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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783637/a-phosphatidylserine-source-of-docosahexanoic-acid-improves-neurodevelopment-and-survival-of-preterm-pigs
#1
Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov, Igor Y Iskusnykh, Helen J Sable, Jeffrey J Sable, Zade R Holloway, Tamar Blumenfeld Katzir, Marie van der Merwe, Taisiya Yakimkova, Karyl K Buddington, Yael Lifshitz, Shoshi Tessler, Ariel Gilbert
The amount, composition, and sources of nutrition support provided to preterm infants is critical for normal growth and development, and particularly for structural and functional neurodevelopment. Although omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), and particularly docosahexanoic acid (DHA), are considered of particular importance, results from clinical trials with preterm infants have been inconclusive because of ethical limitations and confounding variables. A translational large animal model is needed to understand the structural and functional responses to DHA...
May 18, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678922/enzymatic-synthesis-of-6-sialyllactose-a-dominant-sialylated-human-milk-oligosaccharide-by-a-novel-exo-%C3%AE-sialidase-from-bacteroides-fragilis-nctc9343
#2
Longcheng Guo, Xiaodi Chen, Li Xu, Min Xiao, Lili Lu
Gut bacteria provide a rich source of glycosidases that can recognize and/or hydrolyze glycans for nutritions. Interestingly, some glycosidases are also found to catalyze transglycosylation reactions in vitro and thus can be used for oligosaccharide synthesis. In this work, six putative and one known exo -α-sialidase genes, including three from Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343, three from Clostridium perfringens ATCC13124, and one known from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254, were subjected to gene cloning and heterogeneous expression in Escherichia coli The recombinant enzymes were purified, characterized for substrate specificity, and screened for transglycosylation activity...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565735/a-combination-of-lipidomics-ms-imaging-and-pet-scan-imaging-reveals-differences-in-cerebral-activity-in-rat-pups-according-to-the-lipid-quality-of-infant-formulas
#3
Nacima Aidoud, Bernadette Delplanque, Charlotte Baudry, Cyrielle Garcia, Anais Moyon, Laure Balasse, Benjamin Guillet, Claudine Antona, Dominique Darmaun, Karl Fraser, Sega Ndiaye, Pascale Leruyet, Jean-Charles Martin
We evaluated the effect of adding docosahexaenoic:arachidonic acids (3:2) (DHA+ARA) to 2 representative commercial infant formulas on brain activity and brain and eye lipids in an artificially reared rat pup model. The formula lipid background was either a pure plant oil blend, or dairy fat with a plant oil blend (1:1). Results at weaning were compared to breast milk-fed pups. Brain functional activity was determined by positron emission tomography scan imaging, the brain and eye fatty acid and lipid composition by targeted and untargeted lipidomics, and DHA brain regional location by mass-spectrometry imaging...
March 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526089/fatty-acid-profile-and-the-sn-2-position-distribution-in-triacylglycerols-of-breast-milk-during-different-lactation-stages
#4
Ce Qi, Jin Sun, Yuan Xia, Renqiang Yu, Wei Wei, Jingying Xiang, Qingzhe Jin, Hang Xiao, Xingguo Wang
Fatty acid (FA) is the major energy resource in breast milk, which is important for infant development. FAs profiles with sn-2 positional preference were an important part of triacylglycerols due to their better availability. This profile is still not replicated in artificial formulas. This study quantified the FAs profile of total and sn-2 position in human breast milk samples from 103 healthy volunteers during colostrum, transitional, and mature stages. Multicomponent analysis showed significant differences in FAs profiles of different lactation periods, due to that with relative percentage less than 1%...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378053/lutein-is-differentially-deposited-across-brain-regions-following-formula-or-breast-feeding-of-infant-rhesus-macaques
#5
Sookyoung Jeon, Katherine M Ranard, Martha Neuringer, Emily E Johnson, Lauren Renner, Matthew J Kuchan, Suzette L Pereira, Elizabeth J Johnson, John W Erdman
Background: Lutein, a yellow xanthophyll, selectively accumulates in primate retina and brain. Lutein may play a critical role in neural and retinal development, but few studies have investigated the impact of dietary source on its bioaccumulation in infants. Objective: We explored the bioaccumulation of lutein in infant rhesus macaques following breastfeeding or formula-feeding. Methods: From birth to 6 mo of age, male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were either breastfed (BF) (n = 8), fed a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene (237, 19...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337699/associations-between-nurse-guided-variables-and-plasma-oxytocin-trajectories-in-premature-infants-during-initial-hospitalization
#6
Ashley Weber, Tondi M Harrison, Loraine Sinnott, Abigail Shoben, Deborah Steward
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OT) is a social hormone that may help researchers understand how nurse-guided interventions during initial infant hospitalization, such as supporting human milk expression, promoting comforting touch, and reducing exposure to stressors, affect preterm brain development. PURPOSE: To determine whether factors related to human milk, touch, or stressor exposure are related to plasma OT trajectories in premature infants. METHODS: Plasma from 33 premature infants, born gestational ages 25 to (Equation is included in full-text article...
