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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097087/identification-of-the-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-signalling-pathway-by-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-rat-condylar-cartilage
#1
Liting Jiang, Yinyin Xie, Li Wei, Qi Zhou, Xing Shen, Xinquan Jiang, Yiming Gao
Angiogenesis mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play an important role in regulating cartilage remodelling and endochondral ossification. However, the details of how VEGF signalling mechanisms affect condyle remodelling in response to alterations in functional loading remains unclear. To explore this, eighty 16-day-old male SD rats were divided into two equal groups which were fed either a soft/powdery diet or a hard diet for 4 weeks; the stiffness of the diet results in alteration of mastication force and hence temporomandibular joint (TMJ) development...
January 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096123/current-evidence-on-the-association-of-dietary-patterns-and-bone-health-a-scoping-review
#2
REVIEW
Elham Z Movassagh, Hassan Vatanparast
Nutrition is an important modifiable factor that affects bone health. Diet is a complex mixture of nutrients and foods that correlate or interact with each other. Dietary pattern approaches take into account contributions from various aspects of diet. Findings from dietary pattern studies could complement those from single-nutrient and food studies on bone health. In this study we aimed to conduct a scoping review of the literature that assessed the impact of dietary patterns (derived with the use of both a priori and data-driven approaches) on bone outcomes, including bone mineral status, bone biomarkers, osteoporosis, and fracture risk...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095854/the-effects-of-detraining-and-training-on-adipose-tissue-lipid-droplet-in-obese-mice-after-chronic-high-fat-diet
#3
Ju Yong Bae, Jinhee Woo, Hee Tae Roh, Yul Hyo Lee, Kangeun Ko, Sunghwun Kang, Ki Ok Shin
BACKGROUND: It is well known that exercise promotes lipolysis by stimulating the lipid droplet (LD) signaling pathway. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the effect of detraining with high fat diet (HFD) and training effects after long-term HFD. Here, we investigated the effect of detraining and training on adipose tissue LD pathway in diet-induced obese mice after continuous HFD. METHODS: Seventy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into a Normal diet + Sedentary group (ND, n = 10) or a High-fat diet + Sedentary group (HF, n = 50); in the HF group, obesity was induced by a 45% fat chow for six weeks...
January 17, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094890/three-months-of-western-diet-induces-small-intestinal-mucosa-alteration-in-tlr-ko-mice
#4
Claudia Sardi, Patrizia Luchini, Andrea Emanuelli, Amedeo Giannoni, Elisa Martini, Lucia M Manara, Lucia Sfondrini, Marinos Kallikourdis, Michele Sommariva, Cristiano Rumio
Several studies support the role of Western-style diet (WD) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Toll-like receptors/NOD-like receptors (TLRs/NLRs) are important to maintain a healthy epithelium as well as inducing inflammation. Given that dietary factors influence IBD development, that epithelial dysfunction is thought to be involved in initiating intestinal inflammation and that TLR-NLR are involved in maintenance of the functionality of intestinal epithelium as well as in regulating inflammation, we decided to examine the role of TLR signals in the triggering events that lead to alteration of the small intestinal epithelium associated to consumption of WD...
January 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092399/association-of-dietary-patterns-with-global-and-domain-specific-cognitive-decline-in-chinese-elderly
#5
Yen-Ching Chen, Chien-Cheng Jung, Jen-Hau Chen, Jeng-Min Chiou, Ta-Fu Chen, Ya-Fang Chen, Sung-Chun Tang, Shin-Joe Yeh, Meei-Shyuan Lee
BACKGROUND: Significant differences exist between eastern and western diets, and the way in which Chinese dietary intake relates to specific cognitive domains remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between dietary patterns (DPs) and cognitive decline in Chinese elderly. SETTING: Participants were recruited from the elderly health checkup program of a teaching hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 475 elders (age ≥65) were included in this prospective cohort study...
January 16, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090706/western-blot-analysis-of-sera-from-dogs-with-suspected-food-allergy
#6
Claude Favrot, Monika Linek, Jacques Fontaine, Luc Beco, Ana Rostaher, Nina Fischer, Nicolas Couturier, Sandrine Jacquenet, Bernard E Bihain
BACKGROUND: Food allergy is often suspected in dogs with clinical signs of atopic dermatitis. This diagnosis is confirmed with an elimination diet and a subsequent challenge with regular food. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of food allergy in dogs are unreliable and/or technically difficult. Cyno-DIAL(®) is a Western blot method that might assist with the selection of an appropriate elimination diet. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of Cyno-DIAL(®) for the selection of an elimination diet and diagnosis of food allergy...
