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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285606/the-importance-of-dietary-dha-and-ara-in-early-life-a-public-health-perspective
#1
Stewart Forsyth, Sheila Gautier, Norman Salem
Although the literature on the contribution of DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) to fundamental metabolic functions in brain, immune and cardiovascular systems is extensive, there is a lack of consensus on the need for explicit recommendations on dietary intake for both DHA and ARA during the early years of life. This review takes a public health perspective with the objective of ensuring that recommendations protect the most vulnerable children worldwide. Most studies on the effects of DHA and ARA in early life have been undertaken in high-income countries and this is reflected in policy recommendations...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281303/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-infants-born-at-term
#2
REVIEW
Bonny Jasani, Karen Simmer, Sanjay K Patole, Shripada C Rao
BACKGROUND: The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are considered essential for maturation of the developing brain, retina and other organs in newborn infants. Standard infant milk formulae are not supplemented with LCPUFA; they contain only alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, from which formula-fed infants must synthesise their own DHA and AA, respectively. Over the past few years, some manufacturers have added LCPUFA to formula milk and have marketed these products as providing an advantage for the overall development of full-term infants...
March 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241501/early%C3%A2-nutritional%C3%A2-interventions%C3%A2-for%C3%A2-brain%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-cognitive%C3%A2-development%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-preterm%C3%A2-infants-a%C3%A2-review%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-literature
#3
REVIEW
Nora Schneider, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm-born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split in general dietary intervention studies and studies investigating specific nutrients or nutritional supplements. In general, mother's breast milk was reported to be better for preterm infants' neurodevelopment compared to infant formula...
February 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094019/the-first-model-of-keeping-energy-balance-and-optimal-psycho-affective-development-breastfed-infants
#4
REVIEW
Carlo Agostoni, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Ludovica Leone, Valentina Ciappolino, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Carlo A Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Breastfed infants follow a peculiar growth fashion characterized by a rapid weight gain in the first weeks of life, then followed by a fast decrease in growth rates, a capacity to self-regulate the sense of hungry and satiety, and a minor propensity towards overweight and obesity later on, in parallel with a better neurodevelopmental performance. METHODS: We searched studies investigating the relationship between the feeding mode in infancy and the energy balance, so the possible associations with total energy expenditure and intake regulation...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075370/effect-of-carotenoid-supplemented-formula-on-carotenoid-bioaccumulation-in-tissues-of-infant-rhesus-macaques-a-pilot-study-focused-on-lutein
#5
Sookyoung Jeon, Martha Neuringer, Emily E Johnson, Matthew J Kuchan, Suzette L Pereira, Elizabeth J Johnson, John W Erdman
Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group)...
January 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056712/neonatal-head-and-torso-vibration-exposure-during-inter-hospital-transfer
#6
Laurence Blaxter, Mildrid Yeo, Donal McNally, John Crowe, Caroline Henry, Sarah Hill, Neil Mansfield, Andrew Leslie, Don Sharkey
Inter-hospital transport of premature infants is increasingly common, given the centralisation of neonatal intensive care. However, it is known to be associated with anomalously increased morbidity, most notably brain injury, and with increased mortality from multifactorial causes. Surprisingly, there have been relatively few previous studies investigating the levels of mechanical shock and vibration hazard present during this vehicular transport pathway. Using a custom inertial datalogger, and analysis software, we quantify vibration and linear head acceleration...
February 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995607/longchain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-preterm-infants
#7
REVIEW
Kwi Moon, Shripada C Rao, Sven M Schulzke, Sanjay K Patole, Karen Simmer
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists over whether longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are essential nutrients for preterm infants because they may not be able to synthesise sufficient amounts of LCPUFA to meet the needs of the developing brain and retina. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether supplementation of formula milk with LCPUFA is safe and of benefit to preterm infants. The main areas of interest were the effects of supplementation on the visual function, development and growth of preterm infants...
December 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759424/infant-diet-related-changes-in-syllable-processing-between-4-and-5-months-implications-for-developing-native-language-sensitivity
#8
R T Pivik, Aline Andres, Shasha Bai, Mario A Cleves, Kevin B Tennal, Yuyuan Gu, Thomas M Badger
Since maturational processes triggering increased attunement to native language features in early infancy are sensitive to dietary factors, infant-diet related differences in brain processing of native-language speech stimuli might indicate variations in the onset of this tuning process. We measured cortical responses (ERPs) to syllables in 4 and 5 month old infants fed breast milk, milk formula, or soy formula and found syllable discrimination (P350) and syntactic-related functions (P600) but not syllable perception (P170) varied by diet, but not gender or background measures...
