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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095274/protein-intake-and-breast-cancer-survival-in-the-nurses-health-study
#1
Michelle D Holmes, Jun Wang, Susan E Hankinson, Rulla M Tamimi, Wendy E Chen
Purpose Greater protein intake has been associated with better breast cancer survival in several prospective studies, including among 1,982 women in the Nurses' Health Study. We proposed to extend this previous finding. We hypothesized that protein, essential amino acid, branched-chain amino acid, and leucine intakes are associated with improved survival and that these associations are stronger in tumors expressing insulin receptor (IR). Patients and Methods We included 6,348 women diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer between 1976 and 2004...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092275/mechanistic-insights-from-combining-genomics-with-metabolomics
#2
Fotios Drenos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolomics directly measure substrates and products of biological processes and pathways. Based on instrumentation and throughput advances, the use of metabolomics has only recently become feasible at the population level. This has led to an intense interest in using the new information in combination with genomics, and other omics technologies, to give biological context to the rapidly accumulating associations between genes and diseases or their risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of metabolomics-genomic associations for the metabolic characterization of genes of interest has confirmed known pathways and permitted the identification of new ones...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091281/satiety-and-memory-enhancing-effects-of-a-high-protein-meal-depend-on-the-source-of-protein
#3
Kristy Du, Edward Markus, Mariel Fecych, Justin S Rhodes, J Lee Beverly
OBJECTIVE: High- protein diets have become increasingly popular with various touted benefits. However, the extent to which protein quantity and source affects cognitive functioning through altering postprandial amino acid profiles has not been investigated. Further, whether all protein sources are similarly anorexigenic is uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of protein level and source on Barnes maze performance, satiety and plasma amino acid levels in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 16, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089725/high-concentration-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-promotes-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-migration-of-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-via-mtorc1-activation
#4
Olha Zhenyukh, Esther Civantos, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, María Soledad Sánchez, Clotilde Vázquez, Concepción Peiró, Jesús Egido, Sebastián Mas
Leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential aminoacids termed branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) due to its aliphatic side-chain. In several pathological and physiological conditions increased BCAA plasma concentrations have been described. Elevated BCAA levels predict insulin resistance development. Moreover, BCAA levels higher than 2mmol/L are neurotoxic by inducing microglial activation in maple syrup urine disease. However, there are no studies about the direct effects of BCAA in circulating cells. We have explored whether BCAA could promote oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors...
January 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088292/human-fetal-intestinal-epithelial-cells-metabolize-and-incorporate-branched-chain-fatty-acids-in-a-structure-specific-manner
#5
Lei Liu, Zhen Wang, Hui Gyu Park, Chuang Xu, Peter Lawrence, Xueli Su, Vasuki Wijendran, W Allan Walker, Kumar S D Kothapalli, J Thomas Brenna
BACKGROUND: Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are constituents of gastrointestinal (GI) tract in healthy newborn human infants, reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in a neonatal rat model, and are incorporated into small intestine cellular lipids in vivo. We hypothesize that BCFA are taken up, metabolized and incorporated into human fetal cells in vitro. METHODS: Human H4 cells, a fetal non-transformed primary small intestine cell line, were incubated with albumin-bound non-esterified anteiso-17:0, iso-16:0, iso-18:0 and/or iso-20:0, and FA profiles in lipid fractions were analyzed...
January 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088291/bcfa-suppresses-lps-induced-il-8-mrna-expression-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#6
Y Yan, Z Wang, J Greenwald, K S D Kothapalli, H G Park, R Liu, E Mendralla, P Lawrence, X Wang, J T Brenna
Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are components of common food fats and are major constituents of the normal term human newborn GI tract. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to reduce the risk and development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); however, little is known about the influence of BCFA on inflammation. We investigated the effect of BCFA on interleukin (IL)-8 and NF-κB production in a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2). Cells were pre-treated with specific BCFA, or DHA, or EPA, and then activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077380/metabolomic-profiles-as-reliable-biomarkers-of-dietary-composition
#7
Tõnu Esko, Joel N Hirschhorn, Henry A Feldman, Yu-Han H Hsu, Amy A Deik, Clary B Clish, Cara B Ebbeling, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: Clinical nutrition research often lacks robust markers of compliance, complicating the interpretation of clinical trials and observational studies of free-living subjects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine metabolomics profiles in response to 3 diets that differed widely in macronutrient composition during a controlled feeding protocol. DESIGN: Twenty-one adults with a high body mass index (in kg/m(2); mean ± SD: 34.4 ± 4.9) were given hypocaloric diets to promote weight loss corresponding to 10-15% of initial body weight...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062460/large-scale-transposition-mutagenesis-of-streptomyces-coelicolor-identifies-hundreds-of-genes-influencing-antibiotic-biosynthesis
#8
Zhong Xu, Yemin Wang, Keith F Chater, Hong-Yu Ou, H Howard Xu, Zixin Deng, Meifeng Tao
: Gram-positive Streptomyces bacteria produce thousands of bioactive secondary metabolites including antibiotics. To systematically investigate genes affecting secondary metabolism, we developed a hyperactive transposase-based Tn5 transposition system and employed it to mutagenize the model species Streptomyces coelicolor, leading to the identification of 51,443 transposition insertions. These insertions were distributed randomly along the chromosome except for some preferred regions associated with relatively low GC content in the chromosomal core...
