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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822685/28-homocastasterone-down-regulates-blood-glucose-cholesterol-triglycerides-srebp1c-and-activates-lxr-expression-in-normal-diabetic-male-rat
#1
Velan Athithan, Kotteazeth Srikumar
Plant steroids are being recognized as influential secondary bio factors, assimilating in animal tissues through diet and affecting their cellular metabolic function to varying degree. They modulate catalytic and signaling functions in mammalian cells, affecting cellular homeostasis. The effect of phyto brassinosteroid ketoisoform 28-homocastasterone (28-HC), was assessed for its influence on blood glucose, plasma lipid and selective signal marker levels in normal and diabetic male wistar rat models. A 15 day oral feed regimen employing the experimental rat, noted that circulating blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride level in diabetic rat were markedly reduced by this compound...
August 16, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822518/clinical-outcomes-of-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-who-underwent-ffr-evaluation-of-intermediate-coronary-lesions-coffrs-study
#2
Srinivasa Prasad, S Harikrishnan, G Sanjay, S P Abhilash, S Bijulal, M Krishna Kumar, Jaganmohan Tharakan, V K Ajit Kumar
BACKGROUND: We undertook this study to validate the impact of FFR-guided coronary interventions among Indian patients, which is not readily available as of date. Our patients differ from their western counterparts, both in terms of risk profile (younger, more metabolic syndrome, lipid rich diet) as well as their coronary size. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 282 patients with intermediate stenosis in their coronary arteries, who underwent FFR to assess the functional severity of the lesion...
July 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821316/obesity-and-fatty-liver-are-prevented-by-inhibition-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-both-female-and-male-mice
#3
Benjamin J Moyer, Itzel Y Rojas, Joanna S Kerley-Hamilton, Krishnamurthy V Nemani, Heidi W Trask, Carol S Ringelberg, Barjor Gimi, Eugene Demidenko, Craig R Tomlinson
Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) prevents Western diet-induced obesity and fatty liver in C57Bl/6J (B6) male mice. The AHR is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and T-cell differentiation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that AHR antagonism would also prevent obesity and fatty liver in female mice and that B6 mice (higher-affinity AHR) and congenic B6.D2 mice (lower-affinity AHR) would differentially respond to AHR inhibition. Female and male adult B6 and B6...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821276/inflammatory-demyelination-alters-subcortical-visual-circuits
#4
Sheila Espírito Santo Araújo, Henrique Rocha Mendonça, Natalie A Wheeler, Paula Campello-Costa, Kimberle M Jacobs, Flávia C A Gomes, Michael A Fox, Babette Fuss
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease classically associated with axonal damage and loss; more recently, however, synaptic changes have been recognized as additional contributing factors. An anatomical area commonly affected in MS is the visual pathway; yet, changes other than those associated with inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve, i.e., optic neuritis, have not been described in detail. METHODS: Adult mice were subjected to a diet containing cuprizone to mimic certain aspects of inflammatory demyelination as seen in MS...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818086/mediterranean-diet-folic-acid-and-neural-tube-defects
#5
REVIEW
Maximilian Fischer, Mauro Stronati, Marcello Lanari
The Mediterranean diet has been for a very long time the basis of food habits all over the countries of the Mediterranean basin, originally founded on rural models and low consumption of meat products and high-fat/high-processed foods. However, in the modern era, the traditional Mediterranean diet pattern is now progressively eroding due to the widespread dissemination of the Western-type economy, life-style, technology-driven culture, as well as the globalisation of food production, availability and consumption, with consequent homogenisation of food culture and behaviours...
August 17, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815701/lincrna-dyn-lrb2-2-upregulates-cholesterol-efflux-by-decreasing-tlr2-expression-in-macrophages
#6
Yongqiang Li, Shuxin Shen, Shoukun Ding, Lixia Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine whether lincRNA-DYNLRB2-2 could promote cholesterol efflux through regulating the expression of TLR2. METHODS: THP-1 and RAW264.7 cells were incubated with oxLDL for 48 h to induce the formation of foam cells, and ORO staining was performed and intracellular cholesterol contents were measured by HPLC assay. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Lentiviral vector LV-DYNLRB2-2 and lincRNA-DYNLRB2-2 siRNA was constructed to explore its potential role...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815354/nf-e2-related-factor-2-suppresses-intestinal-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smads-pathway
#7
Yadi Guan, Yue Tan, Weiyu Liu, Jun Yang, Dongxu Wang, Di Pan, Yan Sun, Changqing Zheng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of NF-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) on intestinal fibrosis. Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication of Crohn's disease; however, its mechanism of intestinal fibrosis is largely unclear. METHODS: BALB/c mice received 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid weekly via intrarectal injections to induce chronic fibrotic colitis. They also diet containing received 1% (w/w) tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), which is an agonist of Nrf2...
