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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242045/theta-bursts-precede-and-spindles-follow-cortical-and-thalamic-downstates-in-human-nrem-sleep
#1
Chris Gonzalez, Rachel Mak-McCully, Burke Rosen, Sydney S Cash, Patrick Chauvel, Hélène Bastuji, Marc Rey, Eric Halgren
Since their discovery, slow oscillations have been observed to group spindles during non-REM sleep. Previous studies assert that the slow oscillation downstate (DS) is preceded by slow spindles (10-12Hz), and followed by fast spindles (12-16Hz). Here, using both direct transcortical recordings in patients with intractable epilepsy (n=10, 8 female), as well as scalp EEG recordings from a healthy cohort (n=3, 1 female), we find in multiple cortical areas that both slow and fast spindles follow the DS. Although discrete oscillations do precede DSs, they are theta bursts (TB) centered at 5-8Hz...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30241957/putting-it-all-together-options-for-intractable-epilepsy-an-updated-algorithm-on-the-use-of-epilepsy-surgery-and-neurostimulation
#2
Selim R Benbadis, Eric Geller, Philippe Ryvlin, Steven Schachter, James Wheless, Werner Doyle, Fernando L Vale
For drug-resistant epilepsy, nonpharmacologic treatments should be considered early rather than late. Of the nondrug treatments, only resective surgery can be curative. Neurostimulation is palliative, i.e., not expected to achieve a seizure-free outcome. While resective surgery is the goal, other options are necessary because the majority of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy are not surgical candidates, and others have seizures that fail to improve with surgery or have only partial improvement but not seizure freedom...
September 18, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30241056/burden-of-illness-in-patients-with-possible-lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-retrospective-claims-based-study
#3
Nancy L Reaven, Susan E Funk, Georgia D Montouris, Timothy B Saurer, Tyler J Story
OBJECTIVE: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe and treatment-resistant epilepsy syndrome characterized by multiple subtypes of intractable seizures, moderate to severe cognitive impairment, and slow spike-wave complexes on electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is also associated with increased risk for injury, reduced quality of life, long-term disability, and early mortality. By evaluating private and public US medical insurance claims, we quantified healthcare utilization and direct costs in patients with possible LGS...
September 18, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240977/eeg-coherence-in-a-mental-arithmetic-task-performance-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder
#4
Yuliya Zaytseva, Zhanna Garakh, Vladimir Novototsky-Vlasov, Isaac Ya Gurovich, Alexander Shmukler, Anna Papaefstathiou, Jiří Horáček, Filip Španiel, Valeria B Strelets
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the coherence values of the cortical bands in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder during the performance of a mental arithmetic task. METHOD: We analysed EEG coherence in the resting state and subsequently while counting down from 200 in steps of 7 in 32 first episode schizophrenia patients (SZ), 32 patients with first episode schizoaffective disorder (SA) and 40 healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: Task performance in HC is characterised by decreased coherence in the alpha bands and increased coherence in the beta 2 and gamma bands in frontal sites...
September 6, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240976/intrinsic-network-reactivity-differentiates-levels-of-consciousness-in-comatose-patients
#5
Sina Khanmohammadi, Osvaldo Laurido-Soto, Lawrence N Eisenman, Terrance T Kummer, ShiNung Ching
OBJECTIVE: We devise a data-driven framework to assess the level of consciousness in etiologically heterogeneous comatose patients using intrinsic dynamical changes of resting-state Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. METHODS: EEG signals were collected from 54 comatose patients (GCS ⩽ 8) and 20 control patients (GCS > 8). We analyzed the EEG signals using a new technique, termed Intrinsic Network Reactivity Index (INRI), that aims to assess the overall lability of brain dynamics without the use of extrinsic stimulation...
September 7, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240804/influence-of-imputation-strategies-on-the-identification-of-brain-functional-connectivity-networks
#6
Britta Pester, Thomas Lehmann, Lutz Leistritz, Herbert Witte, Carolin Ligges
Whenever neurophysiological data, such as EEG data are recorded, occurring artifacts pose an essential problem. This study addresses this issue by using imputation methods whereby whole data sets of a trial, or distinct electrodes, are not removed from the analysis of the EEG data but are replaced. We present different imputation strategies but use only two which are optimal for this particular study; predictive mean matching and data augmentation. The study addresses the as of yet unresolved question if the quality of derived brain functional networks is improved by imputation methods compared to traditional exclusion techniques which drop data, and will finally assesses the differences between the two imputation methods themselves used here...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240542/the-neural-oscillatory-markers-of-phonetic-convergence-during-verbal-interaction
#7
Sankar Mukherjee, Leonardo Badino, Pauline M Hilt, Alice Tomassini, Alberto Inuggi, Luciano Fadiga, Noël Nguyen, Alessandro D'Ausilio
During a conversation, the neural processes supporting speech production and perception overlap in time and, based on context, expectations and the dynamics of interaction, they are also continuously modulated in real time. Recently, the growing interest in the neural dynamics underlying interactive tasks, in particular in the language domain, has mainly tackled the temporal aspects of turn-taking in dialogs. Besides temporal coordination, an under-investigated phenomenon is the implicit convergence of the speakers toward a shared phonetic space...
