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Shir Reen Chia, Kit Wayne Chew, Pau Loke Show, Yee Jiun Yap, Hwai Chyuan Ong, Tau Chuan Ling, Jo-Shu Chang
Microalgae are considered promising feedstock for the production of biofuels and other bioactive compounds, yet there are still challenges on commercial applications of microalgae-based products. This review focuses on the economic analysis, environmental impact and industrial potential of biofuels production from microalgae. The cost of biofuels production remains higher compared to conventional fuel sources. However, integration of biorefinery pathways with biofuels production for the recovery of value-added products (such as antioxidants, natural dyes, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, polyunsaturated fatty acids and so forth) could substantially reduce the production costs...
January 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Marina Pančić, Thomas Kiørboe
In aquatic ecosystems, unicellular algae form the basis of the food webs. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that one of the mechanisms that maintain high diversity of phytoplankton is through predation and the consequent evolution of defence mechanisms. Proposed defence mechanisms in phytoplankton are diverse and include physiological (e.g. toxicity, bioluminescence), morphological (e.g. silica shell, colony formation), and behavioural (e.g. escape response) traits. However, the function of many of the proposed defence mechanisms remains elusive, and the costs and benefits (trade-offs) are often unquantified or undocumented...
January 21, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Muhammad Akram, Imtiaz Mahmood Tahir, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah, Zahed Mahmood, Awais Altaf, Khalil Ahmad, Naveed Munir, Muhammad Daniyal, Suhaila Nasir, Huma Mehboob
Viral infections are being managed therapeutically through available antiviral regimens with unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. The refractory viral infections resistant to available antiviral drugs are alarming threats and a serious health concern. For viral hepatitis, the interferon and vaccine therapies solely are not ultimate solutions due to recurrence of hepatitis C virus. Owing to the growing incidences of viral infections and especially of resistant viral strains, the available therapeutic modalities need to be improved, complemented with the discovery of novel antiviral agents to combat refractory viral infections...
January 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Hou Wang, Yan Wu, Xingzhong Yuan, Guangming Zeng, Jin Zhou, Xin Wang, Jia Wei Chew
MXene, an important and increasingly popular category of postgraphene 2D nanomaterials, has been rigorously investigated since early 2011 because of advantages including flexible tunability in element composition, hydrophobicity, metallic nature, unique in-plane anisotropic structure, high charge-carrier mobility, tunable band gap, and favorable optical and mechanical properties. To fully exploit these potentials and further expand beyond the existing boundaries, novel functional nanostructures spanning monolayer, multilayer, nanoparticles, and composites have been developed by means of intercalation, delamination, functionalization, hybridization, among others...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Elizabeth A Thomas, Santosh R D'Mello
By their ability to shatter quality of life for both patients and caregivers, neurodegenerative diseases are the most devastating of human disorders. Unfortunately, there are no effective or long-terms treatments capable of slowing down the relentless loss of neurons in any of these diseases. One impediment is the lack of detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the processes of neurodegeneration. While some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, are mostly sporadic in nature, driven by both environment and genetic susceptibility, many others, including Huntington's disease, Spinocerebellar ataxias and Spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy, are genetically inherited disorders...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Kayla A Holder, Emilie M Comeau, Michael D Grant
The few initial formative studies describing non-specific and apparently spontaneous activity of natural killer (NK) cells have since multiplied into thousands of scientific reports defining their unique capacities and means of regulation. Characterization of the array of receptors that govern NK cell education and activation revealed an unexpected relationship with the major histocompatibility molecules that NK cells originally became well known for ignoring. Proceeding true to form, NK cells continue to upend archetypal understanding of their ever expanding capabilities...
January 21, 2018: Immunology
Dunja Ana Vekic, John Frew, Geoffrey David Cains
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, painful, autoinflammatory condition resulting in nodules, abscesses and sinus tracts. We present an evidence-based review providing new understanding of the pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa and associated comorbidities. By the nature of their speciality, dermatologists are uniquely positioned to investigate and treat patients with this condition. Data collected from a subspecialty hidradenitis suppurativa clinic (N = 106) and experiences thereof are discussed in this review...
January 21, 2018: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik, Łukasz Stryczyński, Paweł Uruski, Andrzej Tykarski, Krzysztof Książek
Human peritoneal mesothelial cells belong to a narrow group of somatic cells in which both the triggers and the mechanisms of senescence have already been well defined. Importantly, senescent mesothelial cells have been found in the peritoneal cavity in vivo. From a clinical point of view, peritoneal mesothelial cells have been recognized as playing a critical role in the intraperitoneal development of tumor metastases. The pro-cancerogenic behavior of mesothelial cells is even more pronounced when the cells exhaust their proliferative capacity and become senescent...
January 17, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Dominik Filipp, Tomáš Brabec, Matouš Vobořil, Jan Dobeš
The gut is the biggest immune organ in the body that encloses commensal microbiota which aids in food digestion. Paneth cells, positioned at the frontline of host-microbiota interphase, can modulate the composition of microbiota. Paneth cells achieve this via the delivery of microbicidal substances, among which enteric α-defensins play the primary role. If microbiota is dysregulated, it can impact the function and fitness of the local mucosal immune system. Importantly, this system is also exposed to an enormous number of antigens which are derived from the gut-resident microbiota and processed food, and may potentially trigger undesirable local inflammatory responses...
