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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530552/physicochemical-properties-and-starch-digestibility-of-whole-grain-sorghums-millet-quinoa-and-amaranth-flours-as-affected-by-starch-and-non-starch-constituents
#1
Sathaporn Srichuwong, Delphine Curti, Sean Austin, Roberto King, Lisa Lamothe, Hugo Gloria-Hernandez
Minor grains such as sorghum, millet, quinoa and amaranth can be alternatives to wheat and corn as ingredients for whole grain and gluten-free products. In this study, influences of starch structures and other grain constituents on physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole flours made from these grains were investigated. Starches were classified into two groups according to their amylopectin branch chain-length: (i) quinoa, amaranth, wheat (shorter chains); and (ii) sorghum, millet, corn (longer chains)...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530101/oxidative-trimerization-of-amino-acids-selective-synthesis-of-2-3-5-trisubstituted-pyridines
#2
Jia-Chen Xiang, Yan Cheng, Zi-Xuan Wang, Jin-Tian Ma, Miao Wang, Bo-Cheng Tang, Yan-Dong Wu, An-Xin Wu
An oxidative trimerization of three amino acids has been realized to furnish 2,3,5-trisubstuitued pyridines in both cross- and homo-trimerization types. This method is capable of converting simple linear biomass material to heterocycles, which features in the assembly of three amino acid branched chains into one aromatic ring. Molecular iodine triggers the sequential decarboxylation and deamination of amino acids and then promotes the selective formation of new C-N and C-C bonds.
May 22, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524013/probiotic-supplementation-effects-on-milk-fatty-acid-profile-in-ewes
#3
Shahab Payandeh, Farokh Kafilzadeh, Manuela Juárez, Miguel Angel de la Fuente, Darab Ghadimi, Andrés L Martínez Marín
We hypothesised that probiotic feeding would alter the fatty acid (FA) profile of sheep's milk. Sixteen lactating ewes, kept under the same feeding and management practices, were randomly allocated to receive either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with a commercial multi-strain bacterial probiotic. Milk fat FA contents were monitored fortnightly for eight consecutive weeks from 14 d after lambing. Probiotic supplementation increased the contents of butyric and caproic acids in milk fat and had no negative effects on other relevant FA from the human's health point of view (i...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524009/a-novel-polymorphism-in-the-oxytocin-receptor-encoding-gene-oxtr-affects-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-italian-mediterranean-river-buffalo
#4
Gianfranco Cosenza, Nicolò P P Macciotta, Anna Nudda, Angelo Coletta, Luigi Ramunno, Alfredo Pauciullo
The oxytocin receptor, also known as OXTR, is a protein which functions as receptor for the hormone and neurotransmitter oxytocin and the complex oxytocin-oxytocin receptor plays an important role in the uterus during calving. A characterisation of the river buffalo OXTR gene, amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis is presented. The DNA regions of the OXTR gene spanning exons 1, 2 and 3 of ten Mediterranean river buffalo DNA samples were analysed and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. We focused on the g...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523011/the-effects-of-herbicides-targeting-aromatic-and-branched-chain-amino-acid-biosynthesis-support-the-presence-of-functional-pathways-in-broomrape
#5
Evgenia Dor, Shmuel Galili, Evgeny Smirnov, Yael Hacham, Rachel Amir, Joseph Hershenhorn
It is not clear why herbicides targeting aromatic and branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis successfully control broomrapes-obligate parasitic plants that obtain all of their nutritional requirements, including amino acids, from the host. Our objective was to reveal the mode of action of imazapic and glyphosate in controlling the broomrape Phelipanche aegyptiaca and clarify if this obligatory parasite has its own machinery for the amino acids biosynthesis. P. aegyptiaca callus was studied to exclude the indirect influence of the herbicides on the parasite through the host plant...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522547/a-regulatory-hierarchy-of-the-arabidopsis-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolic-network
#6
Anqi Xing, Robert L Last
The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) Ile, Val and Leu are essential nutrients that humans and other animals obtain from plants. However, total and relative amounts of plant BCAAs rarely match animal nutritional needs, and improvement requires a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for BCAA homeostasis. We present an in vivo regulatory model of BCAA homeostasis derived from analysis of feedback-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants for the three allosteric committed enzymes in the biosynthetic network: threonine deaminase (also named L-O-methylthreonine resistant 1, OMR1), acetohydroxyacid synthase small subunit 2 (AHASS2) and isopropylmalate synthase 1 (IPMS1)...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521878/combining-a-nontargeted-and-targeted-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-metabolic-pathways-significantly-altered-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#7
Alice Y Chang, Antigoni Z Lalia, Gregory D Jenkins, Tumpa Dutta, Rickey E Carter, Ravinder J Singh, K Sreekumaran Nair
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition of androgen excess and chronic anovulation frequently associated with insulin resistance. We combined a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify pathways and metabolites that distinguished PCOS from metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Twenty obese women with PCOS were compared with 18 obese women without PCOS. Both groups met criteria for MetS but could not have diabetes mellitus or take medications that treat PCOS or affect lipids or insulin sensitivity...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518283/branched-chain-amino-acids-for-people-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#8
