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nature review

Peter Sandner, Peter Berger, Christoph Zenzmaier
Fibrotic diseases cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and their incidence increases with age. Despite intense research and development efforts, effective and well-tolerated antifibrotic treatments are scarce. Transforming growth factor-β signaling, which is widely considered the most important profibrotic factor, causes a pro-oxidant shift in redox homeostasis and a concomitant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell and organ function in whole-body hemostasis...
October 27, 2016: Gerontology
J Mertens, J Germer, J A Siqueira, J Sauerborn
Spondias tuberosa Arr., a fructiferous tree endemic to the northeast Brazilian tropical dry forest called Caatinga, accounts for numerous benefits for its ecosystem as well as for the dwellers of the Caatinga. The tree serves as feed for pollinators and dispersers as well as fodder for domestic ruminants, and is a source of additional income for local smallholders and their families. Despite its vantages, it is facing several man-made and natural threats, and it is suspected that S. tuberosa could become extinct...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Erica Mayumi Guskuma, Aline Alves Dos Santos Dullius, Mônica La Salette da Costa Godinho, Maria Silvana Totti Costa, Fábio de Souza Terra
Objective: report the experience of international academic mobility in Ireland through the program Science Without Borders during undergraduate education in nursing. Method: a report of experience presented in chronological order, with a descriptive nature. Results: the opportunity to know and be able to discuss questions regarding health and nursing in Ireland allowed the review of concepts and a more reflective perspective regarding nursing practices...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
S Pooley, M Barua, W Beinart, A Dickman, G Holmes, J Lorimer, A J Loveridge, D W Macdonald, G Marvin, S Redpath, C Sillero-Zubiri, A Zimmermann, E J Milner-Gulland
In a world of shrinking habitats and increasing competition for natural resources, potentially dangerous predators bring the challenges of coexisting with wildlife sharply into focus. Through interdisciplinary collaboration between authors trained in the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences, this paper offers a review of current approaches and a vision for future approaches to understanding and mitigating adverse human-predator encounters. The paper first reviews some limitations to current approaches to mitigation...
October 26, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Tert C van Alphen, Maarten R Fechner, Jeroen M Smit, Gerrit D Slooter, Coralien L Broekhuysen
BACKGROUND: In autologous breast reconstruction, abdominal based flaps are by far the most common choice from the wide range of free flaps available. In selected cases, a laparoscopically harvested omental free flap (LHOFF) can be used. Patient satisfaction has not been reported until now. In this article, we report our experience using LHOFF in breast reconstruction including our technique, patient satisfaction, and donor/recipient site complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2007 and 2014, six patients underwent autologous breast reconstruction with LHOFF...
October 26, 2016: Microsurgery
Bozena Karbowska
Thallium is released into the biosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources. It is generally present in the environment at low levels; however, human activity has greatly increased its content. Atmospheric emission and deposition from industrial sources have resulted in increased concentrations of thallium in the vicinity of mineral smelters and coal-burning facilities. Increased levels of thallium are found in vegetables, fruit and farm animals. Thallium is toxic even at very low concentrations and tends to accumulate in the environment once it enters the food chain...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Rama I Mahran, Magda M Hagras, Duxin Sun, Dean E Brenner
Cancer is still a major cause of death all over the world. Its incidence and prevalence are increasing drastically. Cancer treatment imposes high socioeconomic burden with little impact especially on aggressive types of cancer. Reversing or delaying carcinogenesis "cancer chemoprevention" by purified or extracted natural products is a cost-effective alternative. Curcumin is widely available, inexpensive spice that has been used in ancient folk medicine for millennia, especially in India. Curcumin has the pharmacological properties that slow or reverse cellular proliferation and enhance apoptosis and differentiation associated with a diverse array of molecular effects...
October 25, 2016: AAPS Journal
Marina Aparicio-Soto, Marina Sánchez-Hidalgo, Ma Ángeles Rosillo, Ma Luisa Castejón, Catalina Alarcón-de-la-Lastra
Nowadays, it is clear that an unhealthy diet is one of the prime factors that contributes to the rise of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity in the populations of both developed and developing countries. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced incidence of certain pathologies related to chronic inflammation and the immune system. Olive oil, the principal source of dietary lipids of the Mediterranean diet, possesses a high nutritional quality and a particular composition, which is especially relevant in the case of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO)...
