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Giuseppe Losurdo, Mariabeatrice Principi, Andrea Iannone, Enzo Ierardi, Alfredo Di Leo
Celiac disease (CD) is the most common autoimmune enteropathy, triggered by a deregulated immune response to gliadin. It has been hypothesized that human intestinal microbiota may interfere with the pathogenesis of the disease and in the clinical course of CD. In the present review, we analyzed the microbiota alterations observed in the course of CD, how they may influence the pathogenesis of CD, and the possible applications for a microbiota modulation in CD. In detail, most of the current literature underlined that the dysbiosis in CD is hallmarked by an increase in gram-negative and Bacteroidetes species, and by a decrease in Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Priya D Shanmugarajah, Nigel Hoggard, Stuart Currie, Daniel P Aeschlimann, Pascale C Aeschlimann, Dermot C Gleeson, Mohammed Karajeh, Nicola Woodroofe, Richard A Grünewald, Marios Hadjivassiliou
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related cerebellar degeneration is one of the commonest acquired forms of cerebellar ataxia. The exact pathogenic mechanisms by which alcohol leads to cerebellar damage remain unknown. Possible autoreactive immune mediated mechanisms have not been explored previously. In this study, we aim to investigate the potential role of alcohol-induced immune mediated cerebellar degeneration. METHODS: Patients with ataxia and a history of alcohol misuse were recruited from the Ataxia and Hepatology tertiary clinics at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Michelle Shui Yee Lau, Peter D Mooney, William L White, Victoria Appleby, Sulleman Moreea, Ismail Haythem, Joshua E Elias, Kiran Bundhoo, Gareth D Corbett, Liam Wong, Her Hsin Tsai, Simon S Cross, John M Hebden, Sami Hoque, David S Sanders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Slađana Žilić, Marijana Janković, Miroljub Barać, Mirjana Pešić, Aleksandra Konić-Ristić, Vesna Hadži-Tašković Šukalović
The aim was to determine the effect of steeping and sprouting on wheat grain proteins and the functional consequences in this regard. The solubility of proteins and the polypeptide composition of albumins, globulins, gliadins and glutenins were determined, as well as the content of non-protein nitrogen and free sulfhydryl groups (-SH), and the activity of peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX). In addition, the pasting viscosity of flour and protein bioactivity such as antioxidant capacity and immunoreactivity were evaluated...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Federico Vita, Cosimo Taiti, Antonio Pompeiano, Zuguang Gu, Emilio Lo Presti, Larisa Whitney, Michele Monti, Giuseppe Di Miceli, Dario Giambalvo, Paolo Ruisi, Lorenzo Guglielminetti, Stefano Mancuso
In this paper volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from durum wheat cultivars and landraces were analyzed using PTR-TOF-MS. The aim was to characterize the VOC's profile of the wholemeal flour and of the kernel to find out if any VOCs were specific to varieties and sample matrices. The VOC data is accompanied by SDS-PAGE analyses of the storage proteins (gliadins and glutenins). Statistical analyses was carried out both on the signals obtained by MS and on the protein profiles. The difference between the VOC profile of two cultivars or two preparations of the same sample - matrices, in this case kernel vs wholemeal flour - can be very subtle; the high resolution of PTR-TOF-MS - down to levels as low as pptv - made it possible to recognize these differences...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
G Feriotto, R Calza, C M Bergamini, M Griffin, Z Wang, S Beninati, V Ferretti, E Marzola, R Guerrini, A Pagnoni, A Cavazzini, F Casciano, C Mischiati
Gluten-induced aggregation of K562 cells represents an in vitro model reproducing the early steps occurring in the small bowel of celiac patients exposed to gliadin. Despite the clear involvement of TG2 in the activation of the antigen-presenting cells, it is not yet clear in which compartment it occurs. Herein we study the calcium-dependent aggregation of these cells, using either cell-permeable or cell-impermeable TG2 inhibitors. Gluten induces efficient aggregation when calcium is absent in the extracellular environment, while TG2 inhibitors do not restore the full aggregating potential of gluten in the presence of calcium...
