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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550656/the-combined-use-of-virtual-reality-and-eeg-to-study-language-processing-in-naturalistic-environments
#1
Johanne Tromp, David Peeters, Antje S Meyer, Peter Hagoort
When we comprehend language, we often do this in rich settings where we can use many cues to understand what someone is saying. However, it has traditionally been difficult to design experiments with rich three-dimensional contexts that resemble our everyday environments, while maintaining control over the linguistic and nonlinguistic information that is available. Here we test the validity of combining electroencephalography (EEG) and virtual reality (VR) to overcome this problem. We recorded electrophysiological brain activity during language processing in a well-controlled three-dimensional virtual audiovisual environment...
May 26, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550478/olfactory-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-a-consequence-of-central-nervous-system-decline
#2
Emilia Iannilli, Lars Stephan, Thomas Hummel, Heinz Reichmann, Antje Haehner
Early diagnosis and timely treatment of Parkinson's disease are essential factors to provide these patients with a longer period of a better quality of life. Olfactory loss is among the first non-motor symptoms of the disease; however, in light of the many causes of smell loss, it is a very unspecific biomarker and should only be used as part of a diagnostic test battery. In this study, we investigated the olfactory response in 71 subjects, consisting of Parkinson's disease patients, hyposmic and anosmic patients of other causes, and normosmic individuals searching for sensitive, distinct biomarkers for which we used scalp event-related 64-channel electroencephalography and psychophysical tests...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550254/precuneus-failures-in-subjects-of-the-psen1-e280a-family-at-risk-of-developing-alzheimer-s-disease-detected-using-quantitative-electroencephalography
#3
John Fredy Ochoa, Joan Francesc Alonso, Jon Edinson Duque, Carlos Andrés Tobón, Ana Baena, Francisco Lopera, Miguel Angel Mañanas, Alher Mauricio Hernández
BACKGROUND: Presenilin-1 (PSEN1) mutations are the most common cause of familial early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). The PSEN1 E280A (E280A) mutation has an autosomal dominant inheritance and is involved in the production of amyloid-β. The largest family group of carriers with E280A mutation is found in Antioquia, Colombia. The study of mutation carriers provides a unique opportunity to identify brain changes in stages previous to AD. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a low cost and minimally invasiveness technique that enables the following of brain changes in AD...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549796/development-of-the-error-monitoring-system-from-ages-9-35-unique-insight-provided-by-mri-constrained-source-localization-of-eeg
#4
George A Buzzell, John E Richards, Lauren K White, Tyson V Barker, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
The ability to self-detect errors and dynamically adapt behavior is a cornerstone of higher-level cognition, requiring coordinated activity from a network of neural regions. However, disagreement exists over how the error-monitoring system develops throughout adolescence and early adulthood. The present report leveraged MRI-constrained EEG source localization to detail typical development of the error-monitoring system in a sample of 9-35 year-olds (n=43). Participants performed a flanker task while high-density EEG was recorded; structural MRIs were also acquired for all participants...
May 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549636/amplitude-integrated-electroencephalography-improves-the-identification-of-infants-with-encephalopathy-for-therapeutic-hypothermia-and-predicts-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-at-2-years-of-age
#5
Janne Helen Skranes, Gro Løhaugen, Eva Margrethe Schumacher, Damjan Osredkar, Andres Server, Frances Mary Cowan, Tom Stiris, Drude Fugelseth, Marianne Thoresen
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether using an amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) severity pattern as an entry criterion for therapeutic hypothermia better selects infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and to assess the time-to-normal trace for aEEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion load as 24-month outcome predictors. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-seven infants meeting Norwegian therapeutic hypothermia guidelines were enrolled prospectively. Eight-channel EEG/aEEG was recorded from 6 hours until after rewarming, and read after discharge...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549329/abnormal-small-world-brain-functional-networks-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-patients-with-poor-insight
#6
Hui Lei, Yan Cui, Jie Fan, Xiaocui Zhang, Mingtian Zhong, Jinyao Yi, Lin Cai, Dezhong Yao, Xiongzhao Zhu
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on neurobiological correlates of poor insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study explored whether specific changes occur in small-world network (SWN) properties in the brain functional network of OCD patients with poor insight. METHOD: Resting-state electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded for 12 medication-free OCD patients with poor insight, 50 medication-free OCD patients with good insight, and 36 healthy controls...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549279/control-adjustments-in-speaking-electrophysiology-of-the-gratton-effect-in-picture-naming
#7
Natalia Shitova, Ardi Roelofs, Herbert Schriefers, Marcel Bastiaansen, Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen
Accumulating evidence suggests that spoken word production requires different amounts of top-down control depending on the prevailing circumstances. For example, during Stroop-like tasks, the interference in response time (RT) is typically larger following congruent trials than following incongruent trials. This effect is called the Gratton effect, and has been taken to reflect top-down control adjustments based on the previous trial type. Such control adjustments have been studied extensively in Stroop and Eriksen flanker tasks (mostly using manual responses), but not in the picture-word interference (PWI) task, which is a workhorse of language production research...
