrating disease. Of late, integrative medicine has become the subject of more research as concerns grow regarding prolonged use of corticosteroids and their side effects in pediatric patients. Probiotics have been extensively studied to define their role in the treatment and prevention of AD in children...
June 2013: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22444783/systematic-review-of-tocilizumab-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-new-biologic-agent-targeting-the-interleukin-6-receptor
#9
REVIEW
Iris Navarro-Millán, Jasvinder A Singh, Jeffrey R Curtis
BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, represents a new treatment strategy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is currently approved in the United States for RA patients who have failed to improve with at least one anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to summarize the efficacy and safety profile of TCZ. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify English-language articles within PubMed and the Cochrane Library from January 1989 to August 2011 reporting results from Phase III TCZ double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), noncontrolled clinical trials, and open-label extensions with a duration ≥6 months...
April 2012: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22397329/tranexamic-acid-a-review-of-its-use-in-the-treatment-of-hyperfibrinolysis
#10
REVIEW
Paul L McCormack
Tranexamic acid, a synthetic derivative of the amino acid lysine, is an antifibrinolytic agent that acts by binding to plasminogen and blocking the interaction of plasmin(ogen) with fibrin, thereby preventing dissolution of the fibrin clot. Tranexamic acid (Transamin®) is indicated in Japan for use in certain conditions with abnormal bleeding or bleeding tendencies in which local or systemic hyperfibrinolysis is considered to be involved. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of tranexamic acid in conditions amenable to antifibrinolytic therapy and briefly overviews the pharmacological properties of the drug...
March 26, 2012: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22147254/two-brothers-with-skewed-thiopurine-metabolism-in-ulcerative-colitis-treated-successfully-with-allopurinol-and-mercaptopurine-dose-reduction
#11
Frank Hoentjen, Stephen B Hanauer, Nanne K de Boer, David T Rubin
Thiopurine therapy effectively maintains remission in inflammatory bowel disease. However, many patients are unable to achieve optimum benefits from azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine because of undesirable metabolism related to high thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity characterized by hepatic transaminitis secondary to increased 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) production and reduced levels of therapeutic 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN). Allopurinol can optimize this skewed metabolism. We discuss two brothers who were both diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC)...
January 2012: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21886053/a-paradigm-shift-in-the-outpatient-approach-to-liver-function-tests
#12
REVIEW
Viplove Senadhi
The American Gastroenterological Association (2002), Canadian Medical Association (2005), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006) released guidelines to screen patients with mild elevations of liver enzymes for hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Mildly elevated liver enzymes were defined as less than five times the upper limit of normal, but above the normal reference range. The rationale for this recommendation was based on many factors including cost effectiveness, lab variation, and ultimately, for better patient care...
July 2011: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21696520/evaluation-of-the-physicians-approach-to-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-antituberculosis-drug-induced-hepatotoxicity
#13
Wilawan Thongraung, Maneerat Sittidach, Panatda Khwansuwan, Kanitha Sariyasuntorn, Sirinart Wongsampan
OBJECTIVES: To describe the practices of physicians on the diagnosis and treatment of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATH), and to evaluate the concordance between these practices and the American Thoracic Society (ATS) 2006 guidelines. METHODS: Information was reviewed on 670 new cases of tuberculosis patients aged not less than 15 years and registered at the outpatient clinics of a large hospital in southern Thailand during October 2006 to September 2009...
December 2012: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21159363/does-a-longer-duration-of-oral-factor-xa-therapy-increase-the-risk-of-bleeding-or-transaminitis
#14
Aaron M From, Deana D Hoganson, Patricia J Erwin
BACKGROUND: There is little data regarding the risk of bleeding or transaminitis with a longer duration of oral factor Xa therapy. Our goal was to analyze data from randomized trials to better define the relationship between drug duration and drug safety. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and several internet sources of data from 1988 through the second week of March 2010. We identified (1) randomized controlled trials that (2) compared oral factor Xa inhibitors to low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or vitamin-K antagonists (3) in humans...