February 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337366/replenishment-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-in-dietary-n-3-deficient-mice-fed-dha-in-triglycerides-or-phosphatidylcholines-after-weaning
#7
Dan-Dan Wang, Fang Wu, Min Wen, Lin Ding, Lei Du, Chang-Hu Xue, Jie Xu, Yu-Ming Wang
Previous studies have shown that DHA in triglyceride (TG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) forms are different in their bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of DHA-TG and DHA-PC on tissue DHA accretion in dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficient (n-3 Def) mice. The mice were fed with n-3 Def diet containing DHA-TG or DHA-PC (5 g/kg diet) for 2, 4, 7, or 14 d after weaning, respectively. The DHA levels in the cortex, liver, testis, and erythrocytes were analyzed by gas chromatography...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277402/early-nutrition-influences-developmental-myelination-and-cognition-in-infants-and-young-children
#8
Sean Deoni, Douglas Dean, Sarah Joelson, Jonathan O'Regan, Nora Schneider
Throughout early neurodevelopment, myelination helps provide the foundation for brain connectivity and supports the emergence of cognitive and behavioural functioning. Early life nutrition is an important and modifiable factor that can shape myelination and, consequently, cognitive outcomes. Differences in the nutritional composition between human breast and formula milk may help explain the functional and cognitive disparity often observed between exclusively breast versus formula-fed children. However, past cognitive and brain imaging studies comparing breast and formula feeding are often: cross-sectional; performed in older children and adolescents relying on parental recall of infant feeding; and generally treat formula-fed children as a single group despite the variability between formula compositions...
December 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903112/savoring-sweet-sugars-in-infant-and-toddler-feeding
#9
Robert D Murray
During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. A child's first relationship with sweet taste begins even before birth and continues to evolve throughout complementary feeding. The sweetness of breastmilk encourages consumption and soothes the neonate...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873760/butter-serums-and-buttermilks-as-sources-of-bioactive-lipids-from-the-milk-fat-globule-membrane-differences-in-their-lipid-composition-and-potentialities-of-cow-diet-to-increase-n-3-pufa
#10
Christelle Lopez, Marielle Blot, Valérie Briard-Bion, Carole Cirié, Benoit Graulet
Improving the nutritional and health properties of food products, e.g. infant milk formula, by the addition of functional ingredients is of primary importance. This study focused on bioactive milk polar lipids (PLs) recovered from dietary sources that are of increasing interest. The chemical compositions of buttermilks and butter serums were determined and the modulation of the fatty acid composition of milk PLs was investigated. Butter serums contain a higher amount of milk PLs than buttermilks (88 vs. 13-18g/kg dry matter), with a higher proportion of sphingomyelin (34 vs...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777356/health-effects-of-carotenoids-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#11
REVIEW
Monika A Zielińska, Aleksandra Wesołowska, Beata Pawlus, Jadwiga Hamułka
Adequate nutrition is particularly important during pregnancy since it is needed not only for maintaining the health of the mother, but also determines the course of pregnancy and its outcome, fetus development as well as the child's health after birth and during the later period of life. Data coming from epidemiological and interventions studies support the observation that carotenoids intake provide positive health effects in adults and the elderly population. These health effects are the result of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties...
