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J G Burkhardt, A Chapa-Rodriguez, S L Bahna
"Gluten sensitivity" has become commonplace among the public. Wheat allergy (WA) and celiac disease (CD) are well-defined entities, but are becoming a fraction of individuals following a gluten-free diet. WA has a prevalence of <0.5%. Wheat, specifically its omega-5 gliadin fraction, is the most common allergen implicated in food-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. CD is a non-IgE hypersensitivity to certain cereal proteins: gluten in wheat, secalin in rye, hordein in barley, and to a lesser extent avenin in oat...
November 13, 2017: Allergy
Elisabetta Gerace, Francesco Resta, Elisa Landucci, Daniela Renzi, Alessio Masi, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Antonio Calabrò, Guido Mannaioni
Many neurological disorders of gluten-related diseases (GRD), not directly referable to the gastrointestinal tract, have been reported in association with celiac disease (CD), including ataxia, neuropathy and epilepsy. In particular, people with epilepsy diagnosed with CD seems to be characterized by intractable seizure. In these patients, gluten restriction diet has resulted in a reduction of both seizure frequency and antiepileptic medication. Many hypotheses have been suggested, however, molecular mechanisms that associates GRD and epileptogenesis are yet unknown...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rakhi Panda, Marc Boyer, Eric A E Garber
A novel competitive ELISA was developed utilizing the G12, R5, 2D4, MIoBS, and Skerritt antibody-HRP conjugates employed in nine commercial ELISA test kits that are routinely used for gluten detection. This novel multiplex competitive ELISA simultaneously measures gliadin-, deamidated gliadin-, and glutenin-specific epitopes. The assay was used to evaluate 20 wheat beers, 20 barley beers, 6 barley beers processed to reduce gluten, 15 soy sauces, 6 teriyaki sauces, 6 Worcestershire sauces, 6 vinegars, and 8 sourdough breads...
November 7, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Michelle Shui Yee Lau, David S Sanders
One of the challenges in coeliac disease is the significant under-diagnosis despite the increasing prevalence and international guidelines for serological screening in appropriate patient cohorts. Several point-of-care tests for coeliac disease have been developed over the past decade with the aim of improving case detection using rapid and convenient testing. Most point-of-care tests, such as Biocard, detect anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) IgA antibodies, whereas Simtomax uniquely detects anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) IgA/IgG antibodies...
November 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Olof Danielsson, Björn Lindvall, Claes Hallert, Magnus Vrethem, Charlotte Dahle
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are often associated with other immune-mediated diseases or malignancy. Some studies have reported a high frequency of celiac disease in IIM. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of celiac disease, systemic inflammatory diseases, and malignancy in a cohort of IIM patients, and estimate the incidence of IIM in the county of Östergötland, Sweden. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed medical records and analyzed sera from 106 patients, fulfilling pathological criteria of inflammatory myopathy, for the presence of IgA antibodies against endomysium and gliadin...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
Deanna L Kelly, Haley K Demyanovich, William Eaton, Nicola Cascella, Jessica Jackson, Alessio Fanaso, William T Carpenter
Altered immune function and inflammation are seen in schizophrenia, however, peripheral inflammatory markers are not consistently elevated in all people, suggesting inflammation may be present only in a subgroup. We measured TNF-α and IL-Iβ in 100 people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and correlated these with antibodies to gliadin, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye that has been found to be elevated in some people with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that higher peripheral antigliadin antibodies (AGA IgG) would be associated with higher peripheral inflammation as measured by TNF-α and IL-1β...
