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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334728/changing-treatment-paradigms-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jong Pil Im, Byong Duk Ye, You Sun Kim, Joo Sung Kim
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and progressive inf lammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract causing bowel damage, hospitalizations, surgeries, and disability. Although there has been much progress in the management of IBD with established and evolving therapies, most current approaches have failed to change the natural course. Therefore, the treatment approach and follow-up of patients with IBD have undergone a significant change. Usage of immunosuppressants and/or biologics early during the course of the disease, known as top-down or accelerated step-up approach, was shown to be superior to conventional management in patients who had been recently diagnosed with IBD...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334522/themes-in-literature-related-to-incidence-risk-and-prevention-of-cancer-in-solid-organ-transplantation-recipients-on-immunosuppressive-therapy
#2
Stefanie L Rashti
BACKGROUND: Solid-organ transplants provide a second chance to thousands of critically ill patients with end-organ failure each year. Immunosuppressants are administered to patients to prevent graft rejection of a transplanted organ, such as a heart, kidney, or liver, while placing the recipient at greater risk for infection and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The literature provides evidence of various cancers that have been found to develop in patients' posttransplantation...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334337/durable-responses-in-refractory-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-with-alemtuzumab
#3
Renee K McAlister, Mahsa S Talbott, Nishitha M Reddy
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia occurs due to an interaction of IgG antibodies with protein antigens expressed on red blood corpuscles. Glucocorticoids are the mainstay of treatment for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. For patients not responding to initial therapy, other agents such as rituximab, immunosuppressive therapy, or splenectomy are considered. When refractory to these treatment options, alemtuzumab is an alternative agent. However, long-term outcomes of patients supporting its use are lacking. We present three patients with refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia treated with alemtuzumab...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333661/nanocage-therapeutics-prevailing-phagocytosis-and-immunogenic-cell-death-awakens-immunity-against-cancer
#4
Eun Jung Lee, Gi-Hoon Nam, Na Kyeong Lee, Minwoo Kih, Eunee Koh, Yoon Kyoung Kim, Yeonsun Hong, Soyoun Kim, Seung-Yoon Park, Cherlhyun Jeong, Yoosoo Yang, In-San Kim
A growing appreciation of the relationship between the immune system and the tumorigenesis has led to the development of strategies aimed at "re-editing" the immune system to kill tumors. Here, a novel tactic is reported for overcoming the activation-energy threshold of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and mediating the delivery and presentation of tumor neoantigens to the host's immune system. This nature-derived nanocage not only efficiently presents ligands that enhance cancer cell phagocytosis, but also delivers drugs that induce immunogenic cancer cell death...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333572/possible-protective-effect-of-the-algae-spirulina-against-nephrotoxicity-induced-by-cyclosporine-a-and-or-gamma-radiation-in-rats
#5
Maha M Aziz, Nihad I Eid, Ahmed S Nada, Nour El-Din Amin, Afaf A Ain-Shoka
The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible protective role of the algae spirulina (Sp) against nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress which are the main secondary effects induced by the immunosuppressant drug CSA and/or ionizing radiation. In this study, male rats were given Sp (1 g/kg) either for 15 days before irradiation (6.5 Gy) or 5 days before and 10 days concomitant with CSA (25 mg/kg). Markers used to assess renal injury included serum creatinine, urea, glucose, albumin, protein, and lipid profile as well as kidney content of reduced glutathione (GSH); lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)); nitrite and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333081/innate-immunity-recovers-earlier-than-acquired-immunity-during-severe-postoperative-immunosuppression
#6
Gunnar Lachmann, Clarissa von Haefen, Johannes Kurth, Fatima Yuerek, Claudia Spies
Background: Postoperative immune suppression, particularly a loss of cell-mediated immunity, is commonly seen after surgery and is associated with worse outcome, i.e. delayed wound healing, infections, sepsis, multiple-organ failure and cancer recurrence. However, the recovery of immune cells focusing on differences between innate and acquired immunity during severe postoperative immunosuppression is not investigated. Methods: In this retrospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) subgroup analysis, 10 postoperatively immune suppressed patients after esophageal or pancreatic resection were analyzed...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332924/multiple-recurrent-pseudoaneurysms-after-endovascular-repair-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-in-a-patient-with-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#7
Yohei Yamamoto, Yoshinori Inoue, Tsuyoshi Ichinose, Masato Nishizawa, Kimihiro Igari, Takahiro Toyofuku, Toshifumi Kudo