January 16, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089395/royal-jelly-ameliorates-diet-induced-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance-by-promoting-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-in-mice
#7
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Ryuji Kaede, Kazuki Nagaya, Julia Aoyama, Mana Saito, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Kazuhiro Kimura, Akira Terao
INTRODUCTION: Identification of thermogenic food ingredients is potentially a useful strategy for the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders. It has been reported that royal jelly (RJ) supplementation improves insulin sensitivity; however, its impacts on energy expenditure and adiposity remain elusive. We investigated anti-obesity effects of RJ supplementation and their relation to physical activity levels and thermogenic capacities of brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
January 11, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088959/-effect-of-exendin-4-on-lipid-deposition-in-skeletal-muscle-of-diet-induced-obese-mice-and-its-underlying-mechanism
#8
H Y Cao, F Xu, Z L Chen, B S Lin, X B Zheng, S H Yuan, H Liang, J P Weng
Objective: To investigate the effect of exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, on reducing lipid deposition and improving insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and the underlying mechanisms in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: Twelve male C57BL/6J mice were challenged with HFD for 12 weeks to induce obesity and then randomly divided into two groups: exendin-4 group (intraperitoneal injection of 24 nmol·kg(-1)·d(-1) exendin-4 for 4 weeks) and HFD group (intraperitoneal injection of normal saline for 4 weeks), with 6 mice in each group...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088658/exposure-to-chronic-early-life-stress-lastingly-alters-the-adipose-tissue-the-leptin-system-and-changes-the-vulnerability-to-western-style-diet-later-in-life-in-mice
#9
K Y Yam, E F G Naninck, M R Abbink, S E la Fleur, L Schipper, J C van den Beukel, A Grefhorst, A Oosting, E M van der Beek, P J Lucassen, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline in adulthood. Interestingly, this is often comorbid with metabolic disorders, such as obesity. However, it is unclear whether ES leads to lasting metabolic changes and to what extent this is associated with the ES-induced cognitive impairments. Here, we used an established chronic ES mouse model (from postnatal day (P) 2 to P9) to investigate the short- and long-term effects of ES exposure on parameters of the adipose tissue and the leptin system (i...
December 23, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088654/transcriptional-response-of-skeletal-muscle-to-a-low-protein-perinatal-diet-in-rat-offspring-at-different-ages-the-role-of-key-enzymes-of-glucose-fatty-acid-oxidation
#10
José Luiz de Brito Alves, Ana Elisa Toscano, João Henrique da Costa-Silva, Hubert Vidal, Carol Góis Leandro, Luciano Pirola
Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue during development with distinctive acute and chronic response to maternal protein restriction. This study evaluated gene and protein expression of key-enzymes of glycolytic pathway (HK2, PFK, PDK4 and CS), and fatty acid oxidation (CPT1 and β-HAD) of two different types of skeletal muscle [soleus and extensor digitorium longus (EDL)] from offspring rats at 30 and 90 days of age, exposed to maternal isoenergetic low protein diet throughout gestation and lactation. Pups from dams fed 17% protein diet (n=5, normal protein, Np), and low protein pups from dams fed 8% casein diet (low protein, Lp, n=5) were evaluated...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087520/atheroprotective-vaccination-with-mhc-ii-restricted-apob-peptides-induces-peritoneal-il-10-producing-cd4-t-cells
#11
Takayuki Kimura, Kevin Tse, Sara McArdle, Teresa Gerhardt, Jacqueline Miller, Zbigniew Mikulski, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Dennis Wolf, Klaus Ley
Although immunization with MHC class II-restricted ApoB peptides has been shown to be atheroprotective, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated CD4(+) T cell populations in immunized atherosclerotic mice. Peptides (16-mers) from mouse ApoB, the core protein of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were screened for binding to I-A(b) by computer prediction and confirmed by radiolabeled peptide competition. Three new peptides, P101 (FGKQGFFPDSVNKALY, 5.5 nM IC50), P102 (TLYALSHAVNSYFDVD, 6.8 nM), and P103 (LYYKEDKTSLSASAAS, 95 nM) were tested in an atherosclerosis model (Apoe(-/-) mice on western diet)...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087518/cardiovascular-function-in-male-and-female-jcr-la-cp-rats-effect-of-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet
#12
Ian Hunter, Amanda Soler, Gregory Joseph, Brenda Hutcheson, Chastity Bradford, Frank Zhang, Barry J Potter, Spencer D Proctor, Petra Rocic
30% of the world population is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. High fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS, Western diet) correlates with metabolic syndrome prevalence. We characterized effects of the HF/HS diet on vascular (arterial stiffness, vasoreactivity, coronary collateral development) and cardiac (echocardiography) function, oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (JCR). Furthermore, we determined whether male vs. female animals were affected differentially by the Western diet...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081181/aronia-melanocarpa-extract-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-through-ppar%C3%AE-2-downregulation
#13
Chung-Hwa Park, Jung-Hee Kim, Eun Byul Lee, Wonhee Hur, Oh-Joo Kwon, Hyoung-Jin Park, Seung Kew Yoon
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Studies have demonstrated that anthocyanin-rich foods may improve hyperlipidemia and ameliorate hepatic steatosis. Here, effects of Aronia melanocarpa (AM), known to be rich of anthocyanins, on hepatic lipid metabolism and adipogenic genes were determined. AM was treated to C57BL/6N mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) or to FL83B cells treated with free fatty acid (FFA). Changes in levels of lipids, enzymes and hormones were observed, and expressions of adipogenic genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were detected by PCR, Western blotting and luciferase assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077422/antxr2-knock-out-does-not-result-in-the-development-of-hypertension-in-rats
#14
Xiaoyan Liu, Wen Yuan, Jing Li, Lei Yang, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND: Our recent genetic study as well as robust evidences reported by previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have indicated that the single nucleotide polymorphism rs16998073, located near gene anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2), was significantly associated with hypertension in Asians and Europeans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ANTXR2 is the causal gene of hypertension at the 4q21 locus using an ANTXR2 knock-out model. METHODS: Relative expression of ANTXR2 in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis...
