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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667441/long-term-consumption-of-western-diet-contributes-to-endothelial-dysfunction-and-aortic-remodeling-in-rats-implication-of-rho-kinase-signaling
#1
Rania A Elrashidy, Jing Zhang, Guiming Liu
Western diet (WD), rich in saturated fat and sugars, has become a risk factor for obesity and metabolic syndrome, however, its effect on endothelial function and vascular remodeling is not fully elucidated. Recent evidence suggests cross-talk between Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway and cardiovascular system. We aimed to investigate the effect of WD on aortic remodeling and the contribution of ROCK signaling. Eight week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either standard chow diet (SD) or high fructose/ high-fat diet, typically as in WD...
April 18, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664676/a-mathematical-analysis-of-adaptations-to-the-metabolic-fate-of-fructose-in-essential-fructosuria-subjects
#2
R J Allen, Cynthia J Musante
Fructose is a major component of Western diets and is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In response to an oral challenge, the majority of fructose is cleared during "first-pass" liver metabolism, primarily via phosphorylation by ketohexokinase (KHK). A rare benign genetic deficiency in KHK, called essential fructosuria (EF), leads to altered fructose metabolism. The only reported symptom of EF is the appearance of fructose in the urine following either oral or intravenous fructose administration...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664675/knockout-of-glucose-transporter-glut6-has-minimal-effects-on-whole-body-metabolic-physiology-in-mice
#3
Frances L Byrne, Ellen M Olzomer, Robert Brink, Kyle L Hoehn
Glucose transporter 6 (GLUT6) is a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family. GLUT6 is up-regulated in several cancers, but is not widely expressed in normal tissues. Previous studies have shown that GLUT6 knockdown kills endometrial cancer cells that express elevated levels of the protein. However, whether GLUT6 represents a viable anti-cancer drug target is unclear because the role of GLUT6 in normal metabolic physiology is unknown. Herein we generated GLUT6 knockout mice to determine how loss of GLUT6 affected whole body glucose homeostasis and metabolic physiology...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664631/cereal-fiber-ameliorates-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-induced-atherosclerosis-by-modulating-nlrp3-inflammasome-pathway-in-apoe-mice
#4
Ru Zhang, Shufen Han, Zheng Zhang, Weiguo Zhang, Jing Yang, Zhongxiao Wan, Liqiang Qin
Cereal fiber is associated with decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, whether cereal fiber modulates inflammatory response and improves atherosclerosis remains unclear. This study evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic effect of cereal fibers from oat or wheat bran and explored the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Male ApoE-/- mice were given a high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, HFC diet supplemented with 0.8% oat fiber or wheat bran fiber. After 18 weeks of feeding period, serum lipids and inflammatory cytokines were measured...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661202/exercise-training-improves-intramuscular-triglyceride-lipolysis-sensitivity-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#5
Kangeun Ko, Jinhee Woo, Ju Yong Bae, Hee Tae Roh, Yul Hyo Lee, Ki Ok Shin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether regular exercise training enhances intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) lipolysis sensitivity during consumption of a continued high-fat diet by exploring changes in biochemical factors activated by IMTG lipolysis. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into a high-fat diet group (HF) to induce obesity for 6 weeks and a control (CO) group. Thereafter, the HF group was divided into a high-fat diet group (HF) and high-fat diet + training group (HFT)...
April 16, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661051/association-between-inflammatory-potential-of-diet-and-odds-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-among-iranian-women
#6
Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Mahdieh Akhoundan, Parvin Mirmiran, Bahram Rashidkhani
BACKGROUND: The possible relationship between diet-related inflammation and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) requires further investigation, especially in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary inflammatory index (DII) scores and GDM in a case-control study conducted in Iran. METHODS: This study included 122 GDM cases and 266 controls hospitalized for acute non-neoplastic diseases. Cases were pregnant women aged 18-40 years, who visited major general hospitals in different regions of Tehran...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660722/determinants-of-mercury-contamination-in-viperine-snakes-natrix-maura-in-western-europe
#7
Jérémy Lemaire, Paco Bustamante, Anthony Olivier, Olivier Lourdais, Bruno Michaud, Alexandre Boissinot, Pedro Galán, François Brischoux
The effects of Hg contamination are presumably widespread across the components of aquatic ecosystems, but investigations have been mainly focused on freshwater fish, because this biota represents a major source of Hg for human populations. Yet, the possible bioaccumulation of Hg on other freshwater meso- and apex-predators (e.g., amphibians, reptiles) has been largely overlooked, especially in Western Europe. In this study, the determinants of Hg concentrations were assessed for the viperine snake (Natrix maura) across 6 populations (>130 individuals sampled in 2016 and 2017) in France and Spain...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660655/urolithin-a-shows-anti-atherosclerotic-activity-via-activation-of-class-b-scavenger-receptor-and-activation-of-nef2-signaling-pathway
#8
Guang-Hao Cui, Wei-Qian Chen, Zhen-Ya Shen
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the therapeutic potential of urothelin A in attenuating atherosclerotic lesion in wistar rat models and explore the role of Scavenger receptor-class B type I (SR-BI) and activation of Nrf-2 singling pathway. METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 48) were feed with high cholesterol diet supplemented with Vitamin D3 and subjected to balloon injury of the aorta. Three days prior to the aortal injury, rats (n = 16) were administered urothelin A (3 mg/kg/d; po)...