September 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240511/the-neurophysiological-basis-of-developmental-changes-during-sequential-cognitive-flexibility-between-adolescents-and-adults
#8
Franziska Giller, Rui Zhang, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Cognitive flexibility is a major facet of executive functions and often refers to sequential task control; that is, it is very likely that one may re-encounter a task that has previously been abandoned to carry out a different task. In the context of sequential cognitive flexibility, the "backward inhibition (BI) effect" has been studied quite extensively. Here we ask whether there are age-related differences between adolescents and adults to overcome BI and what system-neurophysiological mechanisms underlie these modulations...
September 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239282/nationwide-incidence-and-risk-factors-for-posttraumatic-seizures-in-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Kavelin Rumalla, Kyle A Smith, Vijay Letchuman, Mrudula Gandham, Rachana Kombathula, Paul M Arnold
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic seizures (PTSs) are the most common complication following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may lead to posttraumatic epilepsy. PTS is well described in the adult literature but has not been studied extensively in children. Here, the authors utilized the largest nationwide registry of pediatric hospitalizations to report the national incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with PTS in pediatric TBI. METHODS: The authors queried the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) using ICD-9-CM codes to identify all patients (age < 21 years) who had a primary diagnosis of TBI (850...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239213/xbox-360-kinect-cognitive-games-improve-slowness-complexity-of-eeg-and-cognitive-functions-in-subjects-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-control-trial
#10
Imran Amjad, Hamza Toor, Imran Khan Niazi, Sanna Pervaiz, Mads Jochumsen, Muhammad Shafique, Heidi Haavik, Touqeer Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: Physical activity and cognitive training are effective to enhance cognition in older patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Xbox 360 Kinect cognitive games are a combination of physical activity and cognitive training. The objective of this study was to determine the short- and long-term effects of Xbox 360 Kinect cognitive games on slowness and complexity of electroencephalography (EEG) and cognitive functions in older subjects with MCI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinical trial was conducted on 44 MCI subjects...
September 21, 2018: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238591/beyond-hypnograms-assessing-sleep-stability-using-acoustic-and-electrical-stimulation
#11
Rahul Venugopal, Arun Sasidharan, Vrinda Marigowda, Gulshan Kumar, Ajay Kumar Nair, Sumit Sharma, Chetan S Mukundan, Bindu M Kutty
OBJECTIVE: Conventional polysomnographic recordings reflect brain dynamics associated with sleep architecture. We hypothesized that noninvasive tools like transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) and acoustic stimulation (for generating event related potentials [ERPs]) would help to predict sleep stability and provide a window to actively assess brain activity during sleep. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in the multiple whole-night polysomnography (PSG) recording protocol...
September 20, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238209/ipsilateral-somatosensory-responses-in-humans-the-tonic-activity-of-sii-and-posterior-insular-cortex
#12
Maria Del Vecchio, Fausto Caruana, Ivana Sartori, Veronica Pelliccia, Giorgio Lo Russo, Giacomo Rizzolatti, Pietro Avanzini
In the present study, we mapped the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical responses to ipsilateral median nerve stimulation using intracerebral recordings (stereo-EEG) in 38 drug-resistant epileptic patients. Furthermore, we compared the pattern of responsiveness obtained in the same leads across ipsilateral and contralateral stimulations. Ipsilateral responses were found mostly confined to SII and posterior insula, while no activity was found in ipsilateral SI. By examining the temporal profiles of activation, ipsilateral SII showed a prominent tonic pattern, while contralateral SII exhibited both phasic and tonic responses...
September 20, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237769/eeg-microstates-indicate-heightened-somatic-awareness-in-insomnia-toward-objective-assessment-of-subjective-mental-content
#13
Yishul Wei, Jennifer R Ramautar, Michele A Colombo, Bart H W Te Lindert, Eus J W Van Someren
People with Insomnia Disorder (ID) not only experience abundant nocturnal mentation, but also report altered spontaneous mental content during daytime wakefulness, such as an increase in bodily experiences (heightened somatic awareness). Previous studies have shown that resting-state EEG can be temporally partitioned into quasi-stable microstates, and that these microstates form a small number of canonical classes that are consistent across people. Furthermore, the microstate classes have been associated with individual differences in resting mental content including somatic awareness...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237667/neurofeedback-for-the-enhancement-of-dynamic-balance-of-judokas
#14
Adam Maszczyk, Artur Gołaś, Przemysław Pietraszewski, Magdalena Kowalczyk, Paweł Cięszczyk, Andrzej Kochanowicz, Wojciech Smółka, Adam Zając
Physical balance is an important factor in sport. Neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) can be used to improve concentration and focus. The present study investigated and determined the impact of neurofeedback training on dynamic balance in judo. Eighteen judokas voluntarily participated in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: experimental (EG) and control (CG). In the experimental group subjects were trained to inhibit 3-8 Hz while they were also trained to reinforce 14-19 Hz brainwave activities at points O1 and O2 for ten sessions and 25 minutes per session...
