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Da Li, Huaibing Jin, Kunpu Zhang, Zhaojun Wang, Faming Wang, Yue Zhao, Naxin Huo, Xin Liu, Yong Q Gu, Daowen Wang, Lingli Dong
Gliadins are a major component of wheat seed proteins. However, the complex homoeologous Gli-2 loci (Gli-A2, -B2 and -D2) encoding the α-gliadins in commercial wheat are still poorly understood. Here we analyzed the Gli-D2 locus of Xiaoyan 81 (Xy81), a winter wheat cultivar. A total of 421.091 kb of Gli-D2 sequence was assembled from sequencing multiple bacterial artificial clones, and 10 α-gliadin genes were annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that Xy81 carried only eight of the α-gliadin genes of the D genome donor Ae...
May 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Alexandre Poirier, Amélie Banc, Antonio Stocco, Martin In, Laurence Ramos
Gliadins are edible wheat storage proteins well known for their surface active properties. In this paper, we present experimental results on the interfacial properties of acidic solutions of gliadin studied over 5 decades of concentrations, from 0.001 to 110 g/L. Dynamic pendant drop tensiometry reveals that the surface pressure Π of gliadin solutions builds up in a multistep process. The series of curves of the time evolution of Π collected at different bulk protein concentrations C can be merged onto a single master curve when Π is plotted as a function of αt where t is the time elapsed since the formation of the air/water interface and α is a shift parameter that varies with C as a power law with an exponent 2...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
D Sánchez, S Štěpánová-Honzová, M Hospodková, I Hoffmanová, V Hábová, P Halada, H Tlaskalová-Hogenová, L Tučková
The alcohol-soluble fraction of wheat gluten (gliadins) induces in genetically susceptible individuals immunologically mediated celiac disease (CLD). However, gliadins and related cereal proteins are not unique foodstuff targets of CLD patients´ immune system. Non-gluten wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor 0.19 (AAI 0.19) has been found to be capable of activating human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and inducing pro-inflammatory status in intestinal mucosa of patients with celiac disease (CLD). The possible contribution of this reactivity in incomplete remission of CLD patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD) is matter of contention...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
Irati Romero-Garmendia, Koldo Garcia-Etxebarria, Hector Hernandez-Vargas, Izortze Santin, Amaia Jauregi-Miguel, Leticia Plaza-Izurieta, Marie-Pierre Cros, Maria Legarda, Iñaki Irastorza, Zdenko Herceg, Nora Fernandez-Jimenez, Jose Ramon Bilbao
The aim of this study was to construct celiac co-expression patterns at a whole genome level and to identify transcription factors (TFs) that could drive the gliadin-related changes in coordination of gene expression observed in celiac disease (CD). Differential co-expression modules were identified in the acute and chronic responses to gliadin using expression data from a previous microarray study in duodenal biopsies. Transcription factor binding site (TFBS) and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation enrichment analyses were performed in differentially co-expressed genes (DCGs) and selection of candidate regulators was performed...
May 10, 2018: Genes
Jie Li, Xinhao Liu, Xiwen Yang, Yongchun Li, Chenyang Wang, Dexian He
Powdery mildew of wheat is one of the major foliar diseases, causing significant yield loss and flour quality change. In this study, grain protein and starch response to powdery mildew infection were investigated. Total protein, glutenin and gliadin exhibited a greater increase in grains from infected wheat, while the content of total starch and amylopectin was decreased. Comparative proteomic analysis demonstrated that the overabundant protein synthesis-related proteins might facilitate the accumulation of storage proteins in grains from infected plants...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Kok Wee Chong, Simon Ling, Wenyin Loh
Wheat allergy is one of the commonest food allergies in childhood and it typically presents with IgE mediated reactions, including anaphylaxis. Seizures are not typically reported to be a direct manifestation of anaphylaxis, though it can occur secondary to hypoxia following significant haemodynamic compromise. We describe a case of a previously well infant, who presented with anaphylactic shock to wheat and responded well to the initial management, but subsequently developed a cluster of brief generalised tonic clonic seizures without any ongoing haemodynamic instability...