October 3, 2016: Amino Acids
Xiaolong Wang, Rudi Appels, Xiaoke Zhang, Ferenc Bekes, Kitti Torok, Sandor Tomoskozi, Dean Diepeveen, Wujun Ma, Shahidul Islam
Sequential protein behavior in the wheat dough matrix under continuous mixing and heating treatment has been studied using Mixolab-dough samples from two Australian wheat cultivars, Westonia and Wyalkatchem. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) analysis indicated that 32min (80°C) was a critical time point in forming large protein complexes and loosing extractability of several protein groups like y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), gamma-gliadins, beta-amylases, serpins, and metabolic proteins with higher mass...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Widya A Wahab, Tanja Šuligoj, Julia Ellis, Beatriz Côrtez-Real, Paul J Ciclitira
Coeliac disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder of the small intestine. It includes aberrant adaptive immunity with presentation of CD toxic gluten peptides by HLA-DQ2 or DQ8 molecules to gluten-sensitive T cells. A ω-gliadin/C-hordein peptide (QPFPQPEQPFPW) and a rye-derived secalin peptide (QPFPQPQQPIPQ) were proposed to be toxic in CD, as they yielded positive responses when assessed with peripheral blood T-cell clones derived from individuals with CD. We sought to assess the immunogenicity of the candidate peptides using gluten-sensitive T-cell lines obtained from CD small intestinal biopsies...
August 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Isabel Comino, Fernando Fernández-Bañares, María Esteve, Luís Ortigosa, Gemma Castillejo, Blanca Fambuena, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, Carlos Sierra, Alfonso Rodríguez-Herrera, José Carlos Salazar, Ángel Caunedo, J M Marugán-Miguelsanz, José Antonio Garrote, Santiago Vivas, Oreste Lo Iacono, Alejandro Nuñez, Luis Vaquero, Ana María Vegas, Laura Crespo, Luis Fernández-Salazar, Eduardo Arranz, Victoria Alejandra Jiménez-García, Marco Antonio Montes-Cano, Beatriz Espín, Ana Galera, Justo Valverde, Francisco José Girón, Miguel Bolonio, Antonio Millán, Francesc Martínez Cerezo, César Guajardo, José Ramón Alberto, Mercé Rosinach, Verónica Segura, Francisco León, Jorge Marinich, Alba Muñoz-Suano, Manuel Romero-Gómez, Ángel Cebolla, Carolina Sousa
OBJECTIVES: Treatment for celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Patients should be followed-up with dietary interviews and serology as CD markers to ensure adherence to the diet. However, none of these methods offer an accurate measure of dietary compliance. Our aim was to evaluate the measurement of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in stools as a marker of GFD adherence in CD patients and compare it with traditional methods of GFD monitoring. METHODS: We performed a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter study including 188 CD patients on GFD and 84 healthy controls...
October 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Asmaa Drissi Bourhanbour, Sanae Ouadghiri, Nadia Benseffaj, Malika Essakalli
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease frequently associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The prevalence of CD in patients with T1D varies from 3 to 6%. The clinical manifestation of CD in patients with T1D is classified as asymptomatic in about half of cases. Our study aims to determine the frequency of anti-tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (IgA-tTG) and anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA) in patients with type 1 diabetes in order to early recommend jejunal biopsy and establish a gluten-free diet before the onset of clinical signs and complications of celiac disease...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
T Matthias, P Jeremias, S Neidhöfer, A Lerner
Microbial transglutaminase (mTg) is capable of cross-linking numerous molecules. It is a family member of human tissue transglutaminase (tTg), and is involved in CD. Despite declarations of the safety of mTg for industrial use, direct evidence for immunogenicity of the enzyme is lacking. The serological activity of mTg, tTg, gliadin complexed mTg (mTg neo-epitope) and gliadin complexed tTg (tTg neo-epitope) were studied in 95 pediatric celiac patients (CD), 99 normal children (NC), 79 normal adults (NA) and 45 children with nonspecific abdominal pain (AP)...
September 15, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Xuelian Jing, Chen Yang, Liping Zhang
Globulin, albumin, gluten, and gliadin in oat bran were prepared by the Osborn method using oat bran as starting material. We characterized the secondary and tertiary structures of 4 proteins using circular dichroism, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy in order to analyze the composition and functional mechanisms. The results showed that the amino acid composition in all the 4 proteins was relatively balanced, and the essential amino acid content in albumin and globulin was high...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
Katharina Anne Scherf, Herbert Wieser, Peter Koehler
Purified wheat starch (WSt) is commonly used in gluten-free products for celiac disease (CD) patients. It is mostly well-tolerated, but doubts about its safety for CD patients persist. One reason may be that most ELISA kits primarily recognize the alcohol-soluble gliadin fraction of gluten, but insufficiently target the alcohol-insoluble glutenin fraction. To address this problem, a new sensitive method based on the sequential extraction of gliadins, glutenins, and gluten from WSt followed by gel-permeation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (GP-HPLC-FLD) was developed...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Michelle Shui Yee Lau, Peter Mooney, William White, Victoria Appleby, Sulleman Moreea, Ismail Haythem, Joshua Elias, Kiran Bundhoo, Gareth Corbett, Liam Wong, Her Hsin Tsai, Simon Cross, John Hebden, Sami Hoque, David Sanders
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend coeliac serology in iron deficiency anaemia, and duodenal biopsy for those tested positive to detect coeliac disease. However, pre-endoscopy serology is often unavailable, thus committing endoscopists to take routine duodenal biopsies. Some endoscopists consider duodenal biopsy mandatory in anaemia to exclude other pathologies. We hypothesise that using a point of care test at endoscopy could fill this gap, by providing rapid results to target anaemic patients who require biopsies, and save costs by biopsy avoidance...