March 2018: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237542/words-affect-visual-perception-by-activating-object-shape-representations
#15
Samuel Noorman, David A Neville, Irina Simanova
Linguistic labels are known to facilitate object recognition, yet the mechanism of this facilitation is not well understood. Previous psychophysical studies have suggested that words guide visual perception by activating information about visual object shape. Here we aimed to test this hypothesis at the neural level, and to tease apart the visual and semantic contribution of words to visual object recognition. We created a set of object pictures from two semantic categories with varying shapes, and obtained subjective ratings of their shape and category similarity...
September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236777/electrophysiological-signatures-of-the-resting-state-fmri-global-signal-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#16
Xiaoli Huang, Zhiliang Long, Dezhong Yao, Xu Lei
BACKGROUND: The global signal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) constitutes an intrinsic fluctuation and presents an opportunity to characterize and understand the activity of the whole brain. Recently, evidence that the global signal contains neurophysiologic information has been growing, but the global signal of electroencephalography (EEG) has never been determined. NEW METHODS: We developed a new method to obtain the EEG global signal...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236380/vigabatrin-with-hormonal-treatment-versus-hormonal-treatment-alone-iciss-for-infantile-spasms-18-month-outcomes-of-an-open-label-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Finbar J K O'Callaghan, Stuart W Edwards, Fabienne Dietrich Alber, Mario Cortina Borja, Eleanor Hancock, Anthony L Johnson, Colin R Kennedy, Marcus Likeman, Andrew L Lux, Mark T Mackay, Andrew A Mallick, Richard W Newton, Melinda Nolan, Ronit Pressler, Dietz Rating, Bernhard Schmitt, Christopher M Verity, John P Osborne
BACKGROUND: Infantile spasms constitute a severe form of epileptic encephalopathy. In the International Collaborative Infantile Spasms Study (ICISS), we showed that combining vigabatrin with hormonal therapy was more effective than hormonal therapy alone at stopping spasms between days 14 and 42 of treatment. In this planned follow-up, we aimed to assess whether combination therapy was associated with improved developmental and epilepsy outcomes at 18 months of age. METHODS: In ICISS, a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial, infants were enrolled from 102 hospitals (three in Australia, 11 in Germany, two in New Zealand, three in Switzerland, and 83 in the UK)...
October 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236137/categorization-of-post-cardiac-arrest-patients-according-to-the-pattern-of-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalography-after-return-of-spontaneous-circulation
#18
Kazuhiro Sugiyama, Kazuki Miyazaki, Takuto Ishida, Takahiro Tanabe, Yuichi Hamabe
BACKGROUND: Continuous electroencephalography (cEEG), interpreted by an experienced neurologist, has been reported to be useful in predicting neurological outcome in adult patients post cardiac arrest. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is a type of quantitative EEG and is easily interpreted by a non-neurologist. A few studies have shown the effectiveness of aEEG in prognostication among adult patients post cardiac arrest. In this study, we hypothesized that the pattern of aEEG after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) could successfully categorize patients post cardiac arrest according to their expected neurological outcome...
September 20, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236069/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalography-in-the-screening-of-newborns-with-metabolic-disorder-admitted-to-the-nicu
#19
Maliheh Kadivar, Ziba Mosayebi, Reza Shervin Badoo, Raziyeh Sangesari, Saeed Jedari Attari, Maryam Saeedi, Elahe Movahedi Moghadam
BACKGROUND: Neonate patients with metabolic disorder show encephalopathy and seizures that may lead to morbidity and mortality. Thus rapid detection and treatment of these patients is necessary. Although Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) has been used for more than a decade in the evaluation of infants with encephalopathy but has not been used in the assessment of neonates suffering from metabolic disorders. In this study, we tried to determine the efficacy of aEEG as an easily available diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of neonates with metabolic diseases...
September 20, 2018: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30235767/detection-of-seizure-patterns-with-multichannel-amplitude-integrated-eeg-and-the-color-density-spectral-array-in-the-adult-neurology-intensive-care-unit
#20
Ji Sun, Dihui Ma, Yudan Lv
This study's purpose was to determine the sensitivity, false-positive and false-negative of seizure detection in adult intensive care by amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) and color density spectral array (CDSA).30 continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were randomly performed in 3 digital EEG-recording machines, 3 specialized neurophysiologists participated in this study, underwent 4 hours of training of CDSA and aEEG, marked any epochs suspected to be seizures without access to the raw EEG...
September 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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