October 26, 2016: Food & Function
Hanns Moshammer, Stana Simic, Daniela Haluza
Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation covers the spectrum of wavelengths from 100 to 400 nm. The potency and biological activity for a variety of endpoints differ by wavelength. For monitoring and communication purposes, different UV action spectra have been developed. These spectra use different weighting functions. The action spectrum for erythemal dose is the most widely used one. This erythemal dose per time or dose-rate has been further simplified into a "UV index". Following this example, in our review we use the term "index" or (plural) "indices" in a more general description for all simplified single-value measures for any biologically effective UV dose, e...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Paige C Woodham, James W Fulcher, Michael E Ward
Ligature strangulation, although typically homicidal in nature, has been reported as accidental in both the pediatric and adult populations. The unique mode of accidental strangulation with a gastric feeding tube in a 23-month-old with Down syndrome is currently unreported in the literature and has prompted us to report this case and look into safety modifications that can be made to these common medical devices. Given the number of children with gastric feeding tubes and concern over this exact scenario brought up by parents, it is unusual that a similar case has not been reported...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Geoffrey R Norman, Sandra D Monteiro, Jonathan Sherbino, Jonathan S Ilgen, Henk G Schmidt, Sylvia Mamede
Contemporary theories of clinical reasoning espouse a dual processing model, which consists of a rapid, intuitive component (Type 1) and a slower, logical and analytical component (Type 2). Although the general consensus is that this dual processing model is a valid representation of clinical reasoning, the causes of diagnostic errors remain unclear. Cognitive theories about human memory propose that such errors may arise from both Type 1 and Type 2 reasoning. Errors in Type 1 reasoning may be a consequence of the associative nature of memory, which can lead to cognitive biases...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Aliki Thomas, Stuart Lubarsky, Steven J Durning, Meredith E Young
An unprecedented rise in health professions education (HPE) research has led to increasing attention and interest in knowledge syntheses. There are many different types of knowledge syntheses in common use, including systematic reviews, meta-ethnography, rapid reviews, narrative reviews, and realist reviews. In this Perspective, the authors examine the nature, purpose, value, and appropriate use of one particular method: scoping reviews. Scoping reviews are iterative and flexible and can serve multiple main purposes: to examine the extent, range, and nature of research activity in a given field; to determine the value and appropriateness of undertaking a full systematic review; to summarize and disseminate research findings; and to identify research gaps in the existing literature...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Paolo Lissoni
Despite its apparent failure in cancer therapy, IL-2 still remains fundamental in the activation of antitumor immunity. Areas covered: The aim of this review is the reinterpretation of the role of IL-2 in anticancer immunity, according to knowledge gained of the cytokine network, by highlighting its importance in inducing T helper-1 (TH1) cell proliferation, natural killer (NK) actHivation and IL-12 secretion. However, its main negative effect is the stimulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which in contrast suppresses anticancer immunity...
October 26, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Bryan Paul Morgan, David Walters, Marina Serna, Doryen Bubeck
Complement is a key component of innate immunity in health and a powerful driver of inflammation and tissue injury in disease. The biological and pathological effects of complement activation are mediated by activation products. These come in two flavors: (i) proteolytic fragments of complement proteins (C3, C4, C5) generated during activation that bind specific receptors on target cells to mediate effects; (ii) the multimolecular membrane attack complex generated from the five terminal complement proteins that directly binds to and penetrates target cell membranes...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Daniel Ricklin, Edimara S Reis, Dimitrios C Mastellos, Piet Gros, John D Lambris
As a preformed defense system, complement faces a delicate challenge in providing an immediate, forceful response to pathogens even at first encounter, while sparing host cells in the process. For this purpose, it engages a tightly regulated network of plasma proteins, cell surface receptors, and regulators. Complement component C3 plays a particularly versatile role in this process by keeping the cascade alert, acting as a point of convergence of activation pathways, fueling the amplification of the complement response, exerting direct effector functions, and helping to coordinate downstream immune responses...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Christoph Q Schmidt, John D Lambris, Daniel Ricklin
The complement cascade is an ancient immune-surveillance system that not only provides protection from pathogen invasion but has also evolved to participate in physiological processes to maintain tissue homeostasis. The alternative pathway (AP) of complement activation is the evolutionarily oldest part of this innate immune cascade. It is unique in that it is continuously activated at a low level and arbitrarily probes foreign, modified-self, and also unaltered self-structures. This indiscriminate activation necessitates the presence of preformed regulators on autologous surfaces to spare self-cells from the undirected nature of AP activation...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Pedro Berraondo, Luna Minute, Daniel Ajona, Leticia Corrales, Ignacio Melero, Ruben Pio
Chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment and evasion of the antitumor effector immune response are two of the emerging hallmarks required for oncogenesis and cancer progression. The innate immune system not only plays a critical role in perpetuating these tumor-promoting hallmarks but also in developing antitumor adaptive immune responses. Thus, understanding the dual role of the innate system in cancer immunology is required for the design of combined immunotherapy strategies able to tackle established tumors...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Belen Rubio-Gonzalez, Jasmine Zain, Steven T Rosen, Christiane Querfeld
The primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of T-, Natural Killer- and B- cell neoplasms with a wide range of clinical and pathological presentations, and with very different prognoses compared to systemic lymphomas. Recent studies have shown that the skin microenvironment, which is composed of various immune cell subsets as well as their spatial distribution and T-cell interactions through different chemokines and cytokines, has an important role in the development and pathogenesis of cutaneous lymphomas and has assisted in the development of novel and more effective immunotherapies...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Xiaolei Ji, Hanmin Huang
1,3-Diamines not only are significant motifs in natural products, but also serve as building blocks in synthetic organic chemistry. However, unlike their 1,2-diamine counterparts, limited efforts have been devoted to the development of an effective synthetic approach to 1,3-diamines. In this review, the synthetic methods for the preparation of 1,3-diamines are summarized.
October 26, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Jeremy Robertson, Kiri Stevens
Covering: 2013 up to the end of 2015This review covers the isolation and structure of new pyrrolizidines; pyrrolizidine biosynthesis; biological activity, including the occurrence of pyrrolizidines as toxic components or contaminants in foods and beverages; and formal and total syntheses of naturally-occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids and closely related non-natural analogues.
October 26, 2016: Natural Product Reports
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