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Cognative psychology

Kyeong Jin Shin, Yu Jin Lee, Yong Ryoul Yang, Seorim Park, Pann-Ghill Suh, Matilde Yung Follo, Lucio Cocco, Sung Ho Ryu
Psychological stress is an emotion experienced when people are under mental pressure or encounter unexpected problems. Extreme or repetitive stress increases the risk of developing human disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), immune diseases, mental disorders, and cancer. Several studies have shown an association between psychological stress and cancer growth and metastasis in animal models and case studies of cancer patients. Stress induces the secretion of stress-related mediators, such as catecholamine, cortisol, and oxytocin, via the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis or the sympathetic nervous system (SNS)...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Craig M Smith, Berenice E Chua, Cary Zhang, Andrew W Walker, Mouna Haidar, David Hawkes, Fazel Shabanpoor, Mohammad Akhter Hossain, John D Wade, K Johan Rosengren, Andrew L Gundlach
Behavioural arousal in mammals is regulated by various interacting central monoamine- and peptide-neurotransmitter/receptor systems, which function to maintain awake, alert and active states required for performance of goal-directed activities essential for survival, including food seeking. Existing anatomical and functional evidence suggests the highly-conserved neuropeptide, relaxin-3, which signals via its cognate Gi/o-protein coupled receptor, RXFP3, contributes to behavioural arousal and feeding behaviour in rodents...
July 15, 2014: Behavioural Brain Research
James Morley
Comments on the article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" by Waterman (see record 2013-12501-001). Distancing positive psychology from humanistic psychology, Alan Waterman wishes to close the conversation between the two cognate psychological paradigms. It's true that strong fences can make good neighbors, and a desire for amicable separation on the basis of irreconcilable differences is understandable. The current author believes that Waterman's gracious style is an exemplary model for respectful disagreement...
January 2014: American Psychologist
Lidia Suárez, Winston D Goh
This study investigated whether English speakers retained the lexical stress patterns of newly learned Spanish words. Participants studied spoken Spanish words (e.g., DUcha [shower], ciuDAD [city]; stressed syllables in capital letters) and subsequently performed a recognition task, in which studied words were presented with the same lexical stress pattern (DUcha) or the opposite lexical stress pattern (CIUdad). Participants were able to discriminate same- from opposite-stress words, indicating that lexical stress was encoded and used in the recognition process...
August 2013: Memory & Cognition
Wahbie Long
This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day...
February 2013: History of Psychology
Kanako Saji, Yumiko Ikeda, Woochan Kim, Yoshitoshi Shingai, Amane Tateno, Hidehiko Takahashi, Yoshiro Okubo, Haruhisa Fukayama, Hidenori Suzuki
The primary brain structures of reward processing are mainly situated in the mid-brain dopamine system. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) receives dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area and works as a key brain region for the positive incentive value of rewards. Because neurokinin-1 (NK₁) receptor, the cognate receptor for substance P (SP), is highly expressed in the NAc, we hypothesized that the SP/NK₁ receptor system might play a role in positive reward processing in the NAc in humans. Therefore, we conducted a functional MRI (fMRI) study to assess the effects of an NK₁ receptor antagonist on human reward processing through a monetary incentive delay task that is known to elicit robust activation in the NAc especially during gain anticipation...
August 2013: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jaime L Anderson, Martin Sellbom, R Michael Bagby, Lena C Quilty, Carlo O C Veltri, Kristian E Markon, Robert F Krueger
The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup and their consultants have developed the 220-item, self-report Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) for direct assessment of the proposed personality trait system for DSM-5; however, most practicing clinical psychologists will likely continue to rely on separate omnibus measures to index symptoms and traits associated with psychopathology. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is one such measure and assesses the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) domains, which are conceptual cognates of the DSM-5 trait domains...
