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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822307/efficacy-of-a-third-or-later-antiepileptic-drug-regimen-according-to-epilepsy-syndrome-among-adult-patients
#1
Go Ito, Akihisa Okumura, Kousuke Kanemoto
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of third or later antiepileptic drug (AED) regimens in adult patients with epilepsy according to epilepsy syndrome. METHODS: The time courses of AEDs and their efficacy were evaluated in 449 adults with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n=153), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME, n=33), or extratemporal focal epilepsy (FE, n=263) based mainly on clinical symptoms and EEG findings. Any change in AEDs after their initiation demarcated the end of one regimen, whereas changes in dose did not...
August 3, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821922/homeostatic-plasticity-in-human-extrastriate-cortex-following-a-simulated-peripheral-scotoma
#2
Matthew A Gannon, Stephanie M Long, Nathan A Parks
Neuroimaging and patient work over the past decade have indicated that, following retinal deafferentation, the human visual cortex undergoes a large-scale and enduring reorganization of its topography such that the classical retinotopic organization of deafferented visual cortex remaps to represent non-classical regions of visual space. Such long-term visual reorganization is proposed to occur through changes in the functional balance of deafferented visual circuits that engage more lasting changes through activity-dependent neuroplasticity...
August 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821403/performance-of-an-automated-algorithm-to-process-artefacts-for-quantitative-eeg-analysis-during-a-simultaneous-driving-simulator-performance-task
#3
András Szentkirályi, Keith K H Wong, Ronald R Grunstein, Angela L D'Rozario, Jong Won Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821320/reduced-neural-responses-to-food-cues-might-contribute-to-the-anorexigenic-effect-of-acute-exercise-observed-in-obese-but-not-lean-adolescents
#4
S N Fearnbach, L Silvert, B Pereira, Y Boirie, M Duclos, K L Keller, D Thivel
Acute exercise has been found to reduce subsequent energy intake in obese adolescents. Although it has been suggested that some neural pathways are involved in this post-exercise energy intake regulation, it remains unknown whether the post-exercise attentional response to food cues differs as a function of weight status. We hypothesize that there will be a reduction in the neural response to food cues as a result of exercise in obese adolescents, but not in their lean counterparts. Fourteen obese and 14 lean adolescent boys (12-15 years) were randomized (within-subjects design) to remain seated (CON) or to exercise 45 minutes at 65% of their maximal capacities (EX)...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821005/anticonvulsant-effect-of-cannabidiol-in-the-pentylenetetrazole-model-pharmacological-mechanisms-electroencephalographic-profile-and-brain-cytokine-levels
#5
Luciano R Vilela, Isabel V Lima, Érica B Kunsch, Hyorrana Priscila P Pinto, Aline S de Miranda, Érica Leandro M Vieira, Antônio Carlos P de Oliveira, Marcio Flávio D Moraes, Antônio L Teixeira, Fabricio A Moreira
Cannabidiol (CBD), the main nonpsychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa, inhibits experimental seizures in animal models and alleviates certain types of intractable epilepsies in patients. Its pharmacological profile, however, is still uncertain. Here we tested the hypothesis that CBD anticonvulsant mechanisms are prevented by cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) and vanilloid (TRPV1) receptor blockers. We also investigated its effects on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and hippocampal cytokines in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model...
August 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819796/simultaneous-eeg-pet-fmri-measurements-in-disorders-of-consciousness-an-exploratory-study-on-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#6
Daniel Golkowski, Katharina Merz, Caroline Mlynarcik, Tobias Kiel, Barbara Schorr, Alex Lopez-Rolon, Mathias Lukas, Denis Jordan, Andreas Bender, Rüdiger Ilg
Previous studies could demonstrate that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and electroencephalography (EEG) measures contain information about patients suffering from disorders of consciousness (DOC) and thus improve the clinical diagnosis. Additionally, the technical modalities were able to predict the outcome of patients. However, most studies lack proven reproducibility in a clinical setting. We here applied a standardized combined EEG/fMRI/FDG-PET measurement to a cohort of 20 patients suffering from DOC and focused on parameters that have been demonstrated to contain information about diagnosis and prognosis of these patients...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819259/dendritic-calcium-spikes-are-clearly-detectable-at-the-cortical-surface
#7
Mototaka Suzuki, Matthew E Larkum
Cortical surface recording techniques such as EEG and ECoG are widely used for measuring brain activity. The prevailing assumption is that surface potentials primarily reflect synaptic activity, although non-synaptic events may also contribute. Here we show that dendritic calcium spikes occurring in pyramidal neurons (that we showed previously are cognitively relevant) are clearly detectable in cortical surface potentials. To show this we developed an optogenetic, non-synaptic approach to evoke dendritic calcium spikes in vivo...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818811/brain-tumors-and-epileptic-spasms-natural-history-and-outcomes
#8
Viviana Benitez, Peter E Manley, Liliana C Goumnerova, Chellamani Harini, Nicole J Ullrich
While brain tumors are a frequent cause of seizures, they rarely cause epileptic spasms (ES). The objective of this study was to investigate features of tumor-associated ES. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with ES and a brain tumor. Demographics; pathologic, radiologic, and EEG data; treatment response; and long-term outcome were collected. Twenty four patients were identified; 11 met inclusion criteria. Epileptic spasm (ES) onset occurred prior to tumor diagnosis in seven patients (63%), and after tumor resection in 4 patients (36%)...
