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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447482/role-of-vitamin-a-supplementation-in-prevention-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-neonates-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-trials
#1
Bhawan Deep Garg, Anju Bansal, Nandkishor S Kabra
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common consequence of extreme prematurity (< 28 weeks of gestation). BPD affects approximately 55% of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates. AIMS: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of vitamin A supplementation in prevention of BPD in ELBW neonates. METHOD: The literature search was done for various randomized control trial (RCT) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE and ongoing clinical trials...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447027/current-knowledge-of-transient-hypothyroxinemia-of-prematurity-to-treat-or-not-to-treat
#2
Shigeo Iijima
Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in normal maturation of the developing brain in the fetus and infant. Continuing advances in neonatal medicine have contributed to an increased survival of extremely premature infants with neonatal morbidities. In these infants, thyroid system immaturities, as well as morbidity-related thyroid dysfunction, contribute to transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (THOP), which is characterized by very low total and free thyroxine and normal or low thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445030/cabozantinib-in-patients-with-advanced-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#3
Guilherme Rabinowits, Cecilia Lezcano, Paul J Catalano, Patricia McHugh, Hailey Becker, Megan M Reilly, Julian Huang, Ayushi Tyagi, Manisha Thakuria, Scott C Bresler, Lynette M Sholl, Geoffrey I Shapiro, Robert Haddad, James A DeCaprio
BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine the efficacy and safety profile of cabozantinib in patients with advanced Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This prospective, phase II, single-institution trial enrolled patients with platinum-failure, recurrent/metastatic MCC to receive cabozantinib 60 mg orally daily until disease progression, withdrawal from study, or severe toxicity. The primary endpoint was disease control rate. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and toxicity...
February 14, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444643/sonographic-evaluation-of-adrenal-size-in-neonates-23-to-41-weeks-of-gestation
#4
Shigeo Iijima
BACKGROUND: Fetal adrenal gland size is known to have a positive correlation with both gestational age and estimated body weight. In contrast, some clinical observations suggest that maturation of the adrenal stress response occurs after 30 weeks of gestation. In this study, adrenal gland size at birth in extremely preterm to term neonates was investigated using ultrasonography to evaluate the adrenal developmental pattern and the impact of prematurity and perinatal factors. METHODS: The area of the right adrenal gland was measured in the first 3 h of life in 350 neonates and corrected for birth weight (BW) to determine the corrected adrenal area index (cAI)...
February 14, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439674/establishing-a-clinical-phenotype-for-cachexia-in-end-stage-kidney-disease-study-protocol
#5
Joanne Reid, Helen R Noble, Gary Adamson, Andrew Davenport, Ken Farrington, Denis Fouque, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, John Mallett, C McKeaveney, S Porter, David S Seres, Joanne Shields, Adrian Slee, Miles D Witham, Alexander P Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Surveys using traditional measures of nutritional status indicate that muscle wasting is common among persons with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Up to 75% of adults undergoing maintenance dialysis show some evidence of muscle wasting. ESKD is associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines and can result in cachexia, with the loss of muscle and fat stores. At present, only limited data are available on the classification of wasting experienced by persons with ESKD...
February 13, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439205/inhaled-nitric-oxide-in-extremely-premature-neonates-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
William A Carey, Amy L Weaver, Kristin C Mara, Reese H Clark
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is increasingly prescribed to extremely premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Most of this off-label use occurs during the first week of life. We studied this practice, hypothesizing that it would not be associated with improved survival. METHODS: We queried the Pediatrix Medical Group Clinical Data Warehouse to identify all neonates born at 22 to 29 weeks' gestation from 2004 to 2014. In our study sample, we included singletons who required mechanical ventilation for treatment of RDS and excluded those with anomalies...
February 9, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433462/early-onset-neonatal-hyperkalemia-associated-with-maternal-hypermagnesemia-a-case-report
#7
Kenichi Tanaka, Hiroko Mori, Rieko Sakamoto, Shirou Matsumoto, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Kimitoshi Nakamura, Masanori Iwai
BACKGROUND: Neonatal nonoliguric hyperkalemia (NOHK) is a metabolic abnormality that occurs in extremely premature neonates at approximately 24 h after birth and is mainly due to the immature functioning of the sodium (Na + )/potassium (K + ) pump. Magnesium sulfate is frequently used in obstetrical practice to prevent preterm labor and to treat preeclampsia; this medication can also cause hypermagnesemia and hyperkalemia by a mechanism that is different from that of NOHK. Herein, we report the first case of very early-onset neonatal hyperkalemia induced by maternal hypermagnesemia...
