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Monoamine oxidase, personality

Ramón Cacabelos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most important age-related neurodegenerative disorder in developed societies, after Alzheimer's disease, with a prevalence ranging from 41 per 100,000 in the fourth decade of life to over 1900 per 100,000 in people over 80 years of age. As a movement disorder, the PD phenotype is characterized by rigidity, resting tremor, and bradykinesia. Parkinson's disease -related neurodegeneration is likely to occur several decades before the onset of the motor symptoms. Potential risk factors include environmental toxins, drugs, pesticides, brain microtrauma, focal cerebrovascular damage, and genomic defects...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Martina Balestri, Raffaella Calati, Alessandro Serretti, Annette M Hartmann, Bettina Konte, Marion Friedl, Ina Giegling, Dan Rujescu
Serotonergic neurotransmission dysfunctions have been well documented in patients with suicidal behaviour. We investigated monoamine oxidase A (MAOA: rs2064070, rs6323, rs909525) and B (MAOB: rs1799836, rs2311013, rs2205655) genetic modulation of personality traits (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI) as endophenotype for suicidal behaviour. 108 suicide attempters and 286 healthy controls of German origin were screened. Among females, allelic analyses revealed associations between MAOA rs6323 A allele and higher Harm Avoidance in suicide attempters and MAOB rs2205655 A allele and higher Cooperativeness scores in healthy controls...
March 2017: Psychiatry Research
Lars Oreland, Gianvito Lagravinese, Simone Toffoletto, Kent W Nilsson, Jaanus Harro, C Robert Cloninger, Erika Comasco
Genetic and environmental interactive influences on predisposition to develop alcohol use disorder (AUD) account for the high heterogeneity among AUD patients and make research on the risk and resiliency factors complicated. Several attempts have been made to identify the genetic basis of AUD; however, only few genetic polymorphisms have consistently been associated with AUD. Intermediate phenotypes are expected to be in-between proxies of basic neuronal biological processes and nosological symptoms of AUD...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
Carmen Rodríguez Cerdeira, Elena Sánchez-Blanco, Beatriz Sánchez-Blanco, Jose Luis González-Cespón
Psychiatric evaluation presents a significant challenge because it conceptually integrates the input from multiple psychopathological approaches. Recent technological advances in the study of protein structure, function, and interactions have provided a breakthrough in the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders (MD), and have identified novel biomarkers to be used as indicators of normal and disease states or response to drug treatment. The investigation of biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, such as enzymes (catechol-O-methyl transferase and monoamine oxidases) or neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) and their receptors, particularly their involvement in neuroendocrine activity, brain structure, and function, and response to psychotropic drugs, should facilitate the diagnosis of MD...
March 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Ana Matošić, Srđan Marušić, Branka Vidrih, Ana Kovak-Mufić, Lipa Cicin-Šain
Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease...
March 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
Mario Masellis, Shannon Collinson, Natalie Freeman, Maria Tampakeras, Joseph Levy, Amir Tchelet, Eli Eyal, Elijahu Berkovich, Rom E Eliaz, Victor Abler, Iris Grossman, Cheryl Fitzer-Attas, Arun Tiwari, Michael R Hayden, James L Kennedy, Anthony E Lang, Jo Knight
The treatment of early Parkinson's disease with dopaminergic agents remains the mainstay of symptomatic therapy for this incurable neurodegenerative disorder. However, clinical responses to dopaminergic drugs vary substantially from person to person due to individual-, drug- and disease-related factors that may in part be genetically determined. Using clinical data and DNA samples ascertained through the largest placebo-controlled clinical trial of the monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, rasagiline (ClinicalTrials...
July 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Joaquim Soler, Matilde Elices, Juan C Pascual, Enrique Álvarez, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Pablo Friedlander, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B...
September 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Jaanus Harro, Lars Oreland
Monoamine oxidases, both MAO-A and MAO-B, have been implicated in personality traits and complex behaviour, including drug use. Findings supporting the involvement of MAO-A and MAO-B in shaping personality and in the development of strategies of making behavioural choices come from a variety of studies that have examined either prevalence of gene variants in clinical groups or population-derived samples, estimates of enzyme activity in blood or, by positron emission tomography, in the brain and, most recently, measurement of methylation of the gene...
August 1, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Nathan J Kolla, Katharine Dunlop, Jonathan Downar, Paul Links, R Michael Bagby, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle, Fawn Rasquinha, Alexander I Simpson, Jeffrey H Meyer
Impulsivity is a core feature of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) associated with abnormal brain function and neurochemical alterations. The ventral striatum (VS) is a key region of the neural circuitry mediating impulsive behavior, and low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) level in the VS has shown a specific relationship to the impulsivity of ASPD. Because it is currently unknown whether phenotypic MAO-A markers can influence brain function in ASPD, we investigated VS MAO-A level and the functional connectivity (FC) of two seed regions, superior and inferior VS (VSs, VSi)...
April 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Dubravka Svob Strac, Gordana Nedic Erjavec, Suzana Uzun, Josip Podobnik, Oliver Kozumplik, Suzana Vlatkovic, Nela Pivac
Subjects with schizophrenia or conduct disorder display a lifelong pattern of antisocial, aggressive and violent behavior and agitation. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme involved in the degradation of various monoamine neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and therefore has a role in various psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders and pathological behaviors. Platelet MAO-B activity has been associated with psychopathy- and aggression-related personality traits, while variants of the MAOA and MAOB genes have been associated with diverse clinical phenotypes, including aggressiveness, antisocial problems and violent delinquency...