April 29, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549276/different-seizure-onset-patterns-in-mesiotemporal-lobe-epilepsy-have-a-distinct-interictal-signature
#8
Birgit Frauscher, Nicolás von Ellenrieder, François Dubeau, Jean Gotman
OBJECTIVE: Experimental research demonstrated that distinct underlying mechanisms go along with different seizure-onset patterns on EEG. These different mechanisms may reflect different tissue abnormalities which, we hypothesize, could also be reflected in morphological differences in the interictal epileptic and background EEG activity. METHODS: We searched our database of intracranial EEG recordings for mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy patients with either predominant low-voltage fast activity (LVF) or periodic spiking (PS)...
May 9, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548564/eating-habits-and-food-additive-intakes-are-associated-with-emotional-states-based-on-eeg-and-hrv-in-healthy-korean-children-and-adolescents
#9
Jin Young Kim, Hye Lim Kang, Dae-Keun Kim, Seung Wan Kang, Yoo Kyoung Park
PURPOSE: Recent study suggests that psychological issues and eating habits are closely related. In this study, we aimed to find the association between eating habits and intakes of artificial sweeteners with emotional states of schoolchildren using quantitatively analyzing objective biosignals. METHODS: The study was conducted at the National Standard Reference Data Center for Korean EEG as a cross-sectional study. Three hundred eighteen healthy children who have not been diagnosed with neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (168 girls and 150 boys; mean age of 11...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548052/optimizing-the-stimulus-presentation-paradigm-design-for-the-p300-based-brain-computer-interface-using-performance-prediction
#10
Boyla Mainsah, Galen Reeves, Leslie Collins, Chandra Throckmorton
<i>Objective:</i> The role of a brain-computer interface (BCI) is to discern a user's intended message by extracting and decoding relevant information from brain signals. Stimulus-driven BCIs, such as the P300 speller, rely on detecting event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to a user attending to relevant or target stimulus events. However, this process is error-prone because the ERPs are embedded in noisy electroencephalography (EEG) data, representing a fundamental problem in communication of the uncertainty in the information that is received during noisy transmission...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547185/prognostic-value-of-eeg-microstates-in-acute-stroke
#11
Filippo Zappasodi, Pierpaolo Croce, Alessandro Giordani, Giovanni Assenza, Nadia M Giannantoni, Paolo Profice, Giuseppe Granata, Paolo M Rossini, Franca Tecchio
Given the importance of neuronal plasticity in recovery from a stroke and the huge variability of recovery abilities in patients, we investigated neuronal activity in the acute phase to enhance information about the prognosis of recovery in the stabilized phase. We investigated the microstates in 47 patients who suffered a first-ever mono-lesional ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory and in 20 healthy control volunteers. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity at rest with eyes closed was acquired between 2 and 10 days (T0) after ischemic attack...
May 25, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546676/mental-stress-neurophysiology-and-its-regulation-by-sudarshan-kriya-yoga
#12
Sushil Chandra, Amit Kumar Jaiswal, Ram Singh, Devendra Jha, Alok Prakash Mittal
AIM: The present study focuses on analyzing the effects of Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY) on EEG as well as ECG signals for stress regulation. To envision the regulation of stress Determination Test (DT) has been used. We have chosen a control group for contriving a cogent comparison that could be corroborated using statistical tests. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 20 subjects were taken in the study, of which 10 were allotted to a control group. Electroencephalograph was taken during a DT task, before and after SKY the sky session with 30 days of SKY session given to the experimental group...
