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Jiaxing Zhou, Dongmiao Liu, Xiong Deng, Shoumin Zhen, Zhimin Wang, Yueming Yan
BACKGROUND: Water deficiency affects grain proteome dynamics and storage protein compositions, resulting in alterations in gluten viscoelasticity. In this study, we investigated the effects of field water deficit on wheat breadmaking quality and grain storage proteins. RESULTS: Water deficiency produced a shorten grain-filling period and a decrease in grain number, grain weight and grain yield, a reduced starch granule; increased protein content and glutenin macropolymer contents, resulting in superior dough properties and breadmaking quality...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Karen M Lammers, Maria G Herrera, Veronica I Dodero
Gluten-related disorders are a complex group of diseases that involve the activation of the immune system triggered by the ingestion of gluten. Among these, celiac disease, with a prevalence of 1 %, is the most investigated, but recently, a new pathology, named nonceliac gluten sensitivity, was reported with a general prevalence of 7 %. Finally, there other less-prevalent gluten-related diseases such as wheat allergy, gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis (with an overall prevalence of less than 0...
March 2018: ChemistryOpen
M G Herrera, D S Vazquez, R Sreij, M Drechsler, Y Hertle, T Hellweg, V I Dodero
Alpha-gliadin is a highly immunogenic protein from wheat, which is associated with many human diseases, like celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Because of that, gliadin solution is subject to intense biomedical research. However, the physicochemical nature of the employed gliadin solution at physiological pH is not understood. Herein, we present a supramolecular evaluation of the alpha-gliadin protein in water at pH 3.0 by dynamic light scattering (DLS), cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small-angle-...
February 27, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Morten J Christensen, Esben Eller, Charlotte G Mortz, Knut Brockow, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is a severe form of allergy in which exercise is being considered as mandatory. The diagnosis is often complex and the clinical reproducibility low. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to establish a standardized challenge method for the diagnosis of WDEIA and to investigate whether exercise is an essential trigger factor or alternatively an augmentation factor able to lower threshold and increase severity...
March 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Pasquale Parisi
Celiac Disease (CD) is mediated by T-cell activation against gluten's immunogenic fraction gliadin and a 33-mer peptide fragment resistant to proteolysis that represents the primary antigen for T-cell proliferation. Ingesting gluten proteins present in wheat and other cereals may be necessary for clinical manifestation of CD, which develops in individuals carrying the DQ2 or DQ8 human leukocyte antigen haplotypes, from the interaction of T-cells, B-cells, and microbioma. This article is protected by copyright...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Bo Chen, Bao Zhang, Meng-Na Li, Ying Xie, Han-Qing Chen
Glutenin and gliadin were treated with protein-glutaminase in order to obtain soluble glutenin (PG-Glu) and gliadin (PG-Gli). PG-Glu or PG-Gli was added to potato starch at various concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% of starch weight, w/w), and the physicochemical properties and microstructure of starch/protein mixtures were investigated. The results showed that the presence of PG-Glu or PG-Gli decreased the viscosity parameters and yield stress and consistency coefficient of mixed pastes. The starch/protein mixed pastes exhibited a pseudoplastic and shear-thinning behavior under yield stress condition, and the storage modulus and loss modulus increased...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Gianfranco Mamone, Giuseppe Iacomino
Triticum monococcum L. is one of the oldest ancestors of wheat. There is some evidence that einkorn encloses forms of gliadin-deriving peptides which may potentially exert a reduced toxicity to consumers with gluten-related disorders. Accordingly, ID331 and Monlis lines were comparatively investigated in this study. The biological effects of gastro-resistant peptides deriving from an in vitro simulated digestion were evaluated on 21 d differentiated Caco-2 cells. Triticum aestivum digested gliadin was included as the positive control...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