February 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431872/interventions-to-prevent-hypothermia-at-birth-in-preterm-and-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#8
REVIEW
Emma M McCall, Fiona Alderdice, Henry L Halliday, Sunita Vohra, Linda Johnston
BACKGROUND: Newborn admission temperature is a strong predictor of outcomes across all gestations. Hypothermia immediately after birth remains a worldwide issue and, if prolonged, is associated with harm. Keeping preterm infants warm is difficult even when recommended routine thermal care guidelines are followed in the delivery room. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room, compared with routine thermal care or any other single/combination of intervention(s) also designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room...
February 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431371/palpitations-evaluation-in-the-primary-care-setting
#9
Randell K Wexler, Adam Pleister, Subha V Raman
Palpitations are a common problem in the ambulatory primary care setting, and cardiac causes are the most concerning etiology. Psychiatric illness, adverse effects of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and substance use should also be considered. Distinguishing cardiac from noncardiac causes is important because of the risk of sudden death in those with an underlying cardiac etiology. A thorough history and physical examination, followed by targeted diagnostic testing, can distinguish cardiac conditions from other causes of palpitations...
December 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428947/a-combination-of-the-aerosolized-ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-pioglitazone-and-a-synthetic-surfactant-protein-b-peptide-mimic-prevents-hyperoxia-induced-neonatal-lung-injury-in-rats
#10
Reiko Sakurai, Cindy Lee, Humphrey Shen, Alan J Waring, Frans J Walther, Virender K Rehan
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in perinatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants has not decreased. Postnatal surfactant therapy provides symptomatic relief from respiratory distress syndrome, but does not translate into a reduction in BPD. Therefore, the search for effective interventions to prevent BPD continues. OBJECTIVES: Since PPAR-γ agonists have been demonstrated to promote neonatal lung maturation and injury repair, we hypothesized that a formulation of a PPAR-γ agonist, pioglitazone (PGZ) and a synthetic lung surfactant (a surfactant protein B peptide mimic, B-YL) combined would stimulate lung maturation and block hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury more effectively than either modality alone...
February 9, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411531/aspirin-and-clopidogrel-high-on-treatment-platelet-reactivity-and-genetic-predictors-in-peripheral-arterial-disease
#11
Khung-Keong Yeo, Ehrin J Armstrong, Javier E López, Debbie C Chen, Gregory G Westin, Chin-Shang Li, David Anderson, Amy Hua, Anil Singapuri, Ezra A Amsterdam, Nipavan Chiamvimonvat, John R Laird
OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to examine the prevalence and genetic predictors of aspirin and clopidogrel high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HoTPR), and associated adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). BACKGROUND: The association of aspirin and clopidogrel HoTPR with outcomes in PAD remains unclear. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of patients with angiographically documented PAD involving carotid and lower extremity arteries...
February 7, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410448/intestinal-microbiota-development-and-gestational-age-in-preterm-neonates
#12
Katri Korpela, Elin W Blakstad, Sissel J Moltu, Kenneth Strømmen, Britt Nakstad, Arild E Rønnestad, Kristin Brække, Per O Iversen, Christian A Drevon, Willem de Vos
The intestinal microbiota is an important contributor to the health of preterm infants, and may be destabilized by a number of environmental factors and treatment modalities. How to promote the development of a healthy microbiota in preterm infants is largely unknown. We collected fecal samples from 45 breastfed preterm very low birth weight (birth weight < 1500 g) infants from birth until 60 days postnatal age to characterize the intestinal microbiota development during the first weeks of life in preterm infants...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407429/concurrent-validity-between-instruments-of-assessment-of-motor-development-in-infants-exposed-to-hiv
#13
Cristhina Bonilha Huster Siegle, Cristina Dos Santos Cardoso de Sá
BACKGROUND: Exposure to HIV during pregnancy is a risks to development. Exposed child should have assessed its development since birth. Alberta Infant Motor Scale is a tool which assess gross motor skills, with easy application and low cost. Up to now, this scale had not proven its validity for the population exposed to HIV. It's necessary to compare its with a gold standard tool, Bayley scale, which assess gross and fine motor skills, has a high cost and longer application time required...