August 16, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814486/serum-ghrelin-is-associated-with-risk-of-colorectal-adenocarcinomas-in-the-atbc-study
#8
Gwen Murphy, Amanda J Cross, Sanford M Dawsey, Frank Z Stanczyk, Farin Kamangar, Stephanie J Weinstein, Philip R Taylor, Satu Männistö, Demetrius Albanes, Christian C Abnet, Neal D Freedman
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancers are the third most common cancers in women and men in the USA. While dietary and lifestyle factors such as Western diet, physical inactivity and obesity have been linked to an increased risk of this malignancy, the mechanisms for these associations are unclear. GI hormones, including ghrelin, are involved in energy balance by mediating appetite and metabolism; however, the association between ghrelin and colorectal cancer has not been studied. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the all-male Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of Finnish smokers (aged 50-69 years) to examine serum ghrelin concentration and colorectal cancer risk...
August 16, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814286/dietary-pattern-and-other-lifestyle-factors-as-potential-contributors-to-hypertension-prevalence-in-arusha-city-tanzania-a-population-based-descriptive-study
#9
L K Katalambula, D N Meyer, T Ngoma, J Buza, E Mpolya, A H Mtumwa, P Petrucka
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is increasing worldwide, disproportionately so in developing countries. Inadequate health care systems and adoption of unhealthy lifestyles have been linked to this emergent pattern. To better understand this trend, it is imperative we measure prevalence of hypertension, and examine specific risk factors, at a local level. This study provides a cross-sectional view of urban residents of Arusha City to determine prevalence and associated risk factors. METHODS: Blood pressure was measured using a digital sphygmomanometer...
August 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813474/binge-like-sucrose-consumption-reduces-the-dendritic-length-and-complexity-of-principal-neurons-in-the-adolescent-rat-basolateral-amygdala
#10
Masroor Shariff, Paul Klenowski, Michael Morgan, Omkar Patkar, Erica Mu, Mark Bellingham, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
A compelling body of evidence suggests that the worldwide obesity epidemic is underpinned by excessive sugar consumption, typified by the modern western diet. Furthermore, evidence is beginning to emerge of maladaptive changes in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain in relation to excess sugar consumption that highlights the importance of examining this neural circuitry in an attempt to understand and subsequently mitigate the associated morbidities with obesity. While the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been shown to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, it has also been shown to play an important role in affective and motivated behaviours and has been shown to undergo maladaptive changes in response to drugs of abuse and stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812326/effect-of-dietary-components-from-antarctic-krill-on-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#11
Cinzia Parolini, Bodil Bjorndal, Marco Busnelli, Stefano Manzini, Giulia S Ganzetti, Federica Dellera, Marie Ramsvik, Inge Bruheim, Rolf Kristian Berge, Giulia Chiesa
SCOPE: Antarctic krill is a great source of n-3 fatty acids and high-quality proteins. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Antarctic krill components on plasma lipids and atherosclerosis development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty apoEKO mice were divided into four groups and fed Western diet (CONTROL) or Western-like diets, differing for protein or fat content. Specifically, casein or fat in CONTROL was partially replaced by krill proteins (PRO), krill oil (KRILL OIL), or both (KRILL OIL+PRO)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811705/colorectal-cancer-screening-an-updated-review-of-the-available-options
#12
REVIEW
Iyad A Issa, Malak Noureddine
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, colon cancer incidence and mortality is declining over the past decade owing to adoption of effective screening programs. Nevertheless, in some parts of the world, CRC incidence and mortality remain on the rise, likely due to factors including "westernized" diet, lifestyle, and lack of health-care infrastructure and resources. Participation and adherence to different national screening programs remain obstacles limiting the achievement of screening goals...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811359/exercise-training-prevents-skeletal-muscle-plasma-membrane-cholesterol-accumulation-cortical-actin-filament-loss-and-insulin-resistance-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-western-style-high-fat-diet
#13
Ashley G Ambery, Lixuan Tackett, Brent A Penque, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf
Insulin action and glucose disposal are enhanced by exercise, yet the mechanisms involved remain imperfectly understood. While the causes of skeletal muscle insulin resistance also remain poorly understood, new evidence suggest excess plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol may contribute by damaging the cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) structure essential for GLUT4 glucose transporter redistribution to the PM upon insulin stimulation. Here, we investigated whether PM cholesterol toxicity was mitigated by exercise...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808878/role-of-intestinal-microbiome-in-american-ginseng-mediated-colon-cancer-protection-in-high-fat-diet-fed-aom-dss-mice
#14
C-Z Wang, W-H Huang, C-F Zhang, J-Y Wan, Y Wang, C Yu, S Williams, T-C He, W Du, M W Musch, E B Chang, C-S Yuan
OBJECTIVE: Chronic intestinal inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and development. Diets that are rich in Western style fats have been shown to promote CRC. This study was conducted to investigate the role of intestinal microbiome in American ginseng-mediated CRC chemoprevention in a mouse model. The population and diversity of enteric microbiome were evaluated after the ginseng treatment. METHODS: Using an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced gut inflammation and tumorigenesis mouse model, the effects of oral American ginseng on high fat diet-associated enteric pathology were determined...