August 1, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, Sylvana M Côté, Frank Vitaro, Martine Hébert, René Carbonneau, Éric Lacourse, Gustavo Turecki, Richard E Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been shown to moderate the impact of maltreatment on antisocial behaviour. Replication efforts have, however, yielded inconsistent results. AIMS: To investigate whether the interaction between the MAOA gene and violence is present across the full distribution of violence or emerges at higher levels of exposure. METHOD: Participants were 327 male members of the Québec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children...
January 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Patricia E J Wiltshire, David L Hawksworth, Kevin J Edwards
Light microscopical examination of plant and fungal remains in the post mortem gut may be capable of demonstrating the ingestion of unexpected natural psychotropic materials. This is demonstrated here in a case in which a 'shaman' was accused of causing the death of a young man. The deceased had participated in a ceremony which involved the drinking of ayahuasca in order to induce a psychotropic experience. Ayahuasca is an infusion of Banisteriopsis caapi (ayahuasca vine), which produces a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, and one or more additional tropical plants, generally Psychotria viridis (chacruna) which produces dimethyltryptamine (DMT)...
August 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Mauricio Silva de Lima, Joanna Moncrieff, Bernardo G O Soares
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nathan J Kolla, Brittany Matthews, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle, R Michael Bagby, Paul Links, Alexander I Simpson, Amina Hussain, Jeffrey H Meyer
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression...
October 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ekundayo Otuyelu, Anett Foldvari, Edit Szabo, Valeria Sipos, Peter Edafiogho, Maria Szucs, Peter Dome, Zoltan Rihmer, Janos Sandor
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between increasing utilization of antidepressants and lithium, and suicide rate of persons less than 20 years of age in Hungary, with particular regard to seasonal patterns. METHODS: Time trend analysis was carried out to determine the correlation between antidepressant and lithium prescription patterns in Hungarian persons under age of 20 years as well as seasonal variations within the study period from January 1998 to December 2006...
2015: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Hsiao-Ting Juang, Pei-Chun Chen, Kuo-Liong Chien
BACKGROUND: Evidence about the association between antidepressants and the risk of stroke recurrence was scanty. This study evaluated the risk of stroke recurrence according to using antidepressants in patients with stroke from a national representative cohort. METHODS: This cohort study followed 16770 patients aged > =20 years who had an incident stroke from 2000 to 2009 from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Records of each antidepressant prescription were obtained during follow-up...
2015: BMC Neurology
C Laqua, P Zill, G Koller, U Preuss, M Soyka
AIMS: We have analysed the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism in the promoter region of the X-chromosomal monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene. The first aim was to examine the association between the MAOA genotype and the alcoholic phenotype. In the second part of the paper we have analysed the association of the MAOA genotype with impulsive and aggressive behaviour. Genotypes with 3 or 5-repeat alleles (MAOA-L-genotype) were reported to be associated with impulsive and aggressive traits. METHODS: The MAOA genotype was determined in 371 male alcohol-dependent subjects and 236 male controls all of German descent...
March 2015: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Jeremy Duncan, Niping Wang, Xiao Zhang, Shakevia Johnson, Sharonda Harris, Baoying Zheng, Qinli Zhang, Grazyna Rajkowska, Jose Javier Miguel-Hidalgo, Donald Sittman, Xiao-Ming Ou, Craig A Stockmeier, Jun Ming Wang
Major depressive disorder and alcoholism are significant health burdens that can affect executive functioning, cognitive ability, job responsibilities, and personal relationships. Studies in animal models related to depression or alcoholism reveal that the expression of Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11, also called TIEG2) is elevated in frontal cortex, which suggests that KLF11 may play a role in stress- or ethanol-induced psychiatric conditions. KLF11 is a transcriptional activator of monoamine oxidase A and B, but also serves other functions in cell cycle regulation and apoptotic cell death...
July 2015: Neurotoxicity Research
Anthony W Bateman, John Gunderson, Roger Mulder
The evidence base for the effective treatment of personality disorders is insufficient. Most of the existing evidence on personality disorder is for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but even this is limited by the small sample sizes and short follow-up in clinical trials, the wide range of core outcome measures used by studies, and poor control of coexisting psychopathology. Psychological or psychosocial intervention is recommended as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder and pharmacotherapy is only advised as an adjunctive treatment...
February 21, 2015: Lancet
Nathan J Kolla, Lina Chiuccariello, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle, Paul Links, R Michael Bagby, Shelley McMain, Charis Kellow, Jalpa Patel, Paraskevi V Rekkas, Suvercha Pasricha, Jeffrey H Meyer
BACKGROUND: Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) is a treatment target in neurodegenerative illness and mood disorders that increases oxidative stress and predisposition toward apoptosis. Increased MAO-A levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) occur in rodent models of depressive behavior and human studies of depressed moods. Extreme dysphoria is common in borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially when severe, and the molecular underpinnings of severe BPD are largely unknown...
January 15, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
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