April 2018: Asia Pacific Allergy
Charlene B Van Buiten, Joshua D Lambert, Ryan J Elias
SCOPE: Green tea, a polyphenol-rich beverage, has been reported to mitigate a number of inflammatory and hypersensitivity disorders in laboratory models, and has been shown to moderate pathways related to food allergies in vitro. We sought to determine the impact of decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) on the digestion of gliadin protein in vitro and the effect of physical interactions with GTE on the ability of gliadin to stimulate celiac disease-related symptoms in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: Complexation of GTE and gliadin in vitro was confirmed by monitoring increases in turbidity upon titration of GTE into a gliadin solution...
April 28, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
M G Herrera, M Pizzuto, C Lonez, K Rott, A Hütten, N Sewald, J-M Ruysschaert, V I Dodero
Gliadin, an immunogenic protein present in wheat, is not fully degraded by humans and after the normal gastric and pancreatic digestion, the immunodominant 33-mer gliadin peptide remains unprocessed. The 33-mer gliadin peptide is found in human faeces and urine, proving not only its proteolytic resistance in vivo but more importantly its transport through the entire human body. Here, we demonstrate that 33-mer supramolecular structures larger than 220nm induce the overexpression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) via a specific Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 2 and (TLR) 4 dependent pathway and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IP-10/CXCL10 and TNF-α...
April 21, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Ravindra V Badhe, Pradeep Kumar, Yahya E Choonara, Thashree Marimuthu, Lisa C du Toit, Divya Bijukumar, Dharmesh R Chejara, Mostafa Mabrouk, Viness Pillay
Stigmergy, a form of self-organization, was employed here to engineer a self-organizing peptide capable of forming a nano- or micro-structure and that can potentially be used in various drug delivery and biomedical applications. These self-assembling peptides exhibit several desirable qualities for drug delivery, tissue engineering, cosmetics, antibiotics, food science, and biomedical surface engineering. In this study, peptide biomaterial synthesis was carried out using an environment-reliant auto-programmer stigmergic approach...
April 16, 2018: Materials
Ratna Annisa Utami, Aunillah Hakiki, Sukmadjaja Asyarie, Debbie Soefie Retnoningrum
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant protein. When administered orally, it has low bioavailability due to its low permeation. In a previous study we fused gliadin peptide P51 (LGQQQPFPPQQPYPQPQPF) and gliadin peptide P61 (QQPYPQPQPF) with SOD Citrus limon (SOD_Cl), namely GliSOD_P51 and GliSOD_P61 to increase permeation of SOD_Cl through intestine. In this work, the permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-Dextran 10 kDa, FD10 and 40 kDa, FD40 as paracellular transport markers across excised rat intestinal wall was investigated with the presence of GliSOD_P51 and GliSOD_P61...
April 10, 2018: Scientia Pharmaceutica
Markus Lacorn, Thomas Weiss, Nicole Klass, Patrick Bird, M Joseph Benzinger, James Agin, David Goins
RIDA® QUICK Gliadin is an immuno-chromatographic test for the detection of gluten in foods, on surfaces, and in Cleaning-in-Place (CIP) waters. This test kit has been adopted as Final Action AOAC INTERNATIONAL Official Methods of Analysis SM 2015.16 for gluten in corn products. The assay is based on the monoclonal antibody R5, which recognizes gluten in wheat, barley, and rye. Four different surfaces were contaminated with a gliadin material and analyzed by a direct swabbing of the surface with the dip-stick...