June 2013: Assessment
Marcelo P Coba, Noboru H Komiyama, Jess Nithianantharajah, Maksym V Kopanitsa, Tim Indersmitten, Nathan G Skene, Ellie J Tuck, David G Fricker, Kathryn A Elsegood, Lianne E Stanford, Nurudeen O Afinowi, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey, Thomas J O'Dell, Seth G N Grant
Traf2 and NcK interacting kinase (TNiK) contains serine-threonine kinase and scaffold domains and has been implicated in cell proliferation and glutamate receptor regulation in vitro. Here we report its role in vivo using mice carrying a knock-out mutation. TNiK binds protein complexes in the synapse linking it to the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) via AKAP9. NMDAR and metabotropic receptors bidirectionally regulate TNiK phosphorylation and TNiK is required for AMPA expression and synaptic function. TNiK also organizes nuclear complexes and in the absence of TNiK, there was a marked elevation in GSK3β and phosphorylation levels of its cognate phosphorylation sites on NeuroD1 with alterations in Wnt pathway signaling...
October 3, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Montserrat Comesaña, Rosa Sánchez-Casas, Ana Paula Soares, Ana P Pinheiro, Andreia Rauber, Sofia Frade, Isabel Fraga
This study examined the role of phonological and orthographic overlap in the recognition of cognate words by recording electrophysiological and behavioral data. One hundred and ninety-two words were selected: 96 cognate words listed according to their phonological and orthographic overlap vs. 96 noncognate words. Twenty-four proficient European Portuguese-English bilinguals performed a silent reading task with a masked priming paradigm. The results showed that phonology interacts with semantic activation at N400 modulations...
October 31, 2012: Neuroscience Letters
E K Morris
Behavior analysts have been called mechanists, and behavior analysis is said to be mechanistic; that is, they are claimed to be aligned with the philosophy of mechanism. What this means is analyzed by (a) examining standard and specialized dictionary and encyclopedia definitions and descriptions of mechanism and its cognates and (b) reviewing contemporary representations of the mechanistic worldview in the literature on the philosophy of psychology. Although the term mechanism and its cognates are sometimes an honorific (e...
1993: Behavior Analyst
Amanda C de C Williams, Matteo Cella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent resurgence of the notion of psychosomatic disorders, grouping together as 'medically unexplained symptoms' all those without organic diagnosis and associated with distress, has included all chronic (persistent) pain within its remit. As pain is reasonably well explained, within an integrated biopsychosocial model, critical analysis of the position is required. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroscientific and translational studies of pain mechanisms have strengthened the understanding of pain, providing stronger connections between abstract psychological concepts corresponding to observation and studies of human clinical populations, neuroscientific findings in clinical and analogue studies, and animal research...
June 2012: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Bàrbara Albareda-Castellot, Ferran Pons, Núria Sebastián-Gallés
Contrasting results have been reported regarding the phonetic acquisition of bilinguals. A lack of discrimination has been observed for certain native contrasts in 8-month-old Catalan-Spanish bilingual infants (Bosch & Sebastián-Gallés, 2003a), though not in French-English bilingual infants (Burns, Yoshida, Hill & Werker, 2007; Sundara, Polka & Molnar, 2008). At present, the data for Catalan-Spanish bilinguals constitute an exception in the early language acquisition literature. This study contributes new findings that show that Catalan-Spanish bilingual infants do not lose the capacity to discriminate native contrasts...
March 2011: Developmental Science
Simon Dein, Roland Littlewood
In this article we propose that schizophrenia and religious cognition engage cognate mental modules in the over-attribution of agency and the overextension of theory of mind. We argue similarities and differences between assumptions of ultrahuman agents with omniscient minds and certain ''pathological'' forms of thinking in schizophrenia: thought insertion, withdrawal and broadcasting, and delusions of reference. In everyday religious cognition agency detection and theory of mind modules function ''normally,'' whereas in schizophrenia both modules are impaired...