May 4, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659965/a-healthy-asian-a-posteriori-dietary-pattern-correlates-with-a-priori-dietary-patterns-and-is-associated-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-a-multiethnic-asian-population
#9
Clare Whitton, Salome A Rebello, Jeannette Lee, E Shyong Tai, Rob M van Dam
Background: Healthful dietary patterns are associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in Western populations. However, a consistent healthful dietary pattern across major Asian ethnic groups has yet to be identified. Objective: We aimed to identify a posteriori dietary patterns for Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnic groups in an urban Asian setting, compare these with a priori dietary patterns, and ascertain associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors including hypertension, obesity, and abnormal blood lipid concentrations...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659954/the-ossabaw-pig-is-a-suitable-translational-model-to-evaluate-dietary-patterns-and-coronary-artery-disease-risk
#10
Nirupa R Matthan, Gloria Solano-Aguilar, Huicui Meng, Stefania Lamon-Fava, Audrey Goldbaum, Maura E Walker, Saebyeol Jang, Sukla Lakshman, Aleksey Molokin, Yue Xie, Ethiopia Beshah, James Stanley, Joseph F Urban, Alice H Lichtenstein
Background: Animal models that mimic diet-induced human pathogenesis of chronic diseases are of increasing importance in preclinical studies. The Ossabaw pig is an established model for obesity-related metabolic disorders when fed extreme diets in caloric excess. Objective: To increase the translational nature of this model, we evaluated the effect of diets resembling 2 human dietary patterns, the Western diet (WD) and the Heart Healthy Diet (HHD), without or with atorvastatin (-S or +S) therapy, on cardiometabolic risk factors and atherosclerosis development...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659687/obesity-interventions-for-older-adults-diet-as-a-determinant-of-physical-function
#11
Connie W Bales, Kathryn N Porter Starr
Throughout the world, a high prevalence of obesity in older populations has created a new phenotype of frailty: the obese, functionally frail older adult. The convergence of the obesity epidemic with global graying will undoubtedly increase the prevalence of this concern. Barriers to treatment include ambiguities about the appropriate level of obesity that should trigger an intervention, due to age-related physiologic changes and a lack of consensus on specific criteria and cutoffs. Moreover, obesity interventions for this population have been limited by concerns about negative effects on lean mass, bone mineral density, and even mortality...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655945/long-term-westernized-diet-leads-to-region-specific-changes-in-brain-signaling-mechanisms
#12
Stine Normann Hansen, David Højland Ipsen, Anne Marie Schou-Pedersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg
Western diets, high in fat and energy, are associated with cognitive deficits in humans and animal models, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. This includes whether diet-induced dyslipidemia per se negatively impacts brain signaling. Here we investigate the effects of dyslipidemia induced by two high fat diets with or without high sucrose on hippocampal and frontal cortical oxidative stress, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and down-stream markers of synaptic plasticity, as well as alterations in monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655703/the-effects-of-wild-bitter-gourd-fruit-extracts-on-icam-1-expression-in-pulmonary-epithelial-cells-of-c57bl-6j-mice-and-microrna-221-222-knockout-mice-involvement-of-the-mir-221-222-pi3k-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#13
Hsin-Ching Sung, Chen-Wei Liu, Chien-Yu Hsiao, Shu-Rung Lin, I-Shing Yu, Shu-Wha Lin, Ming-Hsien Chiang, Chan-Jung Liang, Chi-Ming Pu, Yu-Chen Chen, Ming-Shian Lin, Yuh-Lien Chen
BACKGROUND: The extracts from wild bitter gourd fruit (WBGE) were reported to possess numerous pharmacological activities. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of WBGE on human lung epithelial cells and the underlying mechanisms have not been determined. PURPOSE: To evaluate the molecular basis of the effects of WBGE on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in alveolar epithelial (A549) cells, C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and microRNA (miR)-221/-222 knockout (KO) mice with or without tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α; 3 ng/ml) treatment...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655682/pristimerin-a-naturally-occurring-triterpenoid-attenuates-tumorigenesis-in-experimental-colitis-associated-colon-cancer
#14
Ju-Hyung Park, Jin-Kyung Kim
BACKGROUND: Pristimerin is a quinonemethide triterpenoid with anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal activity. However, the therapeutic role of pristimerin in colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis is unknown. PURPOSE: We sought to examine the therapeutic effects of pristimerin on colitis-associated colon cancer induced in mice using azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The goal was to identify the potential mechanism of action underlying the pharmacological activity of pristimerin...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655677/an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-of-a-4-herb-formula-on-the-management-of-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#15
