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Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Jérémie David, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
OBJECTIVES: High-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) overfeeding is one of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether elevated BCAA levels are the cause or the consequence of IR and to determine the mechanisms and tissues involved in such a phenotype. METHODS: We performed a 2-mo follow-up on minipigs overfed an HFHS diet and focused on kinetics fasting and postprandial (PP) BCAA levels and BCAA catabolism in key tissues...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
T S M Carvalho, L S Sousa, F A Nogueira, D P Vaz, M M Saldanha, M V Triginelli, M F V S Pinto, N C Baião, L J C Lara
This work aimed at evaluating the effects of 4 digestible Met+Cys levels on the diet of commercial layers and their influence on the productive performance, quality, and amino acid profile of eggs and economic viability of the activity. A total of 576 white Lohmann LSL-Lite layers was distributed into 6 replicates of 24 birds for each diet. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 treatments defined by levels evaluated in the feed (0.465, 0.540, 0.581, and 0.647%). The productive performance was measured for 30 weeks...
March 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Te-Sha Tsai, Sonika Tyagi, Justin C St John
STUDY QUESTION: What are the molecular differences between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-deficient and mtDNA-normal oocytes and how does mitochondrial supplementation alter these? SUMMARY ANSWER: Changes to DNA methylation in a 5' cytosine-phosphate-guanine 3' (CpG) island in the mtDNA-specific replication factor (DNA polymerase gamma (POLG)) of mtDNA-deficient oocytes mediates an increase in mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage that positively modulates the expression of nuclear genes, which affect cellular and metabolic processes, following autologous mitochondrial supplementation...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Nicholette D Palmer, Hayrettin Okut, Fang-Chi Hsu, Maggie C Y Ng, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Jerome I Rotter, Richard N Bergman, Carl D Langefeld, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Donald W Bowden
Context: Metabolomics provides a biochemical fingerprint which, when coupled with clinical phenotypes, can provide insight into physiological processes and disease. Objective: Survey metabolites associated with dynamic and basal measures of glucose homeostasis. Design: Analysis of 733 serum metabolites from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 1111 Mexican Americans...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Victor Laurent, Ekaterina Darii, Angelina Aujon, Marine Debacker, Jean-Louis Petit, Virgil Hélaine, Tibor Liptaj, Martin Breza, Aline Mariage, Lionel Nauton, Mounir Traikia, Marielle Lemaire, Marcel Salanoubat, Christine Guérard-Hélaine, Véronique De Berardinis
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)-dependent rhamnulose aldolases display an unprecedented versatility for ketones as electrophile substrates. We selected and characterized a rhamnulose aldolase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (RhuABthet) to provide a proof of concept. DHAP was added as a nucleophile to several alpha-hydroxylated ketones used as electrophiles. This aldol addition was stereoselective and produced branched-chain monosaccharide adducts with a tertiary alcohol moiety. Several aldols were thus readily obtained in good to excellent yields (from 76 to 95%)...
March 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Moran Brenner, Lior Lobel, Ilya Borovok, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a saprophyte and intracellular pathogen. Transition to the pathogenic state relies on sensing of host-derived metabolites, yet it remains unclear how these are recognized and how they mediate virulence gene regulation. We previously found that low availability of isoleucine signals Lm to activate the virulent state. This response is dependent on CodY, a global regulator and isoleucine sensor. Isoleucine-bound CodY represses metabolic pathways including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) biosynthesis, however under BCAA depletion, as occurs during infection, BCAA biosynthesis is upregulated and isoleucine-unbound CodY activates virulence genes...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
P Gómez-Cortés, A Cívico, M A de la Fuente, N Núñez Sánchez, F Peña Blanco, A L Martínez Marín
Milk fat composition can be modulated by the inclusion of lipid supplements in ruminant diets. An interaction between the lipid supplement and the forage to concentrate ratio or the type of forage in the rations may affect milk fat composition. However, little is known about the effects of the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio in the concentrate and lipid supplementation of goat diets. The aim of this work was to determine the role of dietary carbohydrates in goats rations supplemented with linseed oil on animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile...
March 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Riccardo Natoli, Nilisha Fernando, Tess Dahlenburg, Haihan Jiao, Riemke Aggio-Bruce, Nigel L Barnett, Juan Manuel Chao de la Barca, Guillaume Tcherkez, Pascal Reynier, Johnny Fang, Joshua A Chu-Tan, Krisztina Valter, Jan Provis, Matt Rutar
Purpose: Systemic increases in reactive oxygen species, and their association with inflammation, have been proposed as an underlying mechanism linking obesity and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Studies have found increased levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines in obese individuals; however, the correlation between obesity and retinal inflammation has yet to be assessed. We used the leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mouse to further our understanding of the contribution of obesity to retinal oxidative stress and inflammation...
2018: Molecular Vision
Andréa T Faccio, Francisco J Ruperez, Nagendra S Singh, Santiago Angulo, Marina F M Tavares, Michel Bernier, Coral Barbas, Irving W Wainer
BACKGROUND: Impairment in mitochondrial biogenesis and function plays a key role in depression and anxiety, both of which being associated with changes in fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism. The antidepressant effects of (R,S)-ketamine have been linked to its conversion into (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK); however, the connection between structure and stereochemistry of ketamine and HNK in the mitochondrial homeostatic response has not yet been fully elucidated at a metabolic level...
