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brain infant formula

R T Pivik, Aline Andres, Shasha Bai, Mario A Cleves, Kevin B Tennal, Yuyuan Gu, Thomas M Badger
Since maturational processes triggering increased attunement to native language features in early infancy are sensitive to dietary factors, infant-diet related differences in brain processing of native-language speech stimuli might indicate variations in the onset of this tuning process. We measured cortical responses (ERPs) to syllables in 4 and 5 month old infants fed breast milk, milk formula, or soy formula and found syllable discrimination (P350) and syntactic-related functions (P600) but not syllable perception (P170) varied by diet, but not gender or background measures...
October 19, 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
Ke Liao, Bruce D McCandliss, Susan E Carlson, John Colombo, D Jill Shaddy, Elizabeth H Kerling, Rebecca J Lepping, Wichian Sittiprapaporn, Carol L Cheatham, Kathleen M Gustafson
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have been shown to be necessary for early retinal and brain development, but long-term cognitive benefits of LCPUFA in infancy have not been definitively established. The present study sought to determine whether LCPUFA supplementation during the first year of life would result in group differences in behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) while performing a task requiring response inhibition (Go/No-Go) at 5.5 years of age. As newborns, 69 children were randomly assigned to infant formulas containing either no LCPUFA (control) or formula with 0...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
A L Dinel, C Rey, C Baudry, C Fressange-Mazda, P Le Ruyet, A Nadjar, P Pallet, C Joffre, S Layé
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids, which are critical for brain development and later life cognitive functions. The main brain PUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the n-3 family and arachidonic acid (ARA) for the n-6 family, which are provided to the post-natal brain by breast milk or infant formula. Recently, the use of dairy lipids (DL) in replacement of vegetable lipids (VL) was revealed to potently promote the accretion of DHA in the developing brain. Brain DHA, in addition to be a key component of brain development, display potent anti-inflammatory activities, which protect the brain from adverse inflammatory events...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Reeba M Jacob, Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Chron-Si Lai, Ryan N Dilger
INTRODUCTION: Provision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared (SR) or artificially reared (AR) in an artificial setting. METHODS: Over a 25-day feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Rulan Jiang, Bo Lönnerdal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteopontin (OPN) is an extensively phosphorylated acidic glycoprotein that is present at high concentration in human milk. Bovine milk OPN has recently become commercially available, and can thus be added to infant formula as well as other food products. Studies in experimental animals as well as a clinical trial in human infants reveal important biological roles for milk OPN. RECENT FINDINGS: Newborn wild-type mice nursing knock-out dams lacking milk OPN showed impaired cognitive development, reduced brain OPN and myelin-related proteins as compared with pups nursing wild-type dams...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Susanne Dold, Michael B Zimmermann, Jeannine Baumgartner, Tabea Davaz, Valeria Galetti, Christian Braegger, Maria Andersson
BACKGROUND: Optimal iodine intake during infancy is critical for brain development, but no estimated average requirement (EAR) is available for this age group. OBJECTIVE: We measured daily iodine intake, excretion, and retention over a range of iodine intakes in early infancy to determine the minimum daily intake required to achieve iodine balance. DESIGN: In a dose-response crossover study, we randomly assigned healthy infants (n = 11; mean ± SD age 13 ± 3 wk) to sequentially consume over 33 d 3 infant formula milks (IFMs) containing 10...
September 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Erika Ogawa, Mika Ishige, Yuno Takahashi, Hiroko Kodama, Tatsuo Fuchigami, Shori Takahashi
A 7-month-old girl was brought to hospital due to vomiting. Upon admission, she was in a convulsive state and stupor with extremely low blood glucose. Head computed tomography showed brain edema, and comprehensive treatment for acute encephalopathy was initiated immediately. Severe hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, elevation of ammonia and serum transaminases and creatine kinase suggested metabolic decompensation. Infusion of a high-glucose solution containing vitamins, biotin, and l-carnitine resolved the metabolic crisis quickly, but brain damage was irreversible...
August 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
A L Dinel, C Rey, C Bonhomme, P Le Ruyet, C Joffre, S Layé
Mimicking the breast milk lipid composition appears to be necessary for infant formula to cover the brain's needs in n-3 PUFA. In this study, we evaluated the impact of partial replacement of vegetable oil (VL) in infant formula by dairy fat (DL) on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain level, neuroplasticity and corticosterone in mice. Mice were fed with balanced VL or balanced DL diets enriched or not in DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) from the first day of gestation. Brain DHA level, microglia number, neurogenesis, corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptor expression were measured in the offsprings...
June 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
L Schipper, A Oosting, A J W Scheurink, G van Dijk, E M van der Beek
Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants...
July 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Camilia R Martin, Pei-Ra Ling, George L Blackburn
Mothers' own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow's milk or soymilk...
2016: Nutrients
Matthew J Kuchan, Søren K Jensen, Elizabeth J Johnson, Jacqueline C Lieblein-Boff
α-Tocopherol is the principal source of vitamin E, an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy brain function. Infant formula is routinely supplemented with synthetic α-tocopherol, a racaemic mixture of eight stereoisomers with less bioactivity than the natural stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol stereoisomer profiles have not been previously reported in the human brain. In the present study, we analysed total α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol stereoisomers in the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampus (HPC) and visual cortex (VC) of infants (n 36) who died of sudden infant death syndrome or other conditions...