February 1, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396929/is-less-noise-light-and-parental-caregiver-stress-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-better-for-neonates
#14
Rohini Venkataraman, Majeeda Kamaluddeen, Harish Amin, Abhay Lodha
In utero sensory stimuli and interaction with the environment strongly influence early phases of fetal and infant development. Extremely premature infants are subjected to noxious procedures and routine monitoring, in addition to exposure to excessive light and noise, which disturb the natural sleep cycle and induce stress. Non-invasive ventilation, measures to prevent sepsis, and human milk feeding improve short-term and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants. To preserve brain function, and to improve quality of life and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes, the focus now is on the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment and its impact on the infant during hospital stay...
January 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392729/umbilical-cannulation-optimizes-circuit-flows-in-premature-lambs-supported-by-the-extra-uterine-environment-for-neonatal-development-extend
#15
M A Hornick, M G Davey, E A Partridge, A Y Mejaddam, P E McGovern, A M Olive, G Hwang, J Kim, O Castillo, K Young, J Han, S Zhao, J T Connelly, K C Dysart, J Rychik, W H Peranteau, A W Flake
EXTEND (EXTra-uterine Environment for Neonatal Development) is a novel system that promotes physiologic development by maintaining the premature lamb in a sterile fluid environment and providing gas exchange via a pumpless arteriovenous oxygenator circuit. During the development of EXTEND, different cannulation strategies evolved with the aim to improve circuit flow. This study examines how different cannulation strategies affect EXTEND circuit hemodynamics in extreme premature lambs. 17 premature lambs were cannulated at gestational ages 105-117 days (term 145-150 days) and supported on EXTEND for up to 4 weeks...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381192/brainstem-auditory-abnormality-in-extremely-premature-babies-and-the-impact-of-neonatal-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#16
Cui Wang, Ze Dong Jiang
INTRODUCTION: Extremely premature babies, particularly those who have neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), are at risk of brain damage and neurodevelopmental impairment. This study aimed to examine functional status of the brainstem auditory pathway in extremely premature babies and assess the impact of BPD on the function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Brainstem auditory evoked response was studied at term in babies born at 27 or less weeks of gestation with or without neonatal BPD...
January 30, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374753/xeroderma-pigmentosum-facts-and-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Janin Lehmann, Christina Seebode, Marie Christine Martens, Steffen Emmert
Ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA lesions are almost exclusively removed by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, which is essential for prevention of skin cancer development. Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are extremely sun sensitive due to a genetic defect in components of the NER cascade. They present with first signs of premature skin aging at an early age, with a considerably increased risk of developing UV-induced skin cancer. XP belongs to the group of DNA repair defective disorders that are mainly diagnosed in the clinic and in hindsight confirmed at the molecular level...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374304/differences-in-trait-impulsivity-do-not-bias-the-response-to-pharmacological-drug-challenge-in-the-rat-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#18
Rebecca L Barlow, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
RATIONALE: Maladaptive impulsivity is symptomatic of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance abuse disorders; paradigms designed to assess the underlying neurobiology of this behavior are essential for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Various models may be used to assess impulsivity as measured by the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), including variable inter-trial interval (ITI) sessions, the selection of extreme high and low impulsivity phenotypes from a large outbred population of rats, as well as pharmacological challenges...
January 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369374/fragile-lives-with-fragile-rights-justice-for-babies-born-at-the-limit-of-viability
#19
Manya J Hendriks, John D Lantos
There is an inconsistency in the ways that doctors make clinical decisions regarding the treatment of babies born extremely prematurely. Many experts now recommend that clinical decisions about the treatment of such babies be individualized and consider many different factors. Nevertheless, many policies and practices throughout Europe and North America still appear to base decisions on gestational age alone or on gestational age as the primary factor that determines whether doctors recommend or even offer life-sustaining neonatal intensive care treatment...
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360522/on-earth-there-would-be-a-number-of-fundamental-kinds-of-primary-cells-cellular-domains-greater-than-or-equal-to-four
#20
Massimo Di Giulio
In the studies regarding the deep nodes of the tree of life, there is an assumption that might be false. Usually, it is assumed that these nodes - that is to say, those for example regarding the ancestors of bacteria and archaea - are believed to be completely evolved cells and not protocells. In other words, in these studies, it is rarely stressed that, on the contrary, these nodes might correspond to evolutionary stages of premature cells, namely, progenotes. This observation has extremely relevant consequences...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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