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Spinal cord stimulators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165241/lifting-the-veil-on-the-dynamics-of-neuronal-activities-evoked-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#1
Bingshuo Li, Juha P Virtanen, Axel Oeltermann, Cornelius Schwarz, Martin A Giese, Ulf Ziemann, Alia Benali
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used non-invasive tool to study and modulate human brain functions. However, TMS-evoked activity of individual neurons has remained largely inaccessible due to the large TMS-induced electromagnetic fields. Here we present a general method providing direct in vivo electrophysiological access to TMS-evoked neuronal activity 0.8-1 ms after TMS onset. We translated human single-pulse TMS to rodents and unveiled time-grained evoked activities of motor cortex layer V neurons that show high-frequency spiking within the first 6 ms depending on TMS-induced current orientation and a multiphasic spike-rhythm alternating between excitation and inhibition in the 6-300 ms epoch, all of which can be linked to various human TMS responses recorded at the level of spinal cord and muscles...
November 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164752/spinal-cord-stimulation-with-conventional-clinical-and-higher-frequencies-on-activity-and-responses-of-spinal-neurons-to-noxious-stimuli-an-animal-study
#2
Shiying Li, Jay P Farber, Bengt Linderoth, Jiande Chen, Robert D Foreman
OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) at both conventional and higher frequencies may effectively reduce pain, but optimal parameters need to be established. This study investigated how SCS at different frequencies and pulse widths acutely modulates nociceptive activity of wide dynamic range (WDR) and high threshold (HT) dorsal horn neurons in rats at a stimulus amplitude that influences both local circuits and dorsal column fibers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: L2 -L3 and L6 -S2 spinal segments were exposed for SCS and spinal neuronal recordings, respectively...
November 22, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164029/a-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-management-of-patients-with-acute-spinal-cord-injury-recommendations-on-the-type-and-timing-of-rehabilitation
#3
Michael G Fehlings, Lindsay A Tetreault, Bizhan Aarabi, Paul Anderson, Paul M Arnold, Darrel S Brodke, Kazuhiro Chiba, Joseph R Dettori, Julio C Furlan, James S Harrop, Gregory Hawryluk, Langston T Holly, Susan Howley, Tara Jeji, Sukhvinder Kalsi-Ryan, Mark Kotter, Shekar Kurpad, Brian K Kwon, Ralph J Marino, Allan R Martin, Eric Massicotte, Geno Merli, James W Middleton, Hiroaki Nakashima, Narihito Nagoshi, Katherine Palmieri, Anoushka Singh, Andrea C Skelly, Eve C Tsai, Alexander Vaccaro, Jefferson R Wilson, Albert Yee, Anthony S Burns
Introduction: The objective of this study is to develop guidelines that outline the appropriate type and timing of rehabilitation in patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to address key questions related to rehabilitation in patients with acute SCI. A multidisciplinary guideline development group used this information, and their clinical expertise, to develop recommendations for the type and timing of rehabilitation...
September 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163344/systemic-and-local-cytokine-profile-following-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats-a-multiplex-analysis
#4
Yana O Mukhamedshina, Elvira R Akhmetzyanova, Ekaterina V Martynova, Svetlana F Khaiboullina, Luisa R Galieva, Albert A Rizvanov
Our study of the changes in cytokine profile in blood serum and in the spinal cord after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has shown that an inflammatory reaction and immunological response are not limited to the CNS, but widespread. This fact was confirmed by changes detected in a cytokine profile in blood serum samples [MIP-1α, interleukin 1 (IL-1) α, IL-2, IL-5, IL-1β, MCP-1, RANTES]. There were also changes in the levels of MIP-1α, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-5, IL-18, GM-colony-stimulating factor, IL-17α, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, MCP-1, and GRO KC CINC-1 in samples of the rat injured spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163107/the-complexity-of-h-wave-amplitude-fluctuations-and-their-bilateral-cross-covariance-are-modified-according-to-the-previous-fitness-history-of-young-subjects-under-track-training
#5
Maria E Ceballos-Villegas, Juan J Saldaña Mena, Ana L Gutierrez Lozano, Francisco J Sepúlveda-Cañamar, Nayeli Huidobro, Elias Manjarrez, Joel Lomeli
The Hoffmann reflex (H-wave) is produced by alpha-motoneuron activation in the spinal cord. A feature of this electromyography response is that it exhibits fluctuations in amplitude even during repetitive stimulation with the same intensity of current. We herein explore the hypothesis that physical training induces plastic changes in the motor system. Such changes are evaluated with the fractal dimension (FD) analysis of the H-wave amplitude-fluctuations (H-wave FD) and the cross-covariance (CCV) between the bilateral H-wave amplitudes...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163064/turtle-flexion-reflex-motor-patterns-show-windup-mediated-partly-by-l-type-calcium-channels
#6
Keith P Johnson, Stephen M Tran, Emily A Siegrist, Krishna B Paidimarri, Matthew S Elson, Ari Berkowitz
Windup is a form of multisecond temporal summation in which identical stimuli, delivered seconds apart, trigger increasingly strong neuronal responses. L-type Ca(2+) channels have been shown to play an important role in the production of windup of spinal cord neuronal responses, initially in studies of turtle spinal cord and later in studies of mammalian spinal cord. L-type Ca(2+) channels have also been shown to contribute to windup of limb withdrawal reflex (flexion reflex) in rats, but flexion reflex windup has not previously been described in turtles and its cellular mechanisms have not been studied...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161465/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-for-the-prevention-of-venous-thromboembolism