August 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723608/breastfeeding-and-the-gut-brain-axis-is-there-a-role-for-melatonin
#12
REVIEW
George Anderson, Cathy Vaillancourt, Michael Maes, Russel J Reiter
The benefits of breastfeeding over formula feed are widely appreciated. However, for many mothers breastfeeding is not possible, highlighting the need for a significant improvement in the contents of formula feed. In this article, the overlooked role of melatonin and the melatonergic pathways in breast milk and in the regulation of wider breast milk components are reviewed. There is a growing appreciation that the benefits of breastfeeding are mediated by its effects in the infant gut, with consequences for the development of the gut-brain axis and the immune system...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658291/importance-of-neonatal-immunoglobulin-transfer-for-hippocampal-development-and-behaviour-in-the-newborn-pig
#13
Kateryna Goncharova, Liudmyla Lozinska, Ester Arevalo Sureda, Jarosław Woliński, Björn Weström, Stefan Pierzynowski
Neurological disorders are among the main clinical problems affecting preterm children and often result in the development of communication and learning disabilities later in life. Several factors are of importance for brain development, however the role of immunoglobulins (passive immunity transfer) has not yet been investigated. Piglets are born agammaglobulinemic, as a result of the lack of transfer of maternal immunoglobulins in utero, thus, they serve as an ideal model to mimic the condition of immunoglobulin deficiency in preterm infants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649601/excessive-early-life-dietary-exposure-a-potential-source-of-elevated-brain-iron-and-a-risk-factor-for-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Dominic J Hare, Bárbara Rita Cardoso, Erika P Raven, Kay L Double, David I Finkelstein, Ewa A Szymlek-Gay, Beverley-Ann Biggs
Iron accumulates gradually in the ageing brain. In Parkinson's disease, iron deposition within the substantia nigra is further increased, contributing to a heightened pro-oxidant environment in dopaminergic neurons. We hypothesise that individuals in high-income countries, where cereals and infant formulae have historically been fortified with iron, experience increased early-life iron exposure that predisposes them to age-related iron accumulation in the brain. Combined with genetic factors that limit iron regulatory capacity and/or dopamine metabolism, this may increase the risk of Parkinson's diseases...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630878/prediction-of-brain-tissue-temperature-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#15
Lisa Holper, Subhabrata Mitra, Gemma Bale, Nicola Robertson, Ilias Tachtsidis
Broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can provide an endogenous indicator of tissue temperature based on the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum. We describe a first evaluation of the calibration and prediction of brain tissue temperature obtained during hypothermia in newborn piglets (animal dataset) and rewarming in newborn infants (human dataset) based on measured body (rectal) temperature. The calibration using partial least squares regression proved to be a reliable method to predict brain tissue temperature with respect to core body temperature in the wavelength interval of 720 to 880 nm with a strong mean predictive power of [Formula: see text] (animal dataset) and [Formula: see text] (human dataset)...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558635/recent-technology-development-for-the-biosynthesis-of-human-milk-oligosaccharide
#16
Ningzi Guan, Rachel Chen
Human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) is a third most abundant component in breast milk. HMOs are molecules naturally tailored to the need of an infant. They protect infants from diseases, foster healthy gastrointestinal systems, reinforce fledgling immune function, and promote early brain development. Supplementing HMOs to infant formulae, which lack this critical element, would substantially improve the function of formulae. Overwhelming evidences also indicate that HMOs can be used for the treatment of arthritis and related autoimmune disease, and inhibition of bacteria adhesion or as potential prebiotics...
May 30, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460602/an-automated-quiet-sleep-detection-approach-in-preterm-infants-as-a-gateway-to-assess-brain-maturation
#17
Anneleen Dereymaeker, Kirubin Pillay, Jan Vervisch, Sabine Van Huffel, Gunnar Naulaers, Katrien Jansen, Maarten De Vos
Sleep state development in preterm neonates can provide crucial information regarding functional brain maturation and give insight into neurological well being. However, visual labeling of sleep stages from EEG requires expertise and is very time consuming, prompting the need for an automated procedure. We present a robust method for automated detection of preterm sleep from EEG, over a wide postmenstrual age ([Formula: see text] age) range, focusing first on Quiet Sleep (QS) as an initial marker for sleep assessment...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439520/relationship-between-relative-cerebral-blood-flow-relative-cerebral-blood-volume-and-relative-cerebral-metabolic-rate-of-oxygen-in-the-preterm-neonatal-brain
#18
Mina Nourhashemi, Guy Kongolo, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Sabrina Goudjil, Fabrice Wallois
The mechanisms responsible for coupling between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]), an important function of the microcirculation in preterm infants, remain unclear. Identification of a causal relationship between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text] in preterms may, therefore, help to elucidate the principles of cortical hemodynamics during development. We simultaneously recorded rCBF and rCBV and estimated [Formula: see text] by two independent acquisition systems: diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, in 10 preterms aged between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285606/the-importance-of-dietary-dha-and-ara-in-early-life-a-public-health-perspective
#19
Stewart Forsyth, Sheila Gautier, Norman Salem
Although the literature on the contribution of DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) to fundamental metabolic functions in brain, immune and cardiovascular systems is extensive, there is a lack of consensus on the need for explicit recommendations on dietary intake for both DHA and ARA during the early years of life. This review takes a public health perspective with the objective of ensuring that recommendations protect the most vulnerable children worldwide. Most studies on the effects of DHA and ARA in early life have been undertaken in high-income countries and this is reflected in policy recommendations...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281303/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-infants-born-at-term
#20
REVIEW
Bonny Jasani, Karen Simmer, Sanjay K Patole, Shripada C Rao
BACKGROUND: The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are considered essential for maturation of the developing brain, retina and other organs in newborn infants. Standard infant milk formulae are not supplemented with LCPUFA; they contain only alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, from which formula-fed infants must synthesise their own DHA and AA, respectively. Over the past few years, some manufacturers have added LCPUFA to formula milk and have marketed these products as providing an advantage for the overall development of full-term infants...
March 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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