January 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060260/identification-of-fatty-acids-in-bacillus-cereus
#9
Christian Ginies, Julien Brillard, Christophe Nguyen-The
The Bacillus species contain branched chain and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) with diverse positions of the methyl branch (iso or anteiso) and of the double bond. Changes in FA composition play a crucial role in the adaptation of bacteria to their environment. These modifications entail a change in the ratio of iso versus anteiso branched FAs, and in the proportion of unsaturated FAs relative to saturated FAs, with double bonds created at specific positions. Precise identification of the FA profile is necessary to understand the adaptation mechanisms of Bacillus species...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060208/branched-chain-amino-acids-bcaas-and-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#10
Bhanu Sharma, David W Lawrence, Michael G Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), pharmaceutical treatment options for brain injury remain limited. However, nutritional intervention (such as with branched chain amino acids [BCAAs]) has emerged as a promising treatment option for TBI. OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine whether TBI patients have lower levels of endogenous BCAAs postinjury; and (2) to evaluate whether post-TBI BCAA supplementation improves clinical outcome. DESIGN: A systematic review of primary research articles examining the relationship between BCAAs and TBI recovery indexed in Ovid/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052980/metabolites-associated-with-lean-mass-and-adiposity-in-older-black-men
#11
Rachel A Murphy, Steven C Moore, Mary Playdon, Osorio Meirelles, Anne B Newman, Iva Milijkovic, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Ann Schwartz, Bret H Goodpaster, Joshua Sampson, Peggy Cawthon, Eleanor M Simonsick, Robert E Gerszten, Clary B Clish, Tamara B Harris
To identify biomarkers of body mass index, body fat, trunk fat, and appendicular lean mass, nontargeted metabolomics was performed in plasma from 319 black men in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study (median age 72 years, median body mass index 26.8 kg/m(2)). Body mass index was calculated from measured height and weight; percent fat, percent trunk fat, and appendicular lean mass were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Pearson partial correlations between body composition measures and metabolites were adjusted for age, study site, and smoking...
January 3, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052414/microrna-218-inhibits-tumor-growth-and-increases-chemosensitivity-to-cddp-treatment-by-targeting-bcat1-in-prostate-cancer
#12
Wenjing Zhu, Yiqun Shao, Yu Peng
MicroRNAs have been reported to be associated with chemosensitivity of several types of cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we explored miR-218 increased the chemosensitivity to cis-diaminedichloroplatinum treatment of prostate cancer. We found that the expression level of miR-218 was down-regulated in the human prostate cancer specimens. Moreover, overexpression of miR-218 inhibited cell viability, migration, and invasion in PC3 and DU145 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the tumor suppressive role of miR-218 was mediated by negatively regulating branched-chain amino acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1) protein expression...
January 4, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051178/muscle-specific-deletion-of-bdk-amplifies-loss-of-myofibrillar-protein-during-protein-undernutrition
#13
Takuya Ishikawa, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Yoshihiro Kadota, Yukako Morishita, Miki Ota, Fumiya Yamanaka, Minjun Xu, Masahito Ikawa, Naokazu Inoue, Fuminori Kawano, Naoya Nakai, Taro Murakami, Shinji Miura, Yukino Hatazawa, Yasutomi Kamei, Yoshiharu Shimomura
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids for mammals and play key roles in the regulation of protein metabolism. However, the effect of BCAA deficiency on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle in vivo remains unclear. Here we generated mice with lower BCAA concentrations by specifically accelerating BCAA catabolism in skeletal muscle and heart (BDK-mKO mice). The mice appeared to be healthy without any obvious defects when fed a protein-rich diet; however, bolus ingestion of BCAAs showed that mTORC1 sensitivity in skeletal muscle was enhanced in BDK-mKO mice compared to the corresponding control mice...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050733/qualitative-and-quantitative-differences-in-herbivore-induced-plant-volatile-blends-from-tomato-plants-infested-by-either-tuta-absoluta-or-bemisia-tabaci
#14
Diego B Silva, Berhane T Weldegergis, Joop J A Van Loon, Vanda H P Bueno
Plants release a variety of volatile organic compounds that play multiple roles in the interactions with other plants and animals. Natural enemies of plant-feeding insects use these volatiles as cues to find their prey or host. Here, we report differences between the volatile blends of tomato plants infested with the whitefly Bemisia tabaci or the tomato borer Tuta absoluta. We compared the volatile emission of: (1) clean tomato plants; (2) tomato plants infested with T. absoluta larvae; and (3) tomato plants infested with B...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036018/effects-of-supplementation-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-to-reduced-protein-diet-on-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-degradation-in-the-fed-and-fasted-states-in-a-piglet-model
#15
Liufeng Zheng, Hongkui Wei, Pingli He, Shengjun Zhao, Quanhang Xiang, Jiaman Pang, Jian Peng
Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has been demonstrated to promote skeletal muscle mass gain, but the mechanisms underlying this observation are still unknown. Since the regulation of muscle mass depends on a dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses-fed gains) in protein turnover, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle protein synthesis and degradation in fed/fasted states and the related mechanisms. Fourteen 26- (Experiment 1) and 28-day-old (Experiment 2) piglets were fed reduced-protein diets without or with supplemental BCAA...