#7
REVIEW
Shahab Hajibandeh, Shahin Hajibandeh, George A Antoniou, James Rh Scurr, Francesco Torella
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious but preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation systems (NMES) for the prevention of VTE may be beneficial for patients in whom pharmacological or standard mechanical prophylaxis methods are contraindicated or are regarded as unsafe or impractical. Although findings of experimental studies suggest that NMES reduce venous stasis, the clinical utility and effectiveness of NMES in VTE prevention remain controversial...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160793/a-gal-m%C3%A2%C2%B5s-device-to-evaluate-cell-migratory-response-to-combined-galvano-chemotactic-fields
#8
Shawn Mishra, Maribel Vazquez
Electric fields have been studied extensively in biomedical engineering (BME) for numerous regenerative therapies. Recent studies have begun to examine the biological effects of electric fields in combination with other environmental cues, such as tissue-engineered extracellular matrices (ECM), chemical gradient profiles, and time-dependent temperature gradients. In the nervous system, cell migration driven by electrical fields, or galvanotaxis, has been most recently studied in transcranial direct stimulation (TCDS), spinal cord repair and tumor treating fields (TTF)...
November 21, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160569/reconstruction-of-bladder-function-and-prevention-of-renal-deterioration-by-means-of-end-to-side-neurorrhaphy-in-rats-with-neurogenic-bladder
#9
Yun Long Li, Jian Jun Wen, Yi Bo Wen, Xiang Fei He, Jun Wei Wu, Yan Wei Li, Zhong Jiang Han, Jin Jin Feng, Shao Hua Yan, Shou Lin Li, John Pfa Heesakkers, Wan Sheng Gao, Jian Guo Wen
AIMS: To investigate the feasibility of restoring bladder function and prevention of renal deterioration by neurorrhaphy in rats with neurogenic bladder (NB). METHODS: Forty-two rats were assigned to the end-to-side nerve coaptation group (ECG, n = 16), no nerve coaptation group (NCG, n = 16), and control group (CG, n = 10). In the ECG, the left ventral root (VR) and dorsal root (DR) of L6 and S1 were transected, and the distal stump of L6VR was sutured to the lateral face of L4VR...
November 21, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160143/some-autonomic-deficits-of-acute-or-chronic-cervical-spinal-contusion-reversed-by-interim-brainstem-stimulation
#10
Alberto A Vitores, Stephanie S Sloley, Catalina Martinez, Melissa M Carballosa-Gautam, Ian D Hentall
Prolonged electrical stimulation of the hindbrain's nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) or its major midbrain input region, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), was previously found in rats to promote recovery from sensory-motor and histological deficits of acute thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, some visceral deficits of acute and chronic midline cervical (C5) contusion are similarly examined. Cranially implanted wireless stimulators delivered intermittent 8 Hz, 30-70 µA cathodal pulse trains to a brainstem microelectrode...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158692/pulsed-radiofrequency-of-brachial-plexus-under-ultrasound-guidance-for-refractory-stump-pain-a-case-report
#11
Bixin Zheng, Li Song, Hui Liu
The post-amputation (pain) syndrome, including stump pain, phantom limb sensation, and phantom limb pain is common but difficult to treat. Refractory stump pain in the syndrome is an extremely challenging and troublesome clinical condition. Patients respond poorly to drugs, nerve blocks, and other effective treatments like spinal cord stimulation and surgery. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) technique has been shown to be effective in reducing neuropathic pain. This report describes a patient with persistent and refractory upper limb stump pain being successfully relieved with PRF of brachial plexus under ultrasound guidance after a 6-month follow-up period, suggesting that PRF may be considered as an alternative treatment for refractory stump-neuroma pain...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156769/liraglutide-activates-autophagy-via-glp-1r-to-improve-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Jian Chen, Zhouguang Wang, Yuqin Mao, Zengming Zheng, Yu Chen, Sinan Khor, Kesi Shi, Zili He, Jiawei Li, Fanghua Gong, Yanlong Liu, Aiping Hu, Jian Xiao, Xiangyang Wang
Therapeutics used to treat central nervous system (CNS) injury are designed to promote axonal regeneration and inhibit cell death. Previous studies have shown that liraglutide exerts potent neuroprotective effects after brain injury. However, little is known if liraglutide treatment has neuroprotective effects after spinal cord injury (SCI). This study explores the neuroprotective effects of liraglutide and associated underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that liraglutide could improve recovery after injury by decreasing apoptosis as well as increasing microtubulin acetylation, and autophagy...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155958/effect-of-preoperative-opioid-dosage-on-postoperative-period-after-thoracic-spinal-cord-stimulator-surgery
#13
Ravichandra A Madineni, Colin M Smith, Shannon W Clark, David W Boorman, Chengyuan Wu, Dajie Wang, James S Harrop, Ashwini D Sharan
Objective: We aim to study the impact of preoperative opioid dosage on postoperative length of stay (LOS) in patients undergoing thoracic spinal cord stimulator (SCS) placement surgery as a primary objective. Secondary objectives of this study include investigating patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) usage and postoperative complications like fever in relation to patients' preoperative opioid dosage and postoperative LOS. Methods: A total of 47 patients who underwent thoracic SCS for first time were retrospectively studied through chart review...