Elaine Wat, Yanping Wang, Ken Chan, Hon Wai Law, Chi Man Koon, Kit Man Lau, Ping Chung Leung, Choly Yan, Clara Bik San Lau
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is the cluster of risk factors that leads to increased episodes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These risk factors include but are not limited to obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. Since the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome has multiple metabolic origins, there is no single treatment for it. Pharmacological approaches consist of separate drugs which target at individual risk factors which pose various side effects...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649537/anti-obesity-effects-and-changes-of-colonic-transcriptome-by-sodium-alginate-on-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#16
Xiong Wang, Fang Liu, Yuan Gao, Chang-Hu Xue, R W Li, Qing-Juan Tang
Human obesity and overweight, caused by accumulated of fat, is the most commonly phenomenon from all over the world, especially in Western countries and Chinese mainland during the past three decades. Sodium Alginate, a polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, has been proved its strong ability on body weight loss and anti-inflammatory response. However, no studies have been explored the effects of Sodium Alginate on colonic transcriptome, especially in obese individuals. Therefore, the current study was designed to detect whether Sodium Alginate could remit obesity and ease chronic metabolism disease through strengthening the bio-functionality of the lower intestine, particularly in colon...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648969/lactobacillus-curvatus-kfp419-and-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-subsp-mesenteroides-kdk411-isolated-from-kimchi-ameliorate-hypercholesterolemia-in-rats
#17
Min Young Park, Jonggun Kim, Saehun Kim, Kwang-Youn Whang
Western-style diets increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases. It is suggested that the risk could be prevented by lowering cholesterol concentrations in blood. In the present study, hypocholesterolemic effects of the probiotics isolated from kimchi (Lactobacillus curvatus KFP419, Leuconostoc paramesenteroides KJP421, and Leuconostoc mesenteroide subsp. mesenteroides KDK411) were investigated in hypercholesterolemia-induced rats. There was no difference in growth performance between the rats fed high cholesterol diet (HCD) and normal diet (ND)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645002/proteomics-analysis-reveals-a-potential-new-target-protein-for-the-lipid-lowering-effect-of-berberine8998
#18
Cheng-Yin Yu, Gang-Yi Liu, Xiao-Hui Liu, Yu-Zhou Gui, Hai-Ming Liu, Hong-Chao Zheng, Darek C Gorecki, Asmita V Patel, Chen Yu, Yi-Ping Wang
Berberine8998 is a newly synthesized berberine derivative with better lipid-lowering activity and improved absorption. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of berberine8998 on serum cholesterol and lipid levels in vivo and to examine the mechanisms involved. Hamsters on high-fat diet (HFD) were administered berberine or berberine8998 (50 mg·kg-1 ·d-1 , ig) for 3 weeks. Berberine8998 administration significantly lowered the total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels in HFD hamsters...
April 12, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644959/dietary-patterns-within-educational-groups-and-their-association-with-chd-and-stroke-in-the-european-prospective-investigation-into-cancer-and-nutrition-netherlands-cohort
#19
Sander Biesbroek, Mirjam C Kneepkens, Saskia W van den Berg, Heidi P Fransen, Joline W Beulens, Petra H M Peeters, Jolanda M A Boer
Higher-educated people often have healthier diets, but it is unclear whether specific dietary patterns exist within educational groups. We therefore aimed to derive dietary patterns in the total population and by educational level and to investigate whether these patterns differed in their composition and associations with the incidence of fatal and non-fatal CHD and stroke. Patterns were derived using principal components analysis in 36 418 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort...
April 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643920/mir-33-inhibition-attenuates-the-effect-of-liver-x-receptor-agonist-t0901317-on-expression-of-liver-x-receptor-alpha-in-mice-liver
#20
Abbas Mohammadi, Hossein Fallah, Beydolah Shahouzehi, Hamid Najafipour
BACKGROUND: microRNAs play pivotal roles in metabolism and other aspects of cell biology. microRNA-33 and liver X receptor (LXR) affect lipid metabolism and cholesterol trafficking. In this study, we evaluated effects of co-administration of miR-33 inhibitor and LXR activator on LXR-α and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression in mice liver. METHODS: Twenty-four mice were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 mice received standard chow diet without any treatment, group 2 received 30 mg/kg/48 hour LXR agonist (T0901317), group 3 received 1 mg/kg/48 hour in vivo locked nucleic acids (LNA) anti-miR-33 and group 4 received both T0901317 and in vivo LNA anti-miR-33...
November 2017: ARYA Atherosclerosis
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