October 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Jan Józefczuk, Ewa Konopka, Joanna Beata Bierła, Ilona Trojanowska, Agnieszka Sowińska, Rafał Czarnecki, Lucjan Sobol, Paweł Józefczuk, Weronika Surdy, Bożena Cukrowska
There is evidence that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) display an increased immune reactivity against gluten, which is supposed to be the effect of intestinal barrier abnormalities. The aim of study was to evaluate the relation of antibody induced by gluten to zonulin and intestinal fatty acid binding proteins (I-FABP), that is, serological markers of an impaired gut barrier. The study included 77 patients with ASDs. Zonulin, I-FABP, celiac-specific antibodies, anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA), and antibodies against neural transglutaminase 6 (TG6) of immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG classes were detected in sera...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
Nand Ooms, Koen J A Jansens, Bram Pareyt, Stijn Reyniers, Kristof Brijs, Jan A Delcour
Gluten proteins functionality during pastry production was examined by including redox agents in the ingredient bill. Addition of reducing and oxidizing agents respectively increased and decreased dough height during fermentation. The presence of large gas bubbles in the samples with oxidizing agents may have caused a 'stacking'-effect and a more effective dough lift. During baking, the level of extractable proteins decreased to comparable values for all samples, except when potassium iodate (KIO3) was used in the recipe...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Justyna Gornowicz-Porowska, Agnieszka Seraszek-Jaros, Monika Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Elżbieta Kaczmarek, Paweł Pietkiewicz, Paweł Bartkiewicz, Marian Dmochowski
Here we investigated the cutaneous CD32A and CD89 expression in relation to the neutrophil elastase (NE) expression and serum level of anti-desmoglein 1 and 3 (DSG1/DSG3) IgG in pemphigus, anti-BP180/BP230 IgG in bullous pemphigoid (BP), anti-gliadin nonapeptides (npG), tissue (tTG), and epidermal transglutaminases (eTG) IgA in dermatitis herpetiformis (DH). The examined material consisted of skin/mucosal tissues and sera. In total, 87 patients were studied. Immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded sections with quantitative digital morphometry was used to measure the intensity of CD32A/CD89/NE expressions...
2017: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
Michelle S Lau, Peter D Mooney, William L White, Michael A Rees, Simon H Wong, Matthew Kurien, Nick Trott, Daniel A Leffler, Marios Hadjivassiliou, David S Sanders
OBJECTIVES: Mucosal healing is important in celiac disease (CD) for the prevention of complications. However, obtaining duodenal biopsies is invasive, and there is currently no reliable surrogate marker for histological remission in clinical practice. We aimed to assess the role of a point-of-care test (POCT) based on IgA/IgG-deamidated gliadin peptide, in detecting persistent villous atrophy (VA) in CD. METHODS: We prospectively recruited patients with CD attending endoscopy for the assessment of histological remission...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Hong Sub Lee, Kwang Jae Lee
Background/Aims: The role of dietary factors in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to compare IgG4 levels to common food antigens between patients with IBS and healthy controls. Methods: Thirty-two patients diagnosed as IBS according to the Rome III criteria (12 diarrhea subgroup; 20 non-diarrhea subgroup) and 32 sex and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Serum IgG4 titers to 90 common foods were measured in each subject...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Giovanna Visioli, Urbana Bonas, Cristian Dal Cortivo, Gabriella Pasini, Nelson Marmiroli, Giuliano Mosca, Teofilo Vamerali
BACKGROUND: With the increasing demand for high-quality foodstuffs and concern for environmental sustainability, late-season nitrogen foliar fertilization of common wheat is now an important and widespread practice. RESULTS: We investigated the effects of late-season foliar vs. soil N fertilization on yield and protein content of four varieties of durum wheat, Aureo, Ariosto, Biensur and Liberdur, in a three-year field trial in northern Italy. Variations in LMW-GS, HMW-GS and gliadins were assessed by SDS-PAGE...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Adriana-Maria Hiller, Stefan Willers
Cinnamon rolls triggered anaphylactic reaction. The genesis could be wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis Two case reports from our Department of Allergology illustrate the wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA), which is a relatively rare, yet potentially fatal form of food allergy. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the most commonly grown crop world-wide, and some individuals cannot tolerate it due to wheat hypersensitivity. The most dangerous reaction is the anaphylaxis due to harmful immune responses to various parts of the wheat proteins...
October 2, 2017: Läkartidningen
Luis Vaquero, Isabel Comino, Santiago Vivas, Laura Rodríguez-Martín, María J Giménez, Jorge Pastor, Carolina Sousa, Francisco Barro
BACKGROUND: Tritordeum is a novel cereal obtained from the hybridisation between durum wheat and a wild barley. This study evaluates acceptance, digestibility and immunotoxic properties of tritordeum, a novel cereal for food processing. Nineteen healthy volunteers participated in a study with different diets to compare tritordeum bread with wheat and gluten-free breads. RESULTS: Tritordeum breads had a similar acceptance to the wheat bread usually consumed and the acceptance was significantly higher than the gluten-free bread and the standardized wheat bread supplied in the study...