May 2017: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546584/delta-coherence-in-resting-state-eeg-predicts-the-reduction-in-cigarette-craving-after-hypnotic-aversion-suggestions
#13
Xiaoming Li, Ru Ma, Liangjun Pang, Wanwan Lv, Yunlu Xie, Ying Chen, Pengyu Zhang, Jiawen Chen, Qichao Wu, Guanbao Cui, Peng Zhang, Yifeng Zhou, Xiaochu Zhang
Cigarette craving is a key contributor of nicotine addiction. Hypnotic aversion suggestions have been used to help smoking cessation and reduce smoking relapse rates but its neural basis is poorly understood. This study investigated the underlying neural basis of hypnosis treatment for nicotine addiction with resting state Electroencephalograph (EEG) coherence as the measure. The sample consisted of 42 male smokers. Cigarette craving was measured by the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire. The 8-minute resting state EEG was recorded in baseline state and after hypnotic induction in the hypnotic state...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546310/heterozygous-gnal-mice-are-a-novel-animal-model-to-study-dystonia-pathophysiology
#14
Assunta Pelosi, Fabien Menardy, Daniela Popa, Jean-Antoine Girault, Denis Hervé
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Dominant mutations of the GNAL gene are a cause of isolated dystonia (DYT25) in patients. Some mutations result in a complete loss of function of the encoded protein, Gαolf, an adenylyl-cyclase-stimulatory G protein highly enriched in striatal projection neurons, in which it mediates the actions of dopamine and adenosine. We used male and female heterozygous Gnal knockout mice (Gnal+/-) to study how GNAL haplodeficiency is implicated in dystonia...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545933/extracting-multidimensional-stimulus-response-correlations-using-hybrid-encoding-decoding-of-neural-activity
#15
REVIEW
Jacek P Dmochowski, Jason Ki, Paul DeGuzman, Paul Sajda, Lucas C Parra
In neuroscience, stimulus-response relationships have traditionally been analyzed using either encoding or decoding models. Here we propose a hybrid approach that decomposes neural activity into multiple components, each representing a portion of the stimulus. The technique is implemented via canonical correlation analysis (CCA) by temporally filtering the stimulus (encoding) and spatially filtering the neural responses (decoding) such that the resulting components are maximally correlated. In contrast to existing methods, this approach recovers multiple correlated stimulus-response pairs, and thus affords a richer, multidimensional analysis of neural representations...
May 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545673/burst-suppression-pattern-on-electroencephalogram-secondary-to-valproic-acid-induced-hyperammonemic-encephalopathy
#16
Koshi A Cherian, Alan D Legatt
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid may induce hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Various electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities have been documented in association with this condition, but not burst suppression, an abnormal EEG pattern that is associated with severe encephalopathy. METHODS: Serial EEGs, clinical observations, and laboratory findings were analyzed. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: This 13-year-old girl with autism and intractable epilepsy experienced increased seizures; her valproic acid dose was increased and other antiepileptic drugs were administered...
January 4, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545123/predictability-of-arousal-in-mouse-slow-wave-sleep-by-accelerometer-data
#17
Gustavo Zampier Dos Santos Lima, Sergio Roberto Lopes, Thiago Lima Prado, Bruno Lobao-Soares, George C do Nascimento, John Fontenele-Araujo, Gilberto Corso
Arousals can be roughly characterized by punctual intrusions of wakefulness into sleep. In a standard perspective, using human electroencephalography (EEG) data, arousals are associated to slow-wave rhythms and K-complex brain activity. The physiological mechanisms that give rise to arousals during sleep are not yet fully understood. Moreover, subtle body movement patterns, which may characterize arousals both in human and in animals, are usually not detectable by eye perception and are not in general present in sleep studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544941/time-based-expectations-entail-preparatory-motor-activity
#18
Gregor Volberg, Roland Thomaschke
Human behavior is guided by expectations that facilitate perception of upcoming events or reaction to them. In natural settings expectations are often implicitly based on time, e.g., when making a phone call one would expect to hear either a person answering (earlier) or a voicemail greeting (later). We investigated how time-based expectations can improve performance in the absence of explicit prior information on the pending stimulus or the associated response. Visual stimuli were presented after a characteristic short or long foreperiod, and a forced-choice categorization using either the left or the right hand was required...
May 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544889/juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-as-a-spectrum-disorder-a-focused-review
#19
REVIEW
Betül Baykan, Peter Wolf
In consequence of newer research juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is no longer seen as a homogeneous disease. The causes of the existing variance are only partially known yet. We discuss to what extent the phenotypical spectrum of this polygenetically determined disorder expresses genetically defined endophenotypes, or is due to mere quantitative differences in the expression of the core phenotype. Of the three common seizure types of JME, myoclonic, generalized tonic-clonic and absences, absences also occur independently and are strong candidates for an endophenotype...
May 18, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542864/circadian-clustering-of-spontaneous-epileptic-seizures-emerges-after-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#20
Julika Pitsch, Albert J Becker, Susanne Schoch, Johannes Alexander Müller, Marco de Curtis, Vadym Gnatkovsky
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis are thought to develop with various latency intervals after an initial transient brain insult. To study seizure dynamics after an initial transient precipitating insult in a systematic fashion, we utilized continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring after the induction of status epilepticus (SE) in a mouse MTLE model. METHODS: Continuous 24/7 video/telemetric hippocampal EEG recordings in the systemic pilocarpine MTLE mouse model...
May 24, 2017: Epilepsia
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