July 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Lidewij Schipper, Gertjan van Dijk, Laus M Broersen, Maarten Loos, Nana Bartke, Anton Jw Scheurink, Eline M van der Beek
BACKGROUND: Infant cognitive development can be positively influenced by breastfeeding rather than formula feeding. The composition of breast milk, especially lipid quality, and the duration of breastfeeding have been linked to this effect. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the physical properties and composition of lipid droplets in milk may contribute to cognitive development. METHODS: From postnatal day (P) 16 to P44, healthy male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice were fed either a control or a concept rodent diet, in which the dietary lipid droplets were large and coated with milk phospholipids, resembling more closely the physical properties and composition of breast milk lipids...
June 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Philip J Weston, Deborah L Harris, Malcolm Battin, Julie Brown, Joanne E Hegarty, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoglycaemia, a common condition, can be associated with brain injury. It is frequently managed by providing infants with an alternative source of glucose, given enterally with formula or intravenously with dextrose solution. This often requires that mother and baby are cared for in separate environments and may inhibit breast feeding. Dextrose gel is simple and inexpensive and can be administered directly to the buccal mucosa for rapid correction of hypoglycaemia, in association with continued breast feeding and maternal care...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kevin B Hadley, Alan S Ryan, Stewart Forsyth, Sheila Gautier, Norman Salem
Arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) is an n-6 polyunsaturated 20-carbon fatty acid formed by the biosynthesis from linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6). This review considers the essential role that ARA plays in infant development. ARA is always present in human milk at a relatively fixed level and is accumulated in tissues throughout the body where it serves several important functions. Without the provision of preformed ARA in human milk or infant formula the growing infant cannot maintain ARA levels from synthetic pathways alone that are sufficient to meet metabolic demand...
2016: Nutrients
J Escribano, V Luque, J Canals-Sans, N Ferré, B Koletzko, V Grote, M Weber, D Gruszfeld, K Szott, E Verduci, E Riva, G Brasselle, P Poncelet, R Closa-Monasterolo
In humans, maximum brain development occurs between the third trimester of gestation and 2 years of life. Nutrition during these critical windows of rapid brain development might be essential for later cognitive functioning and behaviour. In the last few years, trends on protein recommendations during infancy and childhood have tended to be lower than that in the past. It remains to be demonstrated that lower protein intakes among healthy infants, a part of being able to reduce obesity risk, is safe in terms of mental performance achievement...
January 22, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Sheila K Jacobi, Tanya Yatsunenko, Dongpei Li, Somsankar Dasgupta, Robert K Yu, Brian M Berg, Maciej Chichlowski, Jack Odle
BACKGROUND: Sialyllactose is a key human milk oligosaccharide and consists of sialic acid (SA) bound to a lactose molecule. Breastfed infants have increased accumulation of ganglioside-bound SA compared with formula-fed infants. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether different isomers of sialyllactose enrich brain SA and modulate the microbiome of developing neonatal piglets. METHODS: Day-old pigs were randomly allocated to 6 diets (control, 2 or 4 g 3'-sialyllactose/L, 2 or 4 g 6'-sialyllactose/L, or 2 g polydextrose/L + 2 g galacto-oligosaccharides/L; n = 9) and fed 3 times/d for 21 d...
February 2016: Journal of Nutrition
M Wirth, C Bonnemains, J Auger, E Raffo, B Leheup
Sandifer's syndrome is a dystonic movement disorder in infants with gastroesophageal reflux (GER). It is probably misdiagnosed as epileptic seizures. We report the case of a 5-month-old infant with no past medical history admitted to a pediatric unit for suspicion of infantile spasms. She presented with dystonic movements of the upper left limb with left blepharospasm and an occasional dystonic head posture. Physical examination, EEG, brain MRI, and blood analysis were normal. Since the baby experienced regurgitations, Sandifer's syndrome was suspected and confirmed by 24-h esophageal pH monitoring that documented pathological GER...
February 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Jun Oyama, Kouichi Mori, Masatoshi Imamura, Yukiko Mizushima, Ukihide Tateishi
BACKGROUND: The expected MRI-based dimensions of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sizes of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age using MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed brain MRI examinations in 62 infants (28 boys) without intracranial abnormalities. The images were obtained in infants at term-equivalent age with a 1...
April 2016: Pediatric Radiology
X Ou, A Andres, R T Pivik, M A Cleves, J H Snow, Z Ding, T M Badger
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infant diets may have significant impact on brain development in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate brain gray matter structure and function in 8-year-old children who were predominantly breastfed or fed cow's milk formula as infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy children (breastfed: n = 22, 10 boys and 12 girls; cow's milk formula: n = 20, 10 boys and 10 girls) were studied by using structural MR imaging (3D T1-weighted imaging) and blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI (while performing tasks involving visual perception and language functions)...
April 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Sumit Sarkar, James Raymick, Balmiki Ray, Debomoy K Lahiri, Merle G Paule, Larry Schmued
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and most common cause of adult-onset dementia. The major hallmarks of AD are the formation of senile amyloid plaques made of beta amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) which are primarily composed of phosphorylated tau protein. Although numerous agents have been considered as providing protection against AD, identification of potential agents with neuroprotective ability is limited...
2015: Current Alzheimer Research
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