November 16, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152227/promising-neuroprotective-strategies-for-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-with-a-focus-on-the-differential-effects-among-anatomical-levels-of-injury
#14
REVIEW
Antigona Ulndreaj, Anna Badner, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition of motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. The significant cost associated with the management and lifetime care of patients with SCI also presents a major economic burden. For these reasons, there is a need to develop and translate strategies that can improve outcomes following SCI. Given the challenges in achieving regeneration of the injured spinal cord, neuroprotection has been at the forefront of clinical translation. Yet, despite many preclinical advances, there has been limited translation into the clinic apart from methylprednisolone (which remains controversial), hypertensive therapy to maintain spinal cord perfusion, and early decompressive surgery...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150727/measuring-emotional-intelligence-enhances-the-psychological-evaluation-of-chronic-pain
#15
Eva M Doherty, Rosemary Walsh, Leanne Andrews, Susan McPherson
The assessment of emotional factors, in addition to other psychosocial factors, has been recommended as a means of identifying individuals with chronic pain who may not respond to certain pain treatments. Systematic reviews of the evidence regarding the prediction of responsiveness to a treatment called the spinal cord stimulator (SCS) have yielded inconclusive results. Emotional intelligence is a term which refers to the ability to identify and manage emotions in oneself and others and has been shown to be inversely associated with emotional distress and acute pain...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149801/response-to-phillips-et-al-an-autonomic-neuroprosthesis-non-invasive-electrical-spinal-cord-stimulation-restores-autonomic-cardiovascular-function-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#16
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149152/loss-of-efficacy-to-spinal-cord-stimulator-therapy-clinical-evidence-and-possible-causes
#17
Christopher M Aiudi, Roger Y Dunn, Sara M Burns, Sarah A Roth, Arissa Opalacz, Yi Zhang, Lucy Chen, Jianren Mao, Shihab U Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Although spinal cord stimulation (SCS) therapy has been shown to be efficacious in various pain conditions, the ability for SCS therapy to maintain long-term efficacy has been questioned. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a loss of efficacy (LOE) phenomenon exists with SCS therapy and to investigate if this phenomenon is more apparent in any specific patient population. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, observation chart review was conducted to evaluate the patient response to SCS therapy over time...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148269/salidroside-attenuates-neuroinflammation-and-improves-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-through-microglia-polarization-regulation
#18
Chenggui Wang, Qingqing Wang, Yiting Lou, Jianxiang Xu, Zhenhua Feng, Yu Chen, Qian Tang, Gang Zheng, Zengjie Zhang, Yaosen Wu, Naifeng Tian, Yifei Zhou, Huazi Xu, Xiaolei Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe neurological disease; however, few drugs have been proved to treat SCI effectively. Neuroinflammation is the major pathogenesis of SCI secondary injury and considered to be the therapeutic target of SCI. Salidroside (Sal) has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects in airway, adipose and myocardial tissue; however, the role of Sal in SCI therapeutics has not been clarified. In this study, we showed that Sal could improve the functional recovery of spinal cord in rats as revealed by increased BBB locomotor rating scale, angle of incline, and decreased cavity of spinal cord injury and apoptosis of neurons in vivo...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148135/cadence-tracking-and-disturbance-rejection-in-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-for-paraplegic-subjects-a-case-study
#19
Lucas O da Fonseca, Antônio P L Bó, Juliana A Guimarães, Miguel E Gutierrez, Emerson Fachin-Martins
Functional electrical stimulation cycling has been proposed as an assistive technology with numerous health and fitness benefits for people with spinal cord injury, such as improvement in cardiovascular function, increase in muscular mass, and reduction of bone mass loss. However, some limitations, for example, lack of optimal control strategies that would delay fatigue, may still prevent this technology from achieving its full potential. In this work, we performed experiments on a person with complete spinal cord injury using a stationary tadpole trike when both cadence tracking and disturbance rejection were evaluated...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148129/development-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-rowing-the-rowstim-series
#20
Brian Andrews, Robin Gibbons, Garry Wheeler
Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
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