August 14, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808874/postpartum-glucose-intolerance-an-updated-overview
#15
REVIEW
Ida Pastore, Eusebio Chiefari, Raffaella Vero, Antonio Brunetti
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has increased worldwide over the past three decades, as a consequence of the more westernized lifestyle, which is responsible for the increasing obesity rate in the modern adult's life. Concomitant with this increase there has been a gradual rise in the overall prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, a condition that strongly predisposes to overt diabetes later in life. Many women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus show glucose intolerance in the early postpartum period...
August 14, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805899/effects-of-forage-types-on-digestibility-methane-emissions-and-nitrogen-utilization-efficiency-in-two-genotypes-of-hill-ewes
#16
Y G Zhao, R Annett, T Yan
Thirty-six nonpregnant hill ewes (18 pure Scottish Blackface and 18 Swaledale × Scottish Blackface) aged 18 mo and weighing 48 ± 4.8 kg were allocated to 3 forage treatments balanced for genotype and BW. Each genotype was offered 3 forages (pelleted ryegrass, fresh lowland grass, and fresh hill grass) ad libitum with 6 ewes for each of the 6 genotype × diet combination treatments. Pelleted ryegrass was sourced from a commercial supplier (Drygrass South Western Ltd, Burrington, UK). Fresh lowland grass was harvested daily in the morning from a third regrowth perennial ryegrass () sward...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805735/dietary-propolis-ameliorates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-and-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-rats-fed-a-western-diet
#17
Kai Wang, Xiaolu Jin, Mengmeng You, Wenli Tian, Richard K Le Leu, David L Topping, Michael A Conlon, Liming Wu, Fuliang Hu
Propolis is an important hive product and considered beneficial to health. However, evidence of its potential for improving gut health is still lacking. Here we use rats to examine whether dietary supplementation with propolis could be used as a therapy for ulcerative colitis. Rats were fed with a Western style diet alone (controls) or supplemented with different amounts of Chinese propolis (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) to examine effects on acute colitis induced by 3% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in drinking water...
August 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804612/effect-of-genistein-on-expression-of-pancreatic-sirt1-inflammatory-cytokines-and-histological-changes-in-ovariectomized-diabetic-rat
#18
Hadi Yousefi, Alireza Alihemmati, Pouran Karimi, Mohammad Reza Alipour, Parisa Habibi, Nasser Ahmadiasl
OBJECTIVES: Genistein is reported to have anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory functions, in particular, direct effects on β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of genistein on the pancreatic β-cells in ovariectomized diabetic rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty female rats were divided into four groups: sham, bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), OVX.D (OVX+diabetes) and OVX.D.G (OVX.D+genistein). After bilateral ovariectomy, rats in the diabetic groups were fed high-fat diet (HFD), ad libitum for 4 weeks, and then a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (30 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804559/microrna-1907-enhances-atherosclerosis-associated-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-by-suppressing-bcl-2
#19
Jin Zhao, Shu-Lin Ou, Wei-You Wang, Chang Yan, Lu-Xiang Chi
Injury and endothelial cell apoptosis are hall marks of atherosclerosis (AS). However, the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis remain ill-defined. Recent evidence of a role for microRNAs in AS-associated endothelial cell apoptosis encouraged us to address this question. Here, AS was developed in ApoE (-/-) mice supplied with a high-fat diet (HFD), compared to ApoE (-/-) mice supplied with a normal diet (ND). Mouse endothelial cells were isolated from the aortic arch using flow cytometry based on their expression of CD31...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804483/the-impact-of-western-diet-and-nutrients-on-the-microbiota-and-immune-response-at-mucosal-interfaces
#20
REVIEW
Donjete Statovci, Mònica Aguilera, John MacSharry, Silvia Melgar
Recent findings point toward diet having a major impact on human health. Diets can either affect the gut microbiota resulting in alterations in the host's physiological responses or by directly targeting the host response. The microbial community in the mammalian gut is a complex and dynamic system crucial for the development and maturation of both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Therefore, the complex interaction between available nutrients, the microbiota, and the immune system are central regulators in maintaining homeostasis and fighting against invading pathogens at mucosal sites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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