M R Perez-Gregorio, R Días, N Mateus, V de Freitas
The lack of digestibility of certain gluten proteins is essential in the development of celiac disease (CD). Gluten proteins are remarkably resistant to luminal and brush-border proteolysis owing to their high proline and glutamine content. Consequently, large fragments remain intact after digestion exerting toxic effects. Intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) have been described as having strong proteolytic activity mainly through prolyl endopeptidase enzymes. The purpose of this work was to monitor the gastrointestinal digestion of specific CD epitopes by means of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model that included incubation with brush-border membrane enzymes...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
Lucinda Kennard, Iason Thomas, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Vian Azzu, Patrick Fk Yong, Bogusia Kasternow, Hannah Hunter, Naeema Mo Cabdi, Alla Nakonechna, Annette Wagner
BACKGROUND: Omega-5 gliadin allergy (also known as wheat-dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis) is a rare allergy to wheat which often presents with intermittent severe anaphylaxis in the context of a co-factor, such as exercise. OBJECTIVES: To undertake a detailed clinical characterisation of the largest cohort of omega 5-gliadin allergic patients to date. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the demographics, presentation, investigation and management of 132 patients presenting to 4 UK centres with omega-5 gliadin allergy...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Federico Manai, Alberto Azzalin, Fabio Gabriele, Carolina Martinelli, Martina Morandi, Marco Biggiogera, Mauro Bozzola, Sergio Comincini
Gliadin, the alcohol-soluble protein fraction of wheat, contains the factor toxic for celiac disease (CD), and its toxicity is not reduced by digestion with gastro-pancreatic enzymes. Importantly, it is proved that an innate immunity to gliadin plays a key role in the development of CD. The immune response induces epithelial stress and reprograms intraepithelial lymphocytes into natural killer (NK)-like cells, leading to enterocyte apoptosis and an increase in epithelium permeability. In this contribution, we have reported that in Caco-2 cells the administration of enzymatically digested gliadin (PT-gliadin) reduced significantly the expression of the autophagy-related marker LC3-II...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
M Lowrie, O A Garden, M Hadjivassiliou, D S Sanders, R Powell, L Garosi
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal gluten-sensitive dyskinesia (PGSD) in border terriers (BTs) results from an immunologic response directed against transglutaminase (TG)2 and gliadin. Recent evidence suggests that PGSD is only one aspect of a range of possible manifestations of gluten sensitivity in the breed. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Gluten sensitivity in BTs is a heterogeneous disease process with a diverse clinical spectrum; to characterize the phenotype of PGSD using TG2 and gliadin autoantibodies as diagnostic markers...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Elena P Kiseleva, Konstantin I Mikhailopulo, Evelina L Zdorovenko, Yuriy A Knirel, Galina I Novik
Role of microorganisms in induction of/protection from autoimmune diseases is proven though molecular mechanisms and bacterial/viral/yeast biopolymers responsible for these effects are in the research stage. Autoantobodies (AAbs) to thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) as well as AAbs to transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) and antibodies to gliadins (anti-gliadins) are serological markers of autoimmune thyroid disease and celiac disease, respectively, and players in pathogenesis of these autoimmune diseases...
December 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Justyna Gornowicz-Porowska, Agnieszka Seraszek-Jaros, Monika Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Elżbieta Kaczmarek, Marian Dmochowski
INTRODUCTION: The role of IgA receptors in dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) pathogenesis is still unknown. CD89 and CD71 may be associated with immune response during DH development. The purpose of this study was to perform semiquantitative analysis of simultaneous immunoexpression of CD89 and CD71 in DH and IgA/neutrophil-mediated non-DH dermatoses (IgAN) in relation to specific IgA autoantibodies/antibodies (tissue and epidermal transglutaminases, nonapeptides of gliadin - eTG/tTG/npG) as well neutrophil activation via the release of neutrophil elastase (NE)...