August 14, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818696/cortical-networks-for-reference-frame-processing-are-shared-by-language-and-spatial-navigation-systems
#9
Nikola Vukovic, Yury Shtyrov
To help us live in the three-dimensional world, our brain integrates incoming spatial information into reference frames, which are based either on our own body (egocentric) or independent from it (allocentric). Such frames, however, may be crucial not only when interacting with the visual world, but also in language comprehension, since even the simplest utterance can be understood from different perspectives. While significant progress has been made in elucidating how linguistic factors, such as pronouns, influence reference frame adoption, the neural underpinnings of this ability are largely unknown...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818692/suppression-of-irrelevant-sounds-during-auditory-working-memory
#10
Jyrki Ahveninen, Larry J Seidman, Wei-Tang Chang, Matti Hämäläinen, Samantha Huang
Auditory working memory (WM) processing in everyday acoustic environments depends on our ability to maintain relevant information online in our minds, and to suppress interference caused by competing incoming stimuli. A challenge in communication settings is that the relevant content and irrelevant inputs may emanate from a common source, such as a talkative conversationalist. An open question is how the WM system deals with such interference. Will the distracters become inadvertently filtered before processing for meaning because the primary WM operations deplete all available processing resources? Or are they suppressed post perceptually, through an active control process? We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring magnetoencephalography (MEG), EEG, and functional MRI (fMRI) during a phonetic auditory continuous performance task...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818555/pyridoxine-5-phosphate-oxidase-pnpo-deficiency-clinical-and-biochemical-alterations-associated-with-the-c-347g-a-p-%C3%A2-arg116gln-mutation
#11
Martino L di Salvo, Mario Mastrangelo, Isabel Nogués, Manuela Tolve, Alessandro Paiardini, Carla Carducci, Davide Mei, Martino Montomoli, Angela Tramonti, Renzo Guerrini, Roberto Contestabile, Vincenzo Leuzzi
BACKGROUND: Pyridoxal-5(')-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency presents as a severe neonatal encephalopathy responsive to pyridoxal-5(')-phosphate (PLP) or pyridoxine. Recent studies widened the phenotype of this condition and detected genetic variants on PNPO gene whose pathogenic role and clinical expression remain to be established. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to characterize the functional effects of the c.347G>A (p.Arg116Gln) mutation in the PNPO gene in order to define its pathogenicity and describe the clinical features of new patients with epilepsy carrying this mutation...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817568/an-optimal-strategy-for-epilepsy-surgery-disruption-of-the-rich-club
#12
Marinho A Lopes, Mark P Richardson, Eugenio Abela, Christian Rummel, Kaspar Schindler, Marc Goodfellow, John R Terry
Surgery is a therapeutic option for people with epilepsy whose seizures are not controlled by anti-epilepsy drugs. In pre-surgical planning, an array of data modalities, often including intra-cranial EEG, is used in an attempt to map regions of the brain thought to be crucial for the generation of seizures. These regions are then resected with the hope that the individual is rendered seizure free as a consequence. However, post-operative seizure freedom is currently sub-optimal, suggesting that the pre-surgical assessment may be improved by taking advantage of a mechanistic understanding of seizure generation in large brain networks...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816702/as-above-so-below-towards-understanding-inverse-models-in-bci
#13
Jussi T Lindgren
In Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI), measurements of the users brain activity are classified into commands for the computer. With EEG-based BCIs, the origins of the classified phenomena are often considered to be spatially localized in the cortical volume and mixed in the EEG. Does the reconstruction of the source activities in the volume help in building more accurate BCIs? The answer remains inconclusive despite previous work. In this paper, we study the question by contrasting the physiology-driven source reconstruction with data-driven representations obtained by statistical machine learning...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815953/epilepsy-in-fragile-x-syndrome-mimicking-panayiotopoulos-syndrome-description-of-three-patients
#14
Paolo Bonanni, Susanna Casellato, Franco Fabbro, Susanna Negrin