September 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Aman Kumar, Monika Garg, Navneet Kaur, Venkatesh Chunduri, Saloni Sharma, Swati Misser, Ashish Kumar, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Quan-Wen Dou, Raj K Gupta
The protein content and its type are principal factors affecting wheat (Triticum aestivum) end product quality. Among the wheat proteins, glutenin proteins, especially, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are major determinants of processing quality. Wheat and its primary gene pool have limited variation in terms of HMW-GS alleles. Wild relatives of wheat are an important source of genetic variation. For improvement of wheat processing quality its wild relative Thinopyrum elongatum with significant potential was utilized...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Elaine B Ceresino, Ricardo R de Melo, Ramune Kuktaite, Mikael S Hedenqvist, Tiago D Zucchi, Eva Johansson, Helia H Sato
The popularity of transglutaminase (TG) by the food industry and the variation in functionality of this enzyme from different origins, prompted us to isolate and evaluate a high-yielding TG strain. Through the statistical approaches, Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology, a low cost fermentation media was obtained to produce 6.074±0.019UmL(-1) of TG from a novel source; Streptomyces sp. CBMAI 1617 (SB6). Its potential exploitation was compared to commonly used TG, from Streptomyces mobaraensis. Biochemical and FT-IR studies indicated differences between SB6 and commercial TG (Biobond™ TG-M)...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Isabel Polanco, Thabata Koester Weber, Eva Martínez-Ojinaga, Manuel Molina, Jesús Sarria
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a point-of-care test (POCT) based on deamidated gliadin peptides (DGP) compared to the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) criteria diagnosis in the early detection of celiac disease (CD) in pediatric patients. METHODS: One hundred children (≤ 18 years) with suspected CD were selected, including siblings of celiac children that underwent gastroscopy for other gastrointestinal conditions...
November 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Sandip K Wagh, Praful P Gadge, Manohar V Padul
Peptidase therapy is suggested to be effective to minimize gliadin toxicity in celiac disease (CD). Hence, present study deals with gliadin-hydrolysing peptidases. The efficient peptidase from the Bacillus tequilensis was purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation and preparative electrophoresis. Analysis of in-solution and in-gel hydrolysis of gliadin using one and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE revealed nearly complete hydrolysis of gliadin peptides after 180 min of incubation with B. tequilensis protease. Purified peptidase was found to be stable at acidic (pH 3...
September 25, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Susana Sánchez-León, Javier Gil-Humanes, Carmen V Ozuna, María J Giménez, Carolina Sousa, Daniel F Voytas, Francisco Barro
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered in genetically predisposed individuals by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, barley, and rye. The -gliadin gene family of wheat contains four highly stimulatory peptides, of which the 33-mer is the main immunodominant peptide in celiac patients. We designed two sgRNAs to target a conserved region adjacent to the coding sequence for the 33-mer in the -gliadin genes. Twenty-one mutant lines were generated, all showing strong reduction in -gliadins. Up to 35 different genes were mutated in one of the lines of the 45 different genes identified in the wild type, while immunoreactivity was reduced by 85%...
September 18, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Paolella Gaetana, Lepretti Marilena, Martucciello Stefania, Nanayakkara Merlin, Auricchio Salvatore, Esposito Carla, Barone Maria Vittoria, Caputo Ivana
Alpha-gliadin peptide 31-43 is considered to be the main peptide responsible for the innate immune response in celiac disease patients. Recent evidence indicates that peptide 31-43 rapidly enters cells and interacts with the early endocytic vesicular compartment. However, the mechanism of its uptake is not completely understood. Our aim is to characterize, isolate and identify possible cell surface proteins involved in peptide 31-43 internalization by Caco-2 cells. In this study, we used a chemical cross-linker to block peptide 31-43 on cell surface proteins, and pulled-down peptide-proteins complexes using antibodies raised against peptide 31-43...
September 15, 2017: Cell Biology International
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