July 2011: Transcultural Psychiatry
Louis R Lucas, Tina Dragisic, Caroline C Duwaerts, Michael Swiatkowski, Hideo Suzuki
Previously, we have reported that brain regions that are thought to be involved in motivated behavior are altered in animals undergoing repeated exposures to immobilization stress. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of recovery from this type of stress on these same mesolimbic brain regions. For this purpose, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were initially exposed to immobilization stress either once (2 h) or repeatedly (2 h×10 days). Rats were then either allowed to recover from the stressor for a shorter (2 days) or longer period of time (9 days) in their home cages...
October 24, 2011: Physiology & Behavior
Craig M Smith, Philip J Ryan, Ihaia T Hosken, Sherie Ma, Andrew L Gundlach
The relaxin-3 gene was identified in 2001 by searching the human genome database for homologues of the relaxin hormone, and was subsequently discovered to encode a highly conserved neuropeptide in mammals and lower species. In the decade since its discovery there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the peptide, including the identification of its cognate receptor (a type 1 G-protein coupled receptor, GPCR135 or RXFP3), an understanding of its structure-activity and associated cellular signalling, and the elucidation of key neuroanatomical aspects of relaxin-3/RXFP3 networks in mammalian brain...
December 2011: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Hitoshi Hashimoto, Norihito Shintani, Mamoru Tanida, Atsuko Hayata, Ryota Hashimoto, Akemichi Baba
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a highly conserved pleiotropic neuropeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and neurotrophic factor. Accumulating evidence implicates PACAP as an important regulator of both central and/or peripheral components of the stress axes, particularly exposure to prolonged or traumatic stress. Indeed, PACAP and its cognate receptors are widely expressed in the brain regions and peripheral tissues that mediate stress-related responses...
2011: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Pascal Brenders, Janet G van Hell, Ton Dijkstra
We studied how Dutch children learned English as a second language (L2) in the classroom. Learners at different levels of L2 proficiency recognized words under different task conditions. Beginning learners in primary school (fifth and sixth grades) and more advanced learners in secondary school (seventh and ninth grades) made lexical decisions on words that are similar for English and Dutch in both meaning and form ("cognates") or only in form ("false friends"). Cognates were processed faster than matched control words by all participant groups in an English lexical decision task (Experiment 1) but not in a Dutch lexical decision task (Experiment 2)...
August 2011: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Anderson C Lee, Jiwei He, Minghong Ma
Survival of many altricial animals critically depends on the sense of smell. Curiously, the olfactory system is rather immature at birth and undergoes a maturation process, which is poorly understood. Using patch-clamp technique on mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) with a defined odorant receptor, we demonstrate that OSNs exhibit functional maturation during the first month of postnatal life by developing faster response kinetics, higher sensitivity, and most intriguingly, higher selectivity. OSNs expressing mouse odorant receptor 23 (MOR23) are relatively broadly tuned in neonates and become selective detectors for the cognate odorant within 2 weeks...
February 23, 2011: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Maria Dimitropoulou, Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, Manuel Carreiras
Non-cognate masked translation priming lexical decision studies with unbalanced bilinguals suggest that masked translation priming effects are asymmetric as a function of the translation direction (significant effects only in the dominant [L1] to nondominant [L2] language translation direction). However, in contrast to the predictions of most current accounts of masked translation priming effects, bidirectional effects have recently been reported with a group of low proficient bilinguals Duyck & Warlop 2009 (Experimental Psychology 56:173-179)...
February 2011: Memory & Cognition
Khatuna Gagnidze, Donald W Pfaff, Jessica A Mong
Following transcription of the SRY gene on the Y chromosome of genetic males, a cascade of genomic and biochemical events causes the developing brain to be influenced by two testosterone metabolites, the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone and the aromatization product estradiol (E2). These steroid hormones binding to their cognate nuclear receptors produce differential gene expression profiles between male and female brains, and as a result, male-typical sex behaviors appear in adulthood and female-typical sex behaviors are suppressed...
2010: Progress in Brain Research
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