Fragile-X-syndrome is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. Epilepsy is reported to occur in 10-20% of individuals with Fragile-X-syndrome. A frequent seizure/electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern resembles that of benign rolandic epilepsy. We describe the clinical features, EEG findings and evolution in three patients affected by Fragile-X-syndrome and epilepsy mimicking Panayiotopoulos syndrome. Age at seizure onset was between 4 and about 7 years. Seizures pattern comprised a constellation of autonomic symptoms with unilateral deviation of the eyes and ictal syncope...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815135/active-deep-learning-based-annotation-of-electroencephalography-reports-for-cohort-identification
#15
Ramon Maldonado, Travis R Goodwin, Sanda M Harabagiu
The annotation of a large corpus of Electroencephalography (EEG) reports is a crucial step in the development of an EEG-specific patient cohort retrieval system. The annotation of multiple types of EEG-specific medical concepts, along with their polarity and modality, is challenging, especially when automatically performed on Big Data. To address this challenge, we present a novel framework which combines the advantages of active and deep learning while producing annotations that capture a variety of attributes of medical concepts...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815118/deep-learning-from-eeg-reports-for-inferring-underspecified-information
#16
Travis R Goodwin, Sanda M Harabagiu
Secondary use(1)of electronic health records (EHRs) often relies on the ability to automatically identify and extract information from EHRs. Unfortunately, EHRs are known to suffer from a variety of idiosyncrasies - most prevalently, they have been shown to often omit or underspecify information. Adapting traditional machine learning methods for inferring underspecified information relies on manually specifying features characterizing the specific information to recover (e.g. particular findings, test results, or physician's impressions)...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814801/strain-dependence-of-the-angelman-syndrome-phenotypes-in-ube3a-maternal-deficiency-mice
#17
Heather A Born, An T Dao, Amber T Levine, Wai Ling Lee, Natasha M Mehta, Shubhangi Mehra, Edwin J Weeber, Anne E Anderson
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, most commonly caused by deletion or mutation of the maternal allele of the UBE3A gene, with behavioral phenotypes and seizures as key features. Currently no treatment is available, and therapeutics are often ineffective in controlling AS-associated seizures. Previous publications using the Ube3a maternal deletion model have shown behavioral and seizure susceptibility phenotypes, however findings have been variable and merit characterization of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813966/exergaming-with-a-pediatric-exoskeleton-facilitating-rehabilitation-and-research-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#18
Thomas C Bulea, Zachary F Lerner, Andrew J Gravunder, Diane L Damiano
Effective rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) requires intensive task-specific exercise but many in this population lack the motor capabilities to complete the desired training tasks. Providing robotic assistance is a potential solution yet the effects of this assistance are unclear. We combined a novel exoskeleton and exercise video game (exergame) to create a new rehabilitation paradigm for children with CP. We incorporated high density electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cortical activity...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813964/brain-computer-interface-combining-eye-saccade-two-electrode-eeg-signals-and-voice-cues-to-improve-the-maneuverability-of-wheelchair
#19
Ker-Jiun Wang, Lan Zhang, Bo Luan, Hsiao-Wei Tung, Quanfeng Liu, Jiacheng Wei, Mingui Sun, Zhi-Hong Mao
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) largely augment human capabilities by translating brain wave signals into feasible commands to operate external devices. However, many issues face the development of BCIs such as the low classification accuracy of brain signals and the tedious human-learning procedures. To solve these problems, we propose to use signals associated with eye saccades and blinks to control a BCI interface. By extracting existing physiological eye signals, the user does not need to adapt his/her brain waves to the device...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813949/monitoring-brain-potentials-to-guide-neurorehabilitation-of-tracking-impairments
#20
Boris Yazmir, Miriam Reiner
Motor impairments come in different forms. One class of motor impairments, relates to accuracy of tracking a moving object, as, for instance, when chasing in an attempt to catch it. Here we look at neural signals associated with errors in tracking, and the implications for brain-computer-interfaces that target impairment-tailored rehabilitation. As a starting point, we characterized EEG signals evoked by tracking errors during continuous natural motion, in healthy participants. Participants played a virtual 3D, ecologically valid haptic tennis game, and had to track a moving tennis ball in order to hit and send the ball towards the opponent's court...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
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