May 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747986/event-related-potential-differences-in-children-supplemented-with-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-infancy
#9
Ke Liao, Bruce D McCandliss, Susan E Carlson, John Colombo, D Jill Shaddy, Elizabeth H Kerling, Rebecca J Lepping, Wichian Sittiprapaporn, Carol L Cheatham, Kathleen M Gustafson
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have been shown to be necessary for early retinal and brain development, but long-term cognitive benefits of LCPUFA in infancy have not been definitively established. The present study sought to determine whether LCPUFA supplementation during the first year of life would result in group differences in behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) while performing a task requiring response inhibition (Go/No-Go) at 5.5 years of age. As newborns, 69 children were randomly assigned to infant formulas containing either no LCPUFA (control) or formula with 0...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720041/enriched-dairy-fat-matrix-diet-prevents-early-life-lipopolysaccharide-induced-spatial-memory-impairment-at-adulthood
#10
A L Dinel, C Rey, C Baudry, C Fressange-Mazda, P Le Ruyet, A Nadjar, P Pallet, C Joffre, S Layé
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids, which are critical for brain development and later life cognitive functions. The main brain PUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the n-3 family and arachidonic acid (ARA) for the n-6 family, which are provided to the post-natal brain by breast milk or infant formula. Recently, the use of dairy lipids (DL) in replacement of vegetable lipids (VL) was revealed to potently promote the accretion of DHA in the developing brain. Brain DHA, in addition to be a key component of brain development, display potent anti-inflammatory activities, which protect the brain from adverse inflammatory events...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672632/comparison-of-brain-development-in-sow-reared-and-artificially-reared-piglets
#11
Reeba M Jacob, Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Chron-Si Lai, Ryan N Dilger
INTRODUCTION: Provision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared (SR) or artificially reared (AR) in an artificial setting. METHODS: Over a 25-day feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504516/biological-roles-of-milk-osteopontin
#12
REVIEW
Rulan Jiang, Bo Lönnerdal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteopontin (OPN) is an extensively phosphorylated acidic glycoprotein that is present at high concentration in human milk. Bovine milk OPN has recently become commercially available, and can thus be added to infant formula as well as other food products. Studies in experimental animals as well as a clinical trial in human infants reveal important biological roles for milk OPN. RECENT FINDINGS: Newborn wild-type mice nursing knock-out dams lacking milk OPN showed impaired cognitive development, reduced brain OPN and myelin-related proteins as compared with pups nursing wild-type dams...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465383/a-dose-response-crossover-iodine-balance-study-to-determine-iodine-requirements-in-early-infancy
#13
Susanne Dold, Michael B Zimmermann, Jeannine Baumgartner, Tabea Davaz, Valeria Galetti, Christian Braegger, Maria Andersson
BACKGROUND: Optimal iodine intake during infancy is critical for brain development, but no estimated average requirement (EAR) is available for this age group. OBJECTIVE: We measured daily iodine intake, excretion, and retention over a range of iodine intakes in early infancy to determine the minimum daily intake required to achieve iodine balance. DESIGN: In a dose-response crossover study, we randomly assigned healthy infants (n = 11; mean ± SD age 13 ± 3 wk) to sequentially consume over 33 d 3 infant formula milks (IFMs) containing 10...
September 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324861/severe-hypoglycemic-encephalopathy-due-to-hypoallergenic-formula-in-an-infant
#14
Erika Ogawa, Mika Ishige, Yuno Takahashi, Hiroko Kodama, Tatsuo Fuchigami, Shori Takahashi
A 7-month-old girl was brought to hospital due to vomiting. Upon admission, she was in a convulsive state and stupor with extremely low blood glucose. Head computed tomography showed brain edema, and comprehensive treatment for acute encephalopathy was initiated immediately. Severe hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, elevation of ammonia and serum transaminases and creatine kinase suggested metabolic decompensation. Infusion of a high-glucose solution containing vitamins, biotin, and l-carnitine resolved the metabolic crisis quickly, but brain damage was irreversible...
August 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269711/dairy-fat-blend-improves-brain-dha-and-neuroplasticity-and-regulates-corticosterone-in-mice
#15
A L Dinel, C Rey, C Bonhomme, P Le Ruyet, C Joffre, S Layé
Mimicking the breast milk lipid composition appears to be necessary for infant formula to cover the brain's needs in n-3 PUFA. In this study, we evaluated the impact of partial replacement of vegetable oil (VL) in infant formula by dairy fat (DL) on docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain level, neuroplasticity and corticosterone in mice. Mice were fed with balanced VL or balanced DL diets enriched or not in DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) from the first day of gestation. Brain DHA level, microglia number, neurogenesis, corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptor expression were measured in the offsprings...
June 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255638/reducing-dietary-intake-of-linoleic-acid-of-mouse-dams-during-lactation-increases-offspring-brain-n-3-lcpufa-content
#16
L Schipper, A Oosting, A J W Scheurink, G van Dijk, E M van der Beek
Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants...
July 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187450/review-of-infant-feeding-key-features-of-breast-milk-and-infant-formula
#17
REVIEW
Camilia R Martin, Pei-Ra Ling, George L Blackburn
Mothers' own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow's milk or soymilk...
May 11, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181635/the-naturally-occurring-%C3%AE-tocopherol-stereoisomer-rrr-%C3%AE-tocopherol-is-predominant-in-the-human-infant-brain
#18
Matthew J Kuchan, Søren K Jensen, Elizabeth J Johnson, Jacqueline C Lieblein-Boff
α-Tocopherol is the principal source of vitamin E, an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy brain function. Infant formula is routinely supplemented with synthetic α-tocopherol, a racaemic mixture of eight stereoisomers with less bioactivity than the natural stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol stereoisomer profiles have not been previously reported in the human brain. In the present study, we