REVIEW
Lise Lotte Gluud, Gitte Dam, Iñigo Les, Giulio Marchesini, Mette Borre, Niels Kristian Aagaard, Hendrik Vilstrup
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a brain dysfunction with neurological and psychiatric changes associated with liver insufficiency or portal-systemic shunting. The severity ranges from minor symptoms to coma. A Cochrane systematic review including 11 randomised clinical trials on branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) versus control interventions has evaluated if BCAA may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of BCAA versus any control intervention for people with hepatic encephalopathy...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516268/gpna-inhibits-the-sodium-independent-transport-system-l-for-neutral-amino-acids
#9
Martina Chiu, Cosimo Sabino, Giuseppe Taurino, Massimiliano G Bianchi, Roberta Andreoli, Nicola Giuliani, Ovidio Bussolati
L-γ-Glutamyl-p-nitroanilide (GPNA) is widely used to inhibit the glutamine transporter ASCT2, although it is known that it also inhibits other sodium-dependent amino acid transporters. In a panel of human cancer cell lines, which express the system L transporters LAT1 and LAT2, GPNA inhibits the sodium-independent influx of leucine and glutamine. The kinetics of the effect suggests that GPNA is a low affinity, competitive inhibitor of system L transporters. In Hs683 human oligodendroglioma cells, the incubation in the presence of GPNA, but not ASCT2 silencing, lowers the cell content of leucine...
May 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515382/screening-evaluation-of-the-interaction-of-linear-chain-or-branched-chain-peptides-with-multilamellar-vesicle-using-confocal-laser-microscopy
#10
Junko Kuwahara, Tetsuya Marume, Hajime Mita
In the present research, we prepared an acidic liposome as a cell model and used confocal laser microscopy to evaluate its interaction with oligopeptides that had high membrane permeability or affinity. The results showed that, for short peptides of about ten residues, the positive charge peptides interacted with the acidic liposome strongly. For peptides that interacted with the liposome, no difference was found between linear-chain and branched-chain peptides due to their structure.
May 17, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514978/jugular-infused-methionine-lysine-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-does-not-improve-milk-production-in-holstein-cows-experiencing-heat-stress
#11
K R Kassube, J D Kaufman, K G Pohler, J W McFadden, A G Ríus
Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14...
May 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514443/cancer-progression-by-reprogrammed-bcaa-metabolism-in-myeloid-leukaemia
#12
Ayuna Hattori, Makoto Tsunoda, Takaaki Konuma, Masayuki Kobayashi, Tamas Nagy, John Glushka, Fariba Tayyari, Daniel McSkimming, Natarajan Kannan, Arinobu Tojo, Arthur S Edison, Takahiro Ito
Reprogrammed cellular metabolism is a common characteristic observed in various cancers. However, whether metabolic changes directly regulate cancer development and progression remains poorly understood. Here we show that BCAT1, a cytosolic aminotransferase for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), is aberrantly activated and functionally required for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in humans and in mouse models of CML. BCAT1 is upregulated during progression of CML and promotes BCAA production in leukaemia cells by aminating the branched-chain keto acids...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513068/a-randomized-controlled-trial-branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-and-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-obesity-and-sleep-apnea
#13
Antonia Barceló, Daniel Morell-Garcia, Neus Salord, Cristina Esquinas, Gerardo Pérez, Antonio Pérez, Carmen Monasterio, Merce Gasa, Ana Maria Fortuna, Josep Maria Montserrat, Mercedes Mayos
There is evidence that changes in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels may correlate with the efficacy of therapeutic interventions for affecting improvement in metabolic control. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) could mediate in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective randomized controlled trial of OSA patients with morbid obesity was conducted...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512218/ubiquitin-and-atp-dependent-unfoldase-activity-of-p97-vcp%C3%A2-nploc4%C3%A2-ufd1l-is-enhanced-by-a-mutation-that-causes-multisystem-proteinopathy
#14
Emily E Blythe, Kristine C Olson, Vincent Chau, Raymond J Deshaies
p97 is a "segregase" that plays a key role in numerous ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent pathways such as ER-associated degradation. It has been hypothesized that p97 extracts proteins from membranes or macromolecular complexes to enable their proteasomal degradation; however, the complex nature of p97 substrates has made it difficult to directly observe the fundamental basis for this activity. To address this issue, we developed a soluble p97 substrate-Ub-GFP modified with K48-linked ubiquitin chains-for in vitro p97 activity assays...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504858/highly-efficient-synthetic-methodology-ajiphase%C3%A2-for-one-pot-peptide-elongation-using-an-fmoc-strategy-in-the-solution-phase
#15
Daisuke Takahashi, Tatsuji Inomata Inomata, Tatsuya Fukui
We report an efficient peptide synthesis methodology, AJIPHASE®, comprising repeated reactions and isolations by precipitation. This methodology utilizes an anchor molecule as a protecting group for the C-terminus with long-chain alkyl groups. For further improvement of this method, we developed a one-pot synthesis of a peptide sequence wherein the synthetic intermediates are worked up by solvent extraction instead of precipitation. A branched chain anchor molecule is used in the new process, significantly enhancing the solubility of a long peptide and operational efficiency compared with the previous method, which employs precipitation for isolation using a straight chain aliphatic group...