January 16, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Vilém Zachleder, Milada Vítová, Monika Hlavová, Šárka Moudříková, Peter Mojzeš, Hermann Heumann, Johannes R Becher, Kateřina Bišová
Stable isotopes are used in wide fields of application from natural tracers in biology, geology and archeology through studies of metabolic fluxes to their application as tracers in quantitative proteomics and structural biology. We review the use of stable isotopes of biogenic elements (H, C, N, O, S, Mg, Se) with the emphasis on hydrogen and its heavy isotope deuterium. We will discuss the limitations of enriching various compounds in stable isotopes when produced in living organisms. Finally, we overview methods for measuring stable isotopes, focusing on methods for detection in single cells in situ and their exploitation in modern biotechnologies...
January 17, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Shuang Qu, Sibao Wang
Entomopathogenic fungi can invade wide range of insect hosts in the natural world and have been used as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides for pest control. Studies of host-pathogen interactions provide valuable insights into the coevolutionay arms race between fungal pathogens and their hosts. Entomopathogenic fungi have evolved a series of sophisticated strategies to counter insect immune defenses. In response to fungal infection, insect hosts rely on behavior avoidance and innate defenses in the fight against invading pathogens, including the use of physical barriers and innate immune responses...
January 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Conor C Taff, Laura A Schoenle, Maren N Vitousek
Glucocorticoids are highly conserved hormones that mediate a suite of responses to changing conditions in vertebrates. Recent work has focused on understanding how selection operates on glucocorticoid secretion in natural populations. Because heritability is rarely estimated and difficult to measure in the wild, many studies report within-individual repeatability as an estimate of stable between individual differences in glucocorticoid secretion. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on estimates of within-individual glucocorticoid repeatability to elucidate general patterns of repeatability, and to test for relationships between covariates and estimates of repeatability...
January 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
C González-Cabezas, C E Fernández
Remineralization of caries lesions is naturally achieved by salivary ions, and it can be enhanced by external factors or elements such as fluoride. Numerous studies have demonstrated the remineralizing efficacy of fluoride therapies as well as the limitations with some groups of the population. Consequently, developing new remineralization therapies to close this gap in efficacy has been a priority for the last 2 decades. In this review, we summarize and briefly discuss some of the latest advances in remineralization therapies...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
P Priscilla Lui, Byron L Zamboanga
Acculturation has been considered a key sociocultural factor that helps explain Asian American's mental health outcomes, including alcohol use. Yet, findings on the degree to which acculturation is directly linked to alcohol use have been mixed. The present meta-analysis reviewed original studies published since 1979, and tested the association between acculturation and alcohol use outcomes among Asian Americans across age groups. Analyses also examined the extent to which participant and methodological variables moderated this relation...
January 22, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Fu-Min Zhang, Shu-Yu Zhang, Yong-Qiang Tu
Covering: 2011 to July 2017.Spiroketal (spiroacetal), a common moiety in numerous natural products, drugs and functional molecules, has been a central topic in organic chemistry for a long time. Owing to their structural diversity, important bioactivity and functional irreplaceability, natural spiroketals have attracted the interest of natural product chemists, medical chemists, biological chemists, agricultural chemists, synthetic chemists, and chemical biologists. In this review, we focus on the overview of the isolation, bioactivity, biosynthesis and total synthesis of spiroketals from 2011 to July 2017...
January 22, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Mijin Kim, Hee-Sook Lim, Hae-Hyeog Lee, Tae-Hee Kim
Some species of traditional herbal medicine has a history of use, most traditional natural herbs have been used for various diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Among them, Passiflora incarnata L. is a traditional natural medicine, flowers as well as berries, roots, and leaves have been used as a medicine. It has been used as a natural medicine for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety for a longtime in Europe, and it has been used primarily for sedation tea in North America. Moreover, Passiflora incarnata L...
December 2017: Journal of Menopausal Medicine
Steven Schinke, Traci Marie Schwinn
Purpose of Review: Computer-based programs for substance use prevention and intervention among youth are on the ascendancy. Whether delivered by computer per se or by electronic tablet or smartphone, technology-driven programs are harmonious with how young people access information and interact with their worlds. This review examines recent evidence on computer-based programs aimed at substance use among youth, with particular attention to results from randomized trials. Recent Findings: Outcome studies of computer-based, substance use-related programs published over the past 5 years reveal mixed results amidst diverse intervention approaches and delivery settings...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
Nilton Custodio, Rosa Montesinos, David Lira, Eder Herrera-Pérez, Yadira Bardales, Lucía Valeriano-Lorenzo
Mixed dementia is the coexistence of Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in the same demented patient. Currently, its diagnosis and treatment remains a challenge for practitioners. To provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, natural history, diagnosis, and therapy of Mixed Vascular-Alzheimer Dementia (MVAD). The literature was reviewed for articles published between 1990-2016 by using the keywords linked to MVAD. Neuropathological studies indicate that MVAD is a very common pathological finding in the elderly with a prevalence about of 22%...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Amanda K Gibson, Levi T Morran
Many of the outstanding questions in disease ecology and evolution call for combining observation of natural host-parasite populations with experimental dissection of interactions in the field and the laboratory. The "rewilding" of model systems holds great promise for this endeavor. Here, we highlight the potential for development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its close relatives as a model for the study of disease ecology and evolution. This powerful laboratory model was disassociated from its natural habitat in the 1960s...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
Gang Cao, Pedro Schlottmann
Effects of spin-orbit interactions in condensed matter are an important and rapidly evolving topic. Strong competition between spin-orbit, on-site Coulomb and crystalline electric field interactions in iridates drives exotic quantum states that are unique to this group of materials. In particular, the "Jeff = ½" Mott state served as an early signal that the combined effect of strong spin-orbit and Coulomb interactions in iridates has unique, intriguing consequences. In this Key Issues Review, we survey some current experimental studies of iridates...
January 22, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
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