In Behçet's disease (BD) patients, endovascular repair is a reasonable alternative treatment for aortic aneurysms to avoid postoperative anastomotic pseudoaneurysms. However, there are some complications that may occur after endovascular repair. We herein report the case of a 40-year-old man with active BD developed recurrent aortic pseudoaneurysms at the proximal and distal margins of the stent graft and a femoral puncture site pseudoaneurysm 3 months after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332424/salivary-metabolomics-profile-of-patients-with-recurrent-aphthous-ulcer-as-revealed-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Yantao Li, Daoming Wang, Chunwei Zeng, Yichen Liu, Guangyuan Huang, Zhanlong Mei
Objective We compared the salivary nontargeted metabolite profiles between patients with recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) and healthy individuals to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with RAU. Methods Saliva samples were collected from 45 patients with RAU and 49 healthy individuals, and the salivary metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The metabolomic profiles were then analyzed using multivariate and univariate statistical methods, and enrichment of the metabolites in various biological pathways was assessed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332416/-autoimmune-encephalitis-possibilities-in-the-laboratory-investigation
#9
Katalin Böröcz, Zsófia Hayden, Viktória Mészáros, Zsuzsanna Csizmadia, Kornélia Farkas, Zoltán Kellermayer, Péter Balogh, Ferenc Nagy, Tímea Berki
INTRODUCTION: The role of autoimmune responses against central nervous system (CNS) antigens in encephalitis presenting with non-classified neurologic or psychiatric symptoms has been appreciated in the past decade. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis has a poor prognosis and is most commonly associated with lung, ovarium, and testicular neoplasms, leading to immune reactions against intracellular antigens (anti-Hu/ANNA1, anti-Ri/ANNA2, anti-CV2/CRMP5 and anti-Ma2/Ta). In contrast, the recently described autoimmune encephalitis subtypes present with a broad spectrum of symptoms, respond to autoimmune therapies well and usually associate with autoantibodies against neuronal cell surface receptors (NMDAR, GABABR, AMPAR) or synaptic proteins (LGI1, CASPR2)...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332204/supplementing-living-kidney-transplantees-medical-records-with-donor-and-recipient-narratives
#10
Anne Hambro Alnæs
Norway provides total social welfare coverage for organ transplantations, including free immunosuppressive medication and prepaid life-long follow up for both recipients and donors. Despite these benefits the proportion of living kidney donors (LKD) has in recent years declined from around 40% (2011) of all kidney transplantations to 24% (2016). This study suggests harnessing patient- and donor-narratives as a tool for addressing the current fall in donation rates. The hospital records of 18 recipient/donor dyads were compared with patient and donor accounts elicited in semi-structured interviews...
January 13, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332158/combined-sublethal-irradiation-and-agonist-anti-cd40-enhance-donor-t-cell-accumulation-and-control-of-autochthonous-murine-pancreatic-tumors
#11
Lindsay K Ward-Kavanagh, Kathleen M Kokolus, Timothy K Cooper, Aron E Lukacher, Todd D Schell
Tumor-reactive T lymphocytes can promote the regression of established tumors. However, their efficacy is often limited by immunosuppressive mechanisms that block T cell accumulation or function. ACT provides the opportunity to ameliorate immune suppression prior to transfer of tumor-reactive T cells to improve the therapeutic benefit. We evaluated the combination of lymphodepleting whole body irradiation (WBI) and agonist anti-CD40 (αCD40) antibody on control of established autochthonous murine neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors following the transfer of naïve tumor-specific CD8 T cells...
January 13, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331874/thyroid-hormone-resuscitation-after-brain-death-in-potential-organ-donors-a-primer-for-neurocritical-care-providers-and-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Ian A Buchanan, Vivek A Mehta
Solid organ transplantation has become a mainstay in the contemporary management of end-stage organ failures fueled by advances in immunosuppression, intensive care and surgical technology. Every year, a vast number of transplantable organs is lost on account of hemodynamic instability in potential brain-dead organ donors. Because of a growing organ shortage, measures that increase total donor supply pools are desperately needed. Thyroid hormone has been identified as an adjunctive therapy in donor management due to its potential for increasing organ supply and is currently endorsed by transplant organizations such as United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331332/hiv-infection-and-its-effects-on-the-development-of-autoimmune-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Luis E Vega, Luis R Espinoza
More than 35 years have elapsed since the initial outbreak of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the status of a considerable number of patients has changed from a fatal disorder to a chronic one where comorbidities including sarcoidosis and autoimmune diseases have become relevant and dominant. HIV targets the immune system leading to a state of immunodeficiency in a setting of immune activation in which CD4+ T cell depletion plays a critical role. The onset, natural history and course of HIV-associated autoimmune disease has dramatically changed according to the stage of HIV infection and since the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy...