May 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501528/bckdk-of-bcaa-catabolism-cross-talking-with-the-mapk-pathway-promotes-tumorigenesis-of-colorectal-cancer
#16
Peipei Xue, Fanfan Zeng, Qiuhong Duan, Juanjuan Xiao, Lin Liu, Ping Yuan, Linni Fan, Huimin Sun, Olesya S Malyarenko, Hui Lu, Ruijuan Xiu, Shaoqing Liu, Chen Shao, Jianmin Zhang, Wei Yan, Zhe Wang, Jianyong Zheng, Feng Zhu
Branched-chain amino acids catabolism plays an important role in human cancers. Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females, and the new global incidence is over 1.2 million cases. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDK) is a rate-limiting enzyme in branched-chain amino acids catabolism, which plays an important role in many serious human diseases. Here we investigated that abnormal branched-chain amino acids catabolism in colorectal cancer is a result of the disease process, with no role in disease initiation; BCKDK is widely expressed in colorectal cancer patients, and those patients that express higher levels of BCKDK have shorter survival times than those with lower levels; BCKDK promotes cell transformation or colorectal cancer ex vivo or in vivo...
May 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497654/oxidative-stickland-reactions-in-an-obligate-aerobic-organism-amino-acid-catabolism-in-the-crenarchaeon-sulfolobus-solfataricus
#17
Helge Stark, Jacqueline Wolf, Andreas Albersmeier, Trong K Pham, Julia D Hofmann, Bettina Siebers, Jörn Kalinowski, Phillip C Wright, Meina Neumann-Schaal, Dietmar Schomburg
The thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is a model organism for archaeal adaptation to extreme environments and renowned for its ability to degrade a broad variety of substrates. It has been well characterised concerning the utilisation of numerous carbohydrates as carbon source. However, its amino acid metabolism, especially the degradation of single amino acids, is not as well understood. In this work, we performed metabolic modelling as well as metabolome, transcriptome and proteome analysis on cells grown on caseinhydrolysate as carbon source in order to draw a comprehensive picture of amino acid metabolism in S...
May 12, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496435/serum-metabolomic-profiling-of-piglets-infected-with-virulent-classical-swine-fever-virus
#18
Wenjie Gong, Junjie Jia, Bikai Zhang, Shijiang Mi, Li Zhang, Xiaoming Xie, Huancheng Guo, Jishu Shi, Changchun Tu
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious swine infectious disease and causes significant economic losses for the pig industry worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine whether small molecule metabolites contribute to the pathogenesis of CSF. Birefly, serum metabolomics of CSFV Shimen strain-infected piglets were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-Q-TOF/MS) in combination with multivariate statistical analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494241/gut-microbiome-function-predicts-response-to-anti-integrin-biologic-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#19
Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Chengwei Luo, Vijay Yajnik, Hamed Khalili, John J Garber, Betsy W Stevens, Thomas Cleland, Ramnik J Xavier
The gut microbiome plays a central role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) pathogenesis and propagation. To determine whether the gut microbiome may predict responses to IBD therapy, we conducted a prospective study with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) patients initiating anti-integrin therapy (vedolizumab). Disease activity and stool metagenomes at baseline, and weeks 14, 30, and 54 after therapy initiation were assessed. Community α-diversity was significantly higher, and Roseburia inulinivorans and a Burkholderiales species were more abundant at baseline among CD patients achieving week 14 remission...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489097/self-assembly-of-inverse-patchy-colloids-with-tunable-patch-coverage
#20
Manigandan Sabapathy, Remya Ann Mathews K, Ethayaraja Mani
We report a simple and scalable technique for the preparation of patchy particles with tunable patch coverage. These particles are categorized as inverse patchy colloidal particles (IPCs) as the patches repel each other while patch and non-patch surfaces attract. We demonstrate the effect of patch coverage, concentration of electrolyte and concentration of particles on the self-assembly of IPC particles. The study identifies various clustering zones such as (1) finite-sized clusters, (2) chain-like assemblies and (3) irregular amorphous aggregates...
May 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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