February 8, 2018: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
Ainara Castellanos-Rubio, Jose Ramon Bilbao
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the small intestine with a strong but complex genetic component. The disease is triggered by the consumption of dietary gluten through the presentation of immunogenic gliadin peptides to T helper lymphocytes by HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 heterodimers, which are the major contributors to the genetic risk. Recent large-scale genotyping efforts have identified a large number of additional association signals, but the functional role of the underlying genes in the pathogenesis of the disease is still unclear...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
M E Capra, N G De Paulis, M Montagni, S Peveri, E Savi, G Biasucci
Anakinra, one of the novel biological agents, is a recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist. It is preferred as an alternative drug for familial Mediterranean fever cases where colchicine is not sufficient or cannot be used due to its side effects. Like all other biologics, hypersensitivity reactions to anakinra are quite rare. This is the first case which was successfully desensitized with anakinra after a severe immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction. We report a case of WDEIA in an asthmatic boy admitted to our Unit with suspected mushroom acute toxicity...
November 23, 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Anne Stine Kvehaugen, Dag Tveiten, Per G Farup
BACKGROUND: Serum IgG and IgA food antibodies have been used for dietary advice to subjects with gastrointestinal symptoms and perceived food intolerance, but the role of these antibodies in mediating intolerance is controversial. The present study investigated associations between perceived gastrointestinal intolerance to milk-or wheat and the corresponding s-IgG and s-IgA food antibodies in subjects with morbid obesity. METHODS: Subjects with morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m 2 or ≥35 kg/m 2 with obesity-related complications) were included...
January 30, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Hye-Rang Beom, Jin Sun Kim, You-Ran Jang, Sun-Hyung Lim, Chang-Kug Kim, Choung Keun Lee, Jong-Yeol Lee
Although many studies on low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) function have been reported, a comprehensive comparison between specific genes and their protein product is still lacking. This study aimed to link the 43 genes isolated from the Korean wheat variety "Jokyoung" in the authors' previous study to their protein products. Proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) at the gene haplotype level. Using MS/MS analysis of 17 protein spots, two spots were identified in the Glu-A3 locus and the corresponding haplotype was GluA3-13(Glu-A3c)...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Fu-Zhen Zhou, Li Yan, Shou-Wei Yin, Chuan-He Tang, Xiao-Quan Yang
This work attempted to engineer emulsions' interface using special affinity between proline-rich gliadin and proanthocyanidins (PA), to develop surfactant-free antioxidant Pickering emulsions with digestive-resistant properties. This binding interaction between gliadin and PA benefited the interfacial adsorption of the particles to corn oil droplets. Pickering droplets as building units assembled into interconnected three-dimensional network structure, giving the emulsions viscoelasticity and ultra-stability...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Katarzyna Lewandowska, Olga Ciepiela, Agnieszka Szypowska, Jan Wyhowski, Eliza Głodkowska-Mrówka, Katarzyna Popko, Magdalena Ostafin, Beata Pyrżak, Urszula Demkow
INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease (CD) and diabetes mellitus type 1, tend to co-occur within the same patient. The prevalence of CD in diabetic children is higher than in the general population, and is estimated to be 0.6-16.4%. The diagnosis of CD is based on histopathological examination and serological testing, however, these methods are still imperfect and new diagnostic algorithms should be considered. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic value of serological tests detecting antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptide, endomysium, tissue transglutaminase, neo-epitope tissue transglutaminase and to identify HLA-related genetic predisposition to CD in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1)...
January 19, 2018: Autoimmunity
Maria P Dore, Roberta Salis, Maria F Loria, Vincenzo Villanacci, Gabrio Bassotti, Giovanni M Pes
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) occurs in subjects positive for HLA-DQ2 and/or DQ8 gene loci at any age following ingestion of gluten-containing food. An increased permeability of the mucosa allows interactions between gliadin macromolecules and genetic factors. It has been observed that Helicobacter pylori has the ability to modulate the integrity of the duodenal epithelium. We aimed to determine whether H. pylori infection may enhance the occurrence of CD in genetically susceptible subjects...
January 18, 2018: Helicobacter
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