April 4, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Jose Bonilla, Valerie Ryan, Gamze Yazar, Jozef L Kokini, Arun K Bhunia
The importance of gluten proteins, gliadins and glutenins, is well known in the quality of wheat products. In order to gain more specific information about the role of glutenins in wheat dough the two major subunits of glutenin, high and low molecular weight (HMW and LMW) glutenins were extracted, isolated and identified by mass spectrometry. Antibodies for HMW and LMW glutenins were developed using the proteomic information of the characterized glutenin subunits. The antibodies were found to be specific to each subunit by western immunoblots and were then conjugated to Quantum Dots using site click conjugation a new method to keep antibodies integrity...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sakura Sato, Noriyuki Yanagida, Motohiro Ebisawa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the recent studies that focus on specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) testing and basophil activation test (BAT) for diagnosing IgE-mediated food allergies. RECENT FINDINGS: The sIgE to allergen extract or component can predict reactivity to food. The cutoff value based on the positive predictive value (PPV) of sIgE can be considered whenever deciding whether oral food challenge (OFC) is required to diagnose hen's egg, cow's milk, wheat, peanut, and cashew nut allergy...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Naxin Huo, Tingting Zhu, Susan Altenbach, Lingli Dong, Yi Wang, Toni Mohr, Zhiyong Liu, Jan Dvorak, Ming-Cheng Luo, Yong Q Gu
Wheat Gli-2 loci encode complex groups of α-gliadin prolamins that are important for breadmaking, but also major triggers of celiac disease (CD). Elucidation of α-gliadin evolution provides knowledge to produce wheat with better end-use properties and reduced immunogenic potential. The Gli-2 loci contain a large number of tandemly duplicated genes and highly repetitive DNA, making sequence assembly of their genomic regions challenging. Here, we constructed high-quality sequences spanning the three wheat homeologous α-gliadin loci by aligning PacBio-based sequence contigs with BioNano genome maps...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xing Chen, David Julian McClements, Jian Wang, Liqiang Zou, Sumeng Deng, Wei Liu, Chi Yan, Yuqing Zhu, Ce Cheng, Chengmei Liu
Particle-stabilized W1/O/W2 emulsion gels were fabricated using a two-step procedure: (i) a W1/O emulsion was formed containing saccharose (for osmotic stress balance) and gelatin (as a gelling agent) in the aqueous phase and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (a lipophilic surfactant) in the oil phase; (ii) this W1/O emulsion was then homogenized with another water phase (W2) containing wheat gliadin nanoparticles (hydrophilic emulsifier). The gliadin nanoparticles in the external aqueous phase aggregated at pH 5...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Pei Wang, Min Zou, Zhenxin Gu, Runqiang Yang
The current study comparatively investigated the heat-induced polymerization behavior of fresh and frozen-stored gluten to replenish the gluten deterioration mechanism in frozen dough from the perspective of subsequent polymerization behavior during heating. The results showed that disulfide-mediated polymerization of frozen-stored gluten upon heating at 95 °C was suppressed. The polymerization ability of glutenin was weakened rather than gliadin for frozen-stored gluten. Enhanced level of β-structures at the expense of α-helices was detected during the incipient heating of fresh gluten, while converse trend was noticed for the frozen-stored gluten...
July 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Xinkuan Liu, Wenyi Shao, Mingyi Luo, Jiayin Bian, Deng-Guang Yu
Nanomaterials providing sustained release profiles are highly desired for efficacious drug delivery. Advanced nanotechnologies are useful tools for creating elaborate nanostructure-based nanomaterials to achieve the designed functional performances. In this research, a modified coaxial electrospinning was explored to fabricate a novel core-sheath nanostructure (nanofibers F2), in which a sheath drug-free gliadin layer was successfully coated on the core ketoprofen (KET)-gliadin nanocomposite. A monolithic nanocomposite (nanofibers F1) that was generated through traditional blending electrospinning of core fluid was utilized as a control...
March 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Hakim Rahmoune, Nada Boutrid, Belkacem Bioud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Daniel Agardh, Edwin Liu, Eric W Triplett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Haili Li, Keren Byrne, Renata Galiamov, Omar Mendoza-Porras, Utpal Bose, Crispin A Howitt, Michelle L Colgrave
A strict, lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet is currently the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD). Vinegar and soy sauce are fermented condiments that often include wheat and/or barley. During fermentation cereal proteins are partially degraded by enzymes to yield peptide fragments and amino acids. Whether these fermented products contain intact or degraded gluten proteins and if they are safe for people with CD remains in question. LC-MS offers the benefit of being able to detect hydrolysed gluten that might be present in commercial vinegar and soy sauce products...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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