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Krutika Joshi, Lily Shen, Feng Cao, Susan Dong, Zhengping Jia, Miguel A Cortez, O Carter Snead
OBJECTIVE: Infantile spasms (IS) is a catastrophic childhood seizure disorder that is characterized by extensor and/or flexor spasms, cognitive deterioration and a characteristic EEG abnormality. The latter consists of a pattern of a spike-wave followed by an electrodecremental response (EDR), which is a flattening of the EEG waveform amplitude. The mechanism/circuitry that underpins IS is unknown. Children with Down Syndrome (DS) are particularly vulnerable to IS. The standard mouse model of DS is the Ts65Dn mutant mouse (Ts)...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Seyedeh Yasamin Boutorabi, Ali Sheikhani
Background: Today, the neuroscience has growth in many aspects, and the effects of different factors on memory obtained many achievements. Several scientific and experimental studies evaluated effects of music on style and behavior of people; in this study, we evaluated memory between two groups of people, the professional pianists and normal people, through processing their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals using the coherence measure. Methods: In this study, EEG signals from 17 subjects during two memory tasks were recorded...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
Andreas Kurt Kaiser, Maria-Theresa Gnjezda, Stephanie Knasmüller, Wolfgang Aichhorn
Purpose: Electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry (AA) in depressive disorders has been of interest over the last few decades, but it continues to remain unclear whether EEG AA can discriminate between healthy and depressive individuals. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search for papers addressing EEG AA using the keywords alpha asymmetry, depression, and EEG was performed in PubMed. All studies were checked for sample size, gender, handedness, reference, recording protocol, EEG band range, impedance, type of analysis, drugs, and comorbidity...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
John E Kiat, Dianna Long, Robert F Belli
Attention and memory are highly integrated processes. Building on prior behavioral investigations, this study assesses the link between individual differences in low-level neural attentional responding and false memory susceptibility on the misinformation effect, a paradigm in which false event memories are induced via misleading post-event information. Twenty-four subjects completed the misinformation effect paradigm after which high-density (256-channel) EEG data was collected as they engaged in an auditory oddball task...
June 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Mark B Shtark, Lyudmila I Kozlova, Dmitriy D Bezmaternykh, Mikhail Ye Mel'nikov, Andrey A Savelov, Estate M Sokhadze
Neural networks interaction was studied in healthy men (20-35 years old) who underwent 20 sessions of EEG biofeedback training outside the MRI scanner, with concurrent fMRI-EEG scans at the beginning, middle, and end of the course. The study recruited 35 subjects for EEG biofeedback, but only 18 of them were considered as "successful" in self-regulation of target EEG bands during the whole course of training. Results of fMRI analysis during EEG biofeedback are reported only for these "successful" trainees...
June 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Nadine Schlichting, Ritske de Jong, Hedderik van Rijn
Certain EEG components (e.g., the contingent negative variation, CNV, or beta oscillations) have been linked to the perception of temporal magnitudes specifically. However, it is as of yet unclear whether these EEG components are really unique to time perception or reflect the perception of magnitudes in general. In the current study we recorded EEG while participants had to make judgments about duration (time condition) or numerosity (number condition) in a comparison task. This design allowed us to directly compare EEG signals between the processing of time and number...
June 20, 2018: Psychological Research
Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Hiromichi Naito, Takaaki Osako, Kohei Tsukahara, Taihei Yamada, Tetsuya Yumoto, Atsuyoshi Iida, Yoshinori Kosaki, Makio Oka, Fumika Endo, Akira Gochi, Atsunori Nakao
A healthy 10-year-old boy vomited during sleep and later complained of abdominal pain; he became drowsy and uncommunicative. At the nearby hospital E.R., he deteriorated rapidly, and his respiratory movements were absent with cardiac arrest. He was immediately resuscitated. Brain MRI showed no abnormalities. EEG revealed an abnormal pattern with recurrent multifocal epileptiform activity over the bilateral occipital and frontal regions during sleep. Based on the clinical/radiological findings we diagnosed Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS), a benign form of early-onset pediatric epilepsy characterized by autonomic symptoms...
June 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
Chaturbhuj Rathore, Malcolm K Jeyaraj, Gopal K Dash, Pandurang Wattamwar, Neeraj Baheti, Sankara P Sarma, Kurupath Radhakrishnan
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term outcome following seizure recurrence on antiepileptic drug (AED) withdrawal after anterior temporal lobectomy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the AED profile of patients who had a minimum of 5 years of postoperative follow-up after anterior temporal lobectomy for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Only those patients with hippocampal sclerosis or normal MRI were included. AED withdrawal was initiated at 3 months in patients on ≥2 drugs and at 1 year for patients on a single drug...
June 20, 2018: Neurology
Sunaina Soni, Suriya Prakash Muthukrishnan, Mamta Sood, Simran Kaur, Ratna Sharma
OBJECTIVE: The momentary spatial configuration of the brain electric field at the scalp reflects quasi-stable "functional microstates" caused by activity of different intracranial generators. There is paucity in literature on the intracranial generators of resting state EEG microstate alterations in stable patients with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to investigate resting state microstate alterations and their neural generators in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives as compared to healthy controls in an attempt to establish state and trait marker...