September 15, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Esma Altinel Acoglu, Meltem Akcaboy, Melahat Melek Oguz, Mustafa Kilic, Pelin Zorlu, Saliha Senel
INTRODUCTION: Cow's milk allergy is the most common food allergy in children. Symptoms usually involve the skin and the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Gastrointestinal tract manifestations of cow's milk allergy are nonspecific, and are the only type that can be diagnosed in all age groups. Here, we report a rare case of cow's milk allergy in an infant with hypoalbuminemia and malnutrition. CASE PRESENTATION: A nine-month-old girl was admitted to Dr. Sami Ulus maternity and children's health and diseases training and research hospital, Ankara, Turkey, in September 2013, for weakness and swelling of the legs that had endured for two days...
June 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Barbara Frossi, Claudio Tripodo, Carla Guarnotta, Antonio Carroccio, Marco De Carli, Stefano De Carli, Marco Marino, Antonino Calabrò, Carlo E Pucillo
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by an accumulation of immune cells in the duodenal mucosa as a consequence of both adaptive and innate immune responses to undigested gliadin peptides. Mast cells (MCs) are innate immune cells that are a major source of costimulatory signals and inflammatory mediators in the intestinal mucosa. Although MCs have previously been associated with CD, functional studies have never been performed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at evaluating the role of MCs in the pathogenesis of CD...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Gaetana Paolella, Marilena Lepretti, Maria Vittoria Barone, Merlin Nanayakkara, Marina Di Zenzo, Daniele Sblattero, Salvatore Auricchio, Carla Esposito, Ivana Caputo
Type 2 transglutaminase (TG2) has an important pathogenic role in celiac disease (CD), an inflammatory intestinal disease that is caused by the ingestion of gluten-containing cereals. Indeed, TG2 deamidates specific gliadin peptides, thus enhancing their immunogenicity. Moreover, the transamidating activity seems to provoke an autoimmune response, where TG2 is the main autoantigen. Many studies have highlighted a possible pathogenetic role of anti-TG2 antibodies, because they modulate TG2 enzymatic activity and they can interact with cell-surface TG2, triggering a wide range of intracellular responses...
September 9, 2016: Amino Acids
M A van Leeuwen, L M M Costes, L A van Berkel, Y Simons-Oosterhuis, M F du Pré, A E Kozijn, H C Raatgeep, D J Lindenbergh-Kortleve, N van Rooijen, F Koning, J N Samsom
Celiac disease is caused by inflammatory T-cell responses against the insoluble dietary protein gliadin. We have shown that, in humanized mice, oral tolerance to deamidated chymotrypsin-digested gliadin (CT-TG2-gliadin) is driven by tolerogenic interferon (IFN)-γ- and interleukin (IL)-10-secreting type 1 regulatory T-like cells (Tr1-like cells) generated in the spleen but not in the mesenteric lymph nodes. We aimed to uncover the mechanisms underlying gliadin-specific Tr1-like-cell differentiation and hypothesized that proteolytic gliadin degradation by splenic macrophages is a decisive step in this process...
August 31, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Jan Petersen, Yvonne Kooy-Winkelaar, Khai Lee Loh, Mai Tran, Jeroen van Bergen, Frits Koning, Jamie Rossjohn, Hugh H Reid
In HLA-DQ8-associated celiac disease, TRAV26-2(+)-TRBV9(+) and TRAV8-3(+)-TRBV6(+) T cells recognize the immunodominant DQ8-glia-α1 epitope, whereupon a non-germline-encoded arginine residue played a key role in binding HLA-DQ8-glia-α1. Whether distinct T cell receptor (TCR) recognition modes exist for gliadin epitopes remains unclear. TCR repertoire analysis revealed populations of HLA-DQ8-glia-α1 and HLA-DQ8.5-glia-γ1 restricted TRAV20(+)-TRBV9(+) T cells that did not possess a non-germline-encoded arginine residue...
October 4, 2016: Structure
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