March 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Liping Yang, Yuesheng Xia, Yuchen Tao, Huihui Geng, Yanyan Ding, Yibin Zhou
Three kinds of potato starch were treated with 2.2 N HCl at 35 °C for 40 days, and their susceptibility to acid hydrolysis and the resulting structural changes were evaluated. Red potato starch was more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and presented highest rate of hydrolysis. Lintnerized starches had relatively low average molecular weights and z-average radius of gyration. HPAEC analyses showed three lintners presented different molecular size distributions. Lintnerized yellow potato starch had few chains of DP ≤ 12 (2...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jeong Sang Yi, Minsuk Kim, Eun-Jung Kim, Byung-Gee Kim
Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are catabolized into various acyl-CoA compounds, which are key precursors used in polyketide productions. Because of that, BCAA catabolism needs fine tuning of flux balances for enhancing the production of polyketide antibiotics. To enhance BCAA catabolism for pikromycin production in Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, three key enzymes of BCAA catabolism, 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase III, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCDH) were manipulated...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Simon R Law, Daria Chrobok, Marta Juvany, Nicolas Delhomme, Pernilla Lindén, Bastiaan Brouwer, Abdul Ahad, Thomas Moritz, Stefan Jansson, Per Gardestrom, Olivier Keech
In plants, an individually darkened leaf (IDL) initiates senescence much more rapidly than a leaf from a whole darkened plant (DP). Combining transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana, we present an overview of the metabolic strategies that are employed in response to different darkening treatments. Under DP conditions, the perception of carbon starvation drove a profound metabolic readjustment in which lipids, branched-chain amino acids, and potentially monosaccharides released from cell wall loosening became important substrates for maintaining minimal ATP production...
March 9, 2018: Plant Physiology
E Yu Bezsudnova, K M Boyko, V O Popov
Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCATs) catalyze reversible stereoselective transamination of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine. BCATs are the key enzymes of BCAA metabolism in all organisms. The catalysis proceeds through the ping-pong mechanism with the assistance of the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). BCATs differ from other (S)-selective transaminases (TAs) in 3D-structure and organization of the PLP-binding domain. Unlike other (S)-selective TAs, BCATs belong to the PLP fold type IV and are characterized by the proton transfer on the re-face of PLP, in contrast to the si-specificity of proton transfer in fold type I (S)-selective TAs...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Philip Gehrman, Arjun Sengupta, Elizabeth Harders, Er Ubeydullah, Allan I Pack, Aalim Weljie
Study Objectives: Insomnia is a common sleep disorder that is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Patients with insomnia exhibit hyperarousal in multiple domains, including an elevated metabolic rate, but specific metabolic molecular perturbations are unknown. Furthermore, objective clinical markers of insomnia are not available and current assessment of pathological extent relies on self-report. Here, we provide preliminary evidence that chronic insomnia is remarkably reflected in the periphery through detailed metabolic assessments...
March 7, 2018: Sleep
Rajesh Dabur, Amey Shirolkar, Vijender Mishra, Baljeet Singh Yadav
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption damages the intestine and liver cells directly as well as through unbalancing the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to correlate the alcohol consumption and change in urinary metabolites profile linked with gut microbiota. METHOD: Non-alcoholic (control) healthy (n=22) and moderate alcoholic (n=26) males with an average age of 39.3±1.83 years subjected to alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) were considered for study...
March 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Juho Tynkkynen, Vincent Chouraki, Sven J van der Lee, Jussi Hernesniemi, Qiong Yang, Shuo Li, Alexa Beiser, Martin G Larson, Katri Sääksjärvi, Martin J Shipley, Archana Singh-Manoux, Robert E Gerszten, Thomas J Wang, Aki S Havulinna, Peter Würtz, Krista Fischer, Ayse Demirkan, M Arfan Ikram, Najaf Amin, Terho Lehtimäki, Mika Kähönen, Markus Perola, Andres Metspalu, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Mika Ala-Korpela, Ramachandran S Vasan, Mika Kivimäki, Cornelia M van Duijn, Sudha Seshadri, Veikko Salomaa
INTRODUCTION: Metabolite, lipid, and lipoprotein lipid profiling can provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We studied eight prospective cohorts with 22,623 participants profiled by nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry metabolomics. Four cohorts were used for discovery with replication undertaken in the other four to avoid false positives. For metabolites that survived replication, combined association results are presented...
February 28, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Chie Furuta, Hitoshi Murakami
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: This study was aimed at understanding the relationship between plasma amino acids and protein malnutrition and at determining whether amino acid supplementation associated with malnutrition and growth improves linear growth in growing rats. METHODS: Body length and plasma amino acids were measured in young male rats that were fed the following diet for 3 weeks, mimicking a low and imbalanced protein diets based on maize, a major staple consumed in developing countries: a 70% calorically restricted cornmeal-based diet (C), C + micronutrients (CM), CM + casein (CMC), CM + soy protein (CMS) or CMS + 0...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Oren Rom, Michael Aviram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Heather N Koopman
The Odontocetes (toothed whales) possess two types of specialized fat and, therefore, represent an interesting group when considering the evolution and function of adipose tissue. All whales have a layer of superficial blubber, which insulates and streamlines, provides buoyancy and acts as an energy reserve. Some toothed whales deposit large amounts of wax esters, rather than triacylglycerols, in blubber, which is unusual. Waxes have very different physical and physiological properties, which may impact blubber function...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
J S Shen, Y Y Chen, L E Moraes, Z T Yu, W Y Zhu
This study investigated the effects of dietary protein sources and nisin on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion, plasma metabolites, N utilization, and growth performance in growing lambs. Thirty-two male Hu lambs (23 ± 2 kg initial BW) were assigned to four dietary treatments in a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Two protein sources, soybean meal (SBM) and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and two levels of nisin, 0 and 30.5 mg of nisin/kg of feed, were used to formulate four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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