June 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Wen-di Luo, Jia-Wei Min, Wen-Xian Huang, Xin Wang, Yuan-Yuan Peng, Song Han, Jun Yin, Wan-Hong Liu, Xiao-Hua He, Bi-Wen Peng
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, characterized by tissue loss and neurologic dysfunction, is a leading cause of mortality and a devastating disease of the central nervous system. We have previously shown that vitexin has been attributed various medicinal properties and has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective roles in neonatal brain injury models. In the present study, we continued to reinforce and validate the basic understanding of vitexin (45 mg/kg) as a potential treatment for epilepsy and explored its possible underlying mechanisms...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Barbara Schmidt, Hannah Kanis, Clay B Holroyd, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Johannes Hewig
In this study, we address the effect of anxiety measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) on EEG and risk decisions. We selected 20 high and 20 low anxious participants based on their STAI trait scores in the upper or lower quartile of the norm distribution and implemented a risk game developed in our laboratory. We investigate if high anxious individuals exert more cognitive control, reflected in higher frontal midline theta (FMT) power when they make a risky decision, and if they act less risky compared to low anxious individuals...
June 20, 2018: Psychophysiology
Giacomo Rizzolatti, Maddalena Fabbri-Destro, Fausto Caruana, Pietro Avanzini
In this review, we discuss first the anatomical and lesion studies that allowed the localization of fundamental functions in the cerebral cortex of primates including humans. Subsequently, we argue that the years from the end of the Second World War until the end of the last century represented the "golden age" of system neuroscience. In this period, the mechanisms-not only the localization-underlying sensory, and in particular visual functions were described, followed by those underlying cognitive functions and housed in temporal, parietal, and premotor areas...
June 20, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Vanessa Petruo, Benjamin Bodmer, Valerie C Brandt, Leoni Baumung, Veit Roessner, Alexander Münchau, Christian Beste
BACKGROUND: Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is a multifaceted neuropsychiatric developmental disorder with onset in childhood or adolescence and frequent remissions in early adulthood. A rather new emerging concept of this syndrome suggests that it is a disorder of purposeful actions, in which sensory processes and their relation to motor responses (actions) play a particularly important role. Thus, this syndrome might be conceived as a condition of altered 'perception-action binding'...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Andrew Todd Ham, Jill Mackey, Gary Semb
Continuous electroencephalography (CEEG) is chiefly performed at The Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) for identifying seizures, including its refined use within the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) as a differentiator between epileptic and psychogenic etiologies. CEEG also provides critical data that carry implications outside the bounds of both epilepsy and psychogenic events, such as the characterization of unorthodox clinical phenomena that are of physiological (though nonepileptic) origins. Although nonepileptic events (NEEs) are primarily linked with psychogenic phenomena (conversion disorder, malingering) that can mimic epileptic activity, they, like seizures, have diverse semiologies and etiologies...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Cassio Henrique Taques Martins, Catarina De Marchi Assunção
It is a fundamental element in both research and clinical applications of electroencephalography to know the frequency composition of brain electrical activity. The quantitative analysis of brain electrical activity uses computer resources to evaluate the electroencephalography and allows quantification of the data. The contribution of the quantitative perspective is unique, since conventional electroencephalography based on the visual examination of the tracing is not as objective. A systematic review was performed on the MEDLINE database in October 2017...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Idrish Ali, Arun Gandrathi, Thomas Zheng, Margaret J Morris, Terence J O'Brien, Chris French
OBJECTIVES: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) potently suppresses spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy (GAERS), but the underlying neurophysiologic mechanisms are not clear. We therefore sought to determine the in vivo effects of NPY on neuronal firing in the cortico-thalamo-cortical network activity, known to play a critical role in the generation of SWDs in these rats. METHODS: NPY was administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV) or in separate experiments locally on the neurons of caudal thalamic reticular nucleus (NRT) by use of juxtacellular iontophoresis in triple-barrel electrodes in male GAERS aged 12-15 weeks, in vivo under neuroleptic anesthesia...
June 20, 2018: Epilepsia
Sangeeta Bagha, R K Tripathy, Pranati Nanda, C Preetam, Debi Prasad Das
In this Letter, a method is proposed to investigate the effect of noise with and without active noise control (ANC) on multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. The multichannel EEG signal is recorded during different listening conditions such as silent, music, noise, ANC with background noise and ANC with both background noise and music. The multiscale analysis of EEG signal of each channel is performed using the discrete wavelet transform. The multivariate multiscale matrices are formulated based on the sub-band signals of each EEG channel...
June 2018: Healthcare Technology Letters
Zhenghao Guo, Xia Wu, Jianhong Liu, Li Yao, Bin Hu
OBJECTIVE: Depression is a severe mental disorder. However, the neural mechanisms underlying affective interference (difficulties in directing attention away from negative distractors) in depression patients are still not well understood. In particular, the connections between brain regions remain unclear. Using the emotional face-word Stroop task, we aimed to reveal the altered electroencephalography (EEG) functional connectivity in patients with depression, using concepts from event-related potentials (ERPs) and time series clustering...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
A Macerollo, C Palmer, T Foltynie, P Korlipara, P Limousin, M Edwards, J M Kilner
A recent theoretical account of motor control proposes that modulation of afferent information plays a role in affecting how readily we can move. Increasing the estimate of uncertainty surrounding the afferent input is a necessary step in being able to move. It has been proposed that an inability to modulate the gain of this sensory information underlies the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to test this theory by modulating the uncertainty of the proprioceptive signal using high frequency peripheral vibration, to determine the subsequent effect on motor performance...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kyle Hobbs, Prashanth Krishnamohan, Catherine Legault, Steve Goodman, Josef Parvizi, Kapil Gururangan, Michael Mlynash
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from non-convulsive seizures experience delays in diagnosis and treatment due to limitations in acquiring and interpreting electroencephalography (EEG) data. The Ceribell EEG System offers rapid EEG acquisition and conversion of EEG signals to sound (sonification) using a proprietary algorithm. This study was designed to test the performance of this EEG system in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting and measure its impact on clinician treatment decision...
June 19, 2018: Neurocritical Care
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