March 2011: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20525756/safety-efficacy-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-the-combination-of-sorafenib-and-tanespimycin
#15
Ulka N Vaishampayan, Angelika M Burger, Edward A Sausville, Lance K Heilbrun, Jing Li, M Naomi Horiba, Merrill J Egorin, Percy Ivy, Simon Pacey, Patricia M Lorusso
PURPOSE: Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 inhibition affects the Raf kinase signaling pathway and could enhance antitumor effects of sorafenib, a Raf kinase inhibitor. The combination of sorafenib and tanespimycin [17-allyl-amino-geldanamycin (17-AAG); NSC 330507/KOS-953] was evaluated in a phase I trial with the primary objective of defining a phase II dose. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The dose cohorts consisted of fixed continuous oral dosing of 400 mg sorafenib twice daily, starting at 14 days before tanespimycin, which was administered intravenously at escalating doses (starting at 300 mg/m,(2) with 50 mg/m(2) increments), on days 1, 8, and 15 in a 28-day cycle...
July 15, 2010: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20430457/omega-transaminases-for-the-synthesis-of-non-racemic-alpha-chiral-primary-amines
#16
REVIEW
Dominik Koszelewski, Katharina Tauber, Kurt Faber, Wolfgang Kroutil
Optically pure amines are highly valuable products or key intermediates for a vast number of bioactive compounds; however, efficient methods for their preparation are rare. omega-Transaminases (TAs) can be applied either for the kinetic resolution of racemic amines or for the asymmetric synthesis of amines from the corresponding ketones. The latter process is more advantageous because it leads to 100% product, and is therefore a major focus of this review. This review summarizes various methodologies for transamination reactions, and provides an overview of omega-TAs that have the potential to be used for the preparation of a broad spectrum of alpha-chiral amines...
June 2010: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20360293/statins-in-the-treatment-of-dyslipidemia-in-the-presence-of-elevated-liver-aminotransferase-levels-a-therapeutic-dilemma
#17
REVIEW
Rossana M Calderon, Luigi X Cubeddu, Ronald B Goldberg, Eugene R Schiff
The beneficial role of statins in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease has resulted in their frequent use in clinical practice. However, safety concerns, especially regarding hepatotoxicity, have driven multiple trials, which have demonstrated the low incidence of statin-related hepatic adverse effects. The most commonly reported hepatic adverse effect is the phenomenon known as transaminitis, in which liver enzyme levels are elevated in the absence of proven hepatotoxicity. This class effect is usually asymptomatic, reversible, and dose-related...
April 2010: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19946895/metabolic-characteristics-and-importance-of-the-universal-methionine-salvage-pathway-recycling-methionine-from-5-methylthioadenosine
#18
REVIEW
Eva Albers
The methionine salvage pathway, also called the 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) cycle, recycles the sulfur of MTA, which is a by-product in the biosyntheses of polyamine and the plant hormone ethylene. MTA is first converted to 5'-methylthioribose-1-phosphate either by MTA phosphorylase or the combined action of MTA nucleosidase and 5'-methylthioribose kinase. Subsequently, five additional enzymatic steps, catalyzed by four or five proteins, will form 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyrate, the deaminated form of methionine...
December 2009: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17922277/semimechanistic-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-for-hepatoprotective-effect-of-dexamethasone-on-transient-transaminitis-after-trabectedin-et-743-treatment
#19
Gerald J Fetterly, Joel S Owen, Kim Stuyckens, Julie A Passarell, Peter Zannikos, Arturo Soto-Matos, Miguel Angel Izquierdo, Juan Jose Perez-Ruixo
PURPOSE: Reversible transient elevations in transaminases have been observed after trabectedin administration. A semimechanistic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model was developed to evaluate the time course of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation, tolerance development, and the hepatoprotective effect of dexamethasone on trabectedin-induced transient transaminitis following different dosing schedules in cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Trabectedin was administered to 711 patients as monotherapy (dose range: 0...
June 2008: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17159655/prevalence-risk-factors-and-outcomes-for-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-hiv-infected-patients
#20
Vincent Lo Re, Ian Frank, Robert Gross, Janel Dockter, Jeffrey M Linnen, Cristina Giachetti, Pablo Tebas, John Stern, Marie Synnestvedt, A Russell Localio, Jay R Kostman, Brian L Strom
BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) is defined by the presence of HBV DNA in individuals with HBV core antibodies (anti-HBc) but without HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). The prevalence of occult HBV in HIV-infected patients remains controversial, and the risk factors and clinical significance are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical significance of occult HBV among HIV-infected patients. Hypothesized risk factors include chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), CD4 count < 200 cells/mm, HIV RNA level >1000 copies/mL, and lack of use of anti-HBV antiretrovirals...
March 1, 2007: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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