February 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074253/c-abl-inhibition-mitigates-diet-induced-obesity-through-improving-insulin-sensitivity-of-subcutaneous-fat-in-mice
#15
Rong Wu, Jian-Guang Sun, Ji-Qiu Wang, Binhua Li, Qingsong Liu, Guang Ning, Wanzhu Jin, Zengqiang Yuan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: High-energy diets are among the main causes of the global epidemic of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms of high-energy-diet-induced metabolic disorders are complex and largely unknown. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl plays an important role in adipogenesis in vitro but its role in vivo in the regulation of metabolism is still elusive. Hence, we sought to address the role of c-Abl in diet-induced obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance...
January 10, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073954/gene-obesogenic-environment-interactions-in-the-uk-biobank-study
#16
Jessica Tyrrell, Andrew R Wood, Ryan M Ames, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Robin N Beaumont, Samuel E Jones, Marcus A Tuke, Katherine S Ruth, Rachel M Freathy, George Davey Smith, Stéphane Joost, Idris Guessous, Anna Murray, David P Strachan, Zoltán Kutalik, Michael N Weedon, Timothy M Frayling
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that modern obesogenic environments accentuate the genetic risk of obesity. However, these studies have proven controversial as to which, if any, measures of the environment accentuate genetic susceptibility to high body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We used up to 120 000 adults from the UK Biobank study to test the hypothesis that high-risk obesogenic environments and behaviours accentuate genetic susceptibility to obesity...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070639/effects-of-a-diet-rich-in-arabinoxylan-and-resistant-starch-compared-with-a-diet-rich-in-refined-carbohydrates-on-postprandial-metabolism-and-features-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Anne Grethe Schioldan, Søren Gregersen, Stine Hald, Ann Bjørnshave, Mette Bohl, Bolette Hartmann, Jens Juul Holst, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Kjeld Hermansen
PURPOSE: Low intake of dietary fibre is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Dyslipidaemia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Knowledge of the impact of dietary fibres on postprandial lipaemia is, however, sparse. This study aimed in subjects with metabolic syndrome to assess the impact on postprandial lipaemia and features of the metabolic syndrome of a healthy carbohydrate diet (HCD) rich in cereal fibre, arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared to a refined-carbohydrate western-style diet (WSD)...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#18
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070463/impact-of-birth-weight-and-postnatal-diet-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-young-adult-guinea-pigs
#19
Kait Al, Ousseynou Sarr, Kristyn Dunlop, Gregory B Gloor, Gregor Reid, Jeremy Burton, Timothy R H Regnault
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is essential to metabolic health, and the prevalence of the Western diet (WD) high in fat and sugar is increasing, with evidence highlighting a negative interaction between the GIT and WD, resulting in liver dysfunction. Additionally, an adverse in utero environment such as placental insufficiency resulting in low birth weight (LBW) offspring, contributes to an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as fatty liver infiltration and liver dysfunction in later life...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070283/spatial-and-temporal-avoidance-of-risk-within-a-large-carnivore-guild
#20
Egil Dröge, Scott Creel, Matthew S Becker, Jassiel M'soka
Within a large carnivore guild, subordinate competitors (African wild dog, Lycaon pictus, and cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus) might reduce the limiting effects of dominant competitors (lion, Panthera leo, and spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta) by avoiding them in space, in time, or through patterns of prey selection. Understanding how these competitors cope with one other can inform strategies for their conservation. We tested how mechanisms of niche partitioning promote coexistence by quantifying patterns of prey selection and the use of space and time by all members of the large carnivore guild within Liuwa Plain National Park in western Zambia...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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