January 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331207/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-related-inflammation-a-case-report-presenting-diagnostic-difficulties
#14
Cecylia Rajczewska-Oleszkiewicz, Agnieszka Cyganek, Anna Stadnik, Dorota Dziewulska
We describe an 86-year-old woman with a history of hypertension who presented sudden disturbances of consciousness and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed diffused hyperintensive changes on T2-weighted images localized subcortically in the white matter of both cerebral hemispheres, corresponding to acute vasogenic edema, causing moderate mass effect. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome was initially diagnosed. After implementation of anti-edema intravenous steroid treatment and hypotensive therapy the symptoms began to retire, till the total regression...
January 6, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330755/-lymphoma-in-rheumatic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
A Rubbert-Roth, J T Bittenbring, G Assmann
Various systemic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are associated with an increased risk for the development of lymphomas. Studies on patients with RA and Sjögren's syndrome have shown that there is a clear association of the incidence of lymphoma with the severity and activity of the disease and lymphomas in particular are diseases which preferentially occur in immunosuppressed patients; therefore, knowledge of the different lymphoma subtypes, their prognosis and treatment options are important for rheumatologists...
October 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330709/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-iclaprim-a-diaminopyrimidine-compound-and-potential-therapeutic-alternative-against-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#16
E M Aliouat, E Dei-Cas, N Gantois, M Pottier, C Pinçon, S Hawser, A Lier, D B Huang
Pneumocystis pneumonia is a serious complication that may affect immunosuppressed patients. The absence of reliable and safe therapeutic alternatives to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) justifies the search for more effective and less toxic agents. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-Pneumocystis jirovecii activity of iclaprim, a diaminopyrimidine compound that exerts its antimicrobial activity through the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), as does TMP, was evaluated alone or in combination with SMX...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330580/-lichen-ruber-planus-better-understanding-better-treatment
#17
REVIEW
L Schilling, T Vogt
Lichen ruber, also called lichen ruber planus or lichen planus (LP), is a noncontagious inflammatory skin disease. LP is the main representative and namesake of the group of lichenoid diseases, which are characterized by small papules often accompanied by severe itching. With 65% of cases, LP is primarily a disease of the mucous membranes. In 20% of the cases, the disease is found on the skin and mucous membranes; skin involvement alone is seen in only about 10% of cases. Cutaneous LP has a very favorable 1‑year prognosis of almost 80% healing as opposed to the mucosa and the adnexal organs...
January 12, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330562/influence-of-genetic-polymorphisms-of-il23r-stat3-il12b-and-stat4-on-the-risk-of-aplastic-anemia-and-the-effect-of-immunosuppressive-therapy
#18
Li Zhao, Huanling Zhu, Bing Han, Lixin Wang, Yuming Sun, Xiaojun Lu, Chunyan Huang, Bin Tan, Chunxia Chen, Li Qin
Studies have suggested that IL-23/STAT3 and IL-12/STAT4 signaling pathways associate with aplastic anemia (AA) occurrence. Polymorphisms in pathway-related genes may contribute to AA risk. In the current study, we investigated the association between polymorphisms in genes of IL23R, STAT3, IL12B, and STAT4 and occurrence, severity, and immunosuppressive outcome of AA in the Han population in southwest China. In the current 164 AA cases and 211 controls study, we found T allele and TT genotype of rs7574865 were more frequent in the cases than that in the controls...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330392/haploidentical-hematopoietic-sct-using-helical-tomotherapy-for-total-body-irradiation-and-targeted-dose-boost-in-patients-with-high-risk-refractory-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#19
Zujun Jiang, Junsong Jia, Chunyan Yue, Yan Pang, Zenghui Liu, Ling Ouyang, Hongbo Li, Jinjian Zhang, Ting Wen, Jing Li, Zhiqiang Li, Yan Wang, Yang Xiao, Haowen Xiao
A novel conditioning regimen using helical tomotherapy (HT) was developed to deliver 10 Gy for total body irradiation (TBI) and simultaneously augment dose to 12 Gy for targeted dose boost to total marrow, central nervous system leukemia, and extramedullary disease sites in patients with high-risk or relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Fourteen patients were included, eight of these patients were in first complete remission (CR1), one was in CR2, one had a partial response and four patients had refractory disease at transplantation...
January 12, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330112/macrochimerism-and-clinical-transplant-tolerance
#20
REVIEW
John D Scandling, Stephan Busque, Robert Lowsky, Judith Shizuru, Asha Shori, Edgar Engleman, Kent Jensen, Samuel Strober
Current theory holds that macrochimerism is essential to the development of transplant tolerance. Hematopoietic cell transplantation from the solid organ donor is necessary to achieve macrochimerism. Over the last 10 to 20 years, trials of tolerance induction with combined kidney and hematopoietic cell transplantation have moved from the preclinical to the clinical arena. The achievement of macrochimerism in the clinical setting is challenging, and potentially toxic due to the conditioning regimen necessary to hematopoietic cell transplantation and due to the risk of graft-versus-host disease...
January 9, 2018: Human Immunology
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