December 28, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032919/expression-of-the-human-isoform-of-glutamate-dehydrogenase-hgdh2-augments-tca-cycle-capacity-and-oxidative-metabolism-of-glutamate-during-glucose-deprivation-in-astrocytes
#16
Jakob D Nissen, Kasper Lykke, Jaroslaw Bryk, Malin H Stridh, Ioannis Zaganas, Dorte M Skytt, Arne Schousboe, Lasse K Bak, Wolfgang Enard, Svante Pääbo, Helle S Waagepetersen
A key enzyme in brain glutamate homeostasis is glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) which links carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism mediating glutamate degradation to CO2 and expanding tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle capacity with intermediates, i.e. anaplerosis. Humans express two GDH isoforms, GDH1 and 2, whereas most other mammals express only GDH1. hGDH1 is widely expressed in human brain while hGDH2 is confined to astrocytes. The two isoforms display different enzymatic properties and the nature of these supports that hGDH2 expression in astrocytes potentially increases glutamate oxidation and supports the TCA cycle during energy-demanding processes such as high intensity glutamatergic signaling...
December 29, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024543/characterization-of-a-bioactive-polysaccharide-from-ganoderma-atrum-re-elucidation-of-the-fine-structure
#17
Hui Zhang, Shaoping Nie, Steve W Cui, Ming Xu, Huihuang Ding, Mingyong Xie
The fine structure in terms of backbone and branch chain features of a bioactive polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum (PSG-1) was re-elucidated systematically using high performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC), methylation and GLC-MS analysis, and 1D & 2D NMR spectroscopy. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that PSG-1-F0.2 fraction mainly consisted of glucose (73.8%) and glucuronic acid (15.3%), with small amount of mannose (5.7%) and galactose (5.2%). Based on methylation, multistep partial acid hydrolysis and NMR study, were proposed to substitute at the O-6 position of β-(1→3)-glucan...
February 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024140/do-branched-chain-amino-acids-improve-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhosis
#18
Maximiliano Vergara, Victoria Castro-Gutiérrez, Gabriel Rada
There is controversy about the effectiveness of branched chain amino acids for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases, we identified seven systematic reviews including 32 randomized controlled trials, of which 30 address the question of this article. We extracted results, combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded branched chain amino acids might improve hepatic encephalopathy, but they probably lead to little or no effect on mortality...
December 14, 2016: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019060/development-of-a-simple-predictive-model-for-decreased-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-patients-with-compensated-chronic-liver-disease
#19
Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Akio Ishii, Yoshinori Iwata, Yuho Miyamoto, Noriko Ishii, Yukihisa Yuri, Ryo Takata, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Takashi Nishimura, Yoh Kazunori, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
AIMS: To develop and validate a simple predictive model using easily obtained clinical parameters to predict decreased skeletal muscle mass (DSMM) in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients (n = 652). METHODS: Study subjects were divided into a training set (n = 326) and a validation set (n = 326). DSMM was diagnosed based on skeletal muscle mass index measured by bioimpedance analysis. Variables significantly associated with DSMM were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses in the training set and used to construct a predictive formula...
December 26, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017945/-pathological-state-or-cause-of-sarcopenia
#20
Yasumoto Matsui
Skeletal muscle atrophy by aging(Sarcopenia)is more likely to occur in lower limbs rather than upper ones, and in the thigh rather than in the lower leg, and in the anterior side of thigh rather than posterior, faster in men than in women. It differs from disuse muscle atrophy in that it occurs slowly and gradually, hard to be recovered, or fast twitch fibers are mainly involved. Many factors or phenomena are known to contribute to proceed sarcopenia. In the aged skeletal muscle tissue, the number of satellite cells or motor neurons decrease and the function of the neuro-muscular junction declines...
2017: Clinical Calcium
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