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Monoamine oxidase, drug users

Emma Beard, Lion Shahab, Damian M Cummings, Susan Michie, Robert West
A wide range of support is available to help smokers to quit and to aid attempts at harm reduction, including three first-line smoking cessation medications: nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion. Despite the efficacy of these, there is a continual need to diversify the range of medications so that the needs of tobacco users are met. This paper compares the first-line smoking cessation medications with (1) two variants of these existing products: new galenic formulations of varenicline and novel nicotine delivery devices; and (2) 24 alternative products: cytisine (novel outside Central and Eastern Europe), nortriptyline, other tricyclic antidepressants, electronic cigarettes, clonidine (an anxiolytic), other anxiolytics (e...
October 2016: CNS Drugs
Line Marie Nielsen, Niels Bjerre Holm, Sebastian Leth-Petersen, Jesper Langgaard Kristensen, Lars Olsen, Kristian Linnet
The dimethoxyphenyl-N-((2-methoxyphenyl)methyl)ethanamine (NBOMe) compounds are potent serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonists and have recently been subject to recreational use due to their hallucinogenic effects. Use of NBOMe compounds has been known since 2011, and several non-fatal and fatal intoxication cases have been reported in the scientific literature. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the different cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) involved in the metabolism of 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25I-NBOMe) and 2-[[2-(4-iodo-2,5dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamino]methyl]phenol (25I-NBOH) and to characterize the metabolites...
July 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Marta Valle, Ana Elda Maqueda, Mireia Rabella, Aina Rodríguez-Pujadas, Rosa Maria Antonijoan, Sergio Romero, Joan Francesc Alonso, Miquel Àngel Mañanas, Steven Barker, Pablo Friedlander, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimentally. Here we wished to study the contribution of the 5-HT2A receptor to the neurophysiological and psychological effects of ayahuasca in humans...
July 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Connie Marras, Nathan Herrmann, Hadas D Fischer, Kinwah Fung, Andrea Gruneir, Paula A Rochon, Soham Rej, Simone Vigod, Dallas Seitz, Kenneth I Shulman
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis of an increased incidence of antiparkinson drug prescribing or Parkinson disease (PD) diagnostic codes after chronic lithium treatment compared with chronic valproic acid or antidepressant treatment among older adults. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using healthcare administrative databases in Ontario, Canada included 1,749 lithium users, 1,787 valproic acid users, and 285,154 other antidepressant users ≥ 66 years old having used the drug continuously in monotherapy for at least 1 year...
April 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Joaquim Soler, Matilde Elices, Alba Franquesa, Steven Barker, Pablo Friedlander, Amanda Feilding, Juan C Pascual, Jordi Riba
BACKGROUND: Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant tea used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. In the last two decades, its use has expanded worldwide. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties. Acute administration induces an introspective dream-like experience characterized by visions and autobiographic and emotional memories. Studies of long-term users have suggested its therapeutic potential, reporting that its use has helped individuals abandon the consumption of addictive drugs...
March 2016: Psychopharmacology
Aruna Prasopthum, Phisit Pouyfung, Songklod Sarapusit, Ekaruth Srisook, Pornpimol Rongnoparut
The human cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) and monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and MAO-B), catalyzing nicotine and dopamine metabolisms, respectively, are two therapeutic targets of nicotine dependence. Vernonia cinerea, a medicinal plant commonly used for treatment of diseases such as asthma and bronchitis, has been shown reducing tobacco dependence effect among tobacco users. In the present study, we found eight active compounds isolated from V. cinerea that comprise inhibitory activity toward CYP2A6 and MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes using activity-guided assays, with coumarin as substrate of CYP2A6 and kynuramine of MAOs...
April 2015: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Jordi Riba, Ethan H McIlhenny, José Carlos Bouso, Steven A Barker
N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a widely distributed plant alkaloid that displays partial agonist activity at the 5-HT2A receptor and induces intense psychedelic effects in humans when administered parenterally. However, self-administration studies have reported a total lack of activity following oral intake. This is thought to be due to extensive degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO). Despite increased use of DMT and DMT-containing preparations, such as the plant tea ayahuasca, the biotransformation of DMT in humans when administered alone is relatively unknown...
May 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
Magalie Paillet-Loilier, Alexandre Cesbron, Reynald Le Boisselier, Joanna Bourgine, Danièle Debruyne
Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone) have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation...
2014: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
You-Hong Li, Yu-Tao Xiang, Yun-Ai Su, Liang Shu, Xin Yu, Amy M Kilbourne, Gabor S Ungvari, Helen F K Chiu, Cui Ma, Gao-Hua Wang, Pei-Shen Bai, Xie-He Liu, Li-Zhong Sun, Jian-Guo Shi, Xian-Sheng Chen, Qi-Yi Mei, Ke-Qing Li, Tian-Mei Si
PURPOSE: There have been no data about long-term benzodiazepine (BZD) use and its correlates in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in China. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of long-term BZD use (more than three months) and its demographic and clinical correlates in Chinese patients with MDD. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 1,192 patients with MDD were examined in 10 mental health centers in China. Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and prescriptions for psychotropic drugs were recorded using a standardized form...
July 2014: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Antonio Verdejo-García, Natalia Albein-Urios, Esther Molina, Ana Ching-López, José M Martínez-González, Blanca Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Based on previous evidence of a MAOA gene*cocaine use interaction on orbitofrontal cortex volume attrition, we tested whether the MAOA low activity variant and cocaine use severity are interactively associated with impulsivity and behavioral indices of orbitofrontal dysfunction: emotion recognition and decision-making. METHODS: 72 cocaine dependent individuals and 52 non-drug using controls (including healthy individuals and problem gamblers) were genotyped for the MAOA gene and tested using the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, the Iowa Gambling Task and the Ekman's Facial Emotions Recognition Test...
November 1, 2013: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Kyoko Nagasawa, Kenji Kuwayama, Kenji Tsujikawa, Yuko T Iwata, Hiroyuki Inoue
The metabolites of 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B), a psychoactive drug with hallucinogenic activity, were investigated in a urine sample from a user of 2C-B. The urine sample was deconjugated enzymatically and the metabolites were recovered by liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after derivatization, and the results were used to identify and quantitate the metabolites. 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid was the most abundant metabolite of 2C-B in human urine and accounted for 73% of the total amount of detected metabolites, followed by 4-bromo-2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenylacetic acid (13%) and 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenylethyl alcohol (4...
January 2013: Journal of Forensic Sciences
José Carlos Bouso, Débora González, Sabela Fondevila, Marta Cutchet, Xavier Fernández, Paulo César Ribeiro Barbosa, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles, Wladimyr Sena Araújo, Manel J Barbanoj, Josep Maria Fábregas, Jordi Riba
Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage containing the serotonergic 5-HT(2A) agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting alkaloids (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine) that render it orally active. Ayahuasca ingestion is a central feature in several Brazilian syncretic churches that have expanded their activities to urban Brazil, Europe and North America. Members of these groups typically ingest ayahuasca at least twice per month. Prior research has shown that acute ayahuasca increases blood flow in prefrontal and temporal brain regions and that it elicits intense modifications in thought processes, perception and emotion...
2012: PloS One
Rafael G Dos Santos, Marta Valle, José Carlos Bouso, Josep F Nomdedéu, José Rodríguez-Espinosa, Ethan H McIlhenny, Steven A Barker, Manel J Barbanoj, Jordi Riba
Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea combining the 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting β-carboline alkaloids that render DMT orally active. The tea, obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, has traditionally been used for religious, ritual, and medicinal purposes by the indigenous peoples of the region. More recently, the syncretistic religious use of ayahuasca has expanded to the United States and Europe. Here we conducted a double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial to investigate the physiological impact of ayahuasca in terms of autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immunomodulatory effects...
December 2011: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
J L Pilgrim, D Gerostamoulos, N Woodford, Olaf H Drummer
The use of MDMA (ecstasy) in Australia is a widespread and growing problem, promoting acute toxicity and disease which can lead to premature death in users. We report four cases of fatal serotonin toxicity caused by the combination of MDMA and moclobemide, a reversible MAO-A inhibitor with potent serotonergic activity. Despite the highly reported toxicity of this drug combination, there are very few reports of fatalities attributed to a MDMA and moclobemide interaction. Pathology and toxicology reports, initial police reports and coroners' findings were examined to determine the circumstances of the deaths...
February 10, 2012: Forensic Science International
Swapna U Karkare, Sandipan Bhattacharjee, Pravin Kamble, Rajender Aparasu
BACKGROUND: Late-life depression is a common psychiatric disorder associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Depression is often under-detected and undertreated in elderly nursing home residents. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of antidepressant drug use and to identify the factors associated with its use among elderly nursing home residents. METHODS: The study involved the analysis of a nationally representative sample of prescription and resident files from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS)...
April 2011: American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy
Nelly Alia-Klein, Muhammad A Parvaz, Patricia A Woicik, Anna B Konova, Thomas Maloney, Elena Shumay, Ruiliang Wang, Frank Telang, Anat Biegon, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S Fowler, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow, Rita Z Goldstein
CONTEXT: Long-term cocaine use has been associated with structural deficits in brain regions having dopamine-receptive neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regulation present additional structural variability. OBJECTIVE: To examine variations in gray matter volume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the genotype of the monoamine oxidase A gene, MAOA, in men with cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy male controls...
March 2011: Archives of General Psychiatry
Kenneth I Shulman, Hadas D Fischer, Nathan Herrmann, Cindy Yan Huo, Geoffrey M Anderson, Paula A Rochon
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prescription pattern and safety profile for irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) in older adults over the past decade. METHOD: A population-based observational cohort study of older adults was conducted from January 1, 1997, to April 14, 2007, utilizing large administrative health care databases in Ontario, Canada. We examined the prevalence and incidence of irreversible MAOI use, as well as the frequency of coprescribing of MAOIs with contraindicated medications such as serotonergic and sympathomimetic drugs...
December 2009: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Kazuhiko Nakamura, Yoshimoto Sekine, Noriyoshi Takei, Yasuhide Iwata, Katsuaki Suzuki, Ayyappan Anitha, Toshiya Inada, Mutsuo Harano, Tokutaro Komiyama, Mitsuhiko Yamada, Nakao Iwata, Masaomi Iyo, Ichiro Sora, Norio Ozaki, Hiroshi Ujike, Norio Mori
Methamphetamine continues to be the most widely abused drug in Japan. Chronic methamphetamine users show psychiatric signs, including methamphetamine psychosis. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is one of the major enzymes responsible for the degradation of neurotransmitters. Abnormalities in MAO levels have been related to a wide range of psychiatric disorders. We examined whether or not the MAOA-u variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) has a functional polymorphism in methamphetamine psychosis and whether or not such a polymorphism is related to the prolongation of psychosis...
May 15, 2009: Neuroscience Letters
Małgorzata Kłys, Piotr Kowalski, Sebastian Rojek, Adam Gross
To our knowledge, the majority of evidence supporting the relationship between the serotonin syndrome and medications that effect 5HT is based on case reports. The justification for taking up this subject has been a fatal outcome of a 21 year-old female following an administration of toxic doses of moclobemide (MAOI) and venlafaxine (SNRI). As a result of complex toxicological investigations including antemortem and postmortem material, antemortem clinical observations and postmortem examinations, the cause of death was identified as overdose with antidepressants--moclobemide and venlafaxine--in the mechanism of the clinically fully developed severe toxic serotonin syndrome...
January 30, 2009: Forensic Science International
Ede Frecska
We have limited resources available for the treatment and prevention of violent behavior. The usefulness of the most commonly used medications, namely the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] agents for the above purpose is a debated issue in the psychiatric literature. The aim of this case report is to add an ethnopharmacological perspective to the management of human aggression. Particularly, attention is called to the potential prosocial effect of the Amazonian beverage, ayahuasca--a decoctum, which has been used traditionally for multiple medico-religious purposes by numerous indigenous groups of the Upper Amazon--and has been found to be useful in crisis intervention, achieving redemption, as well as eliciting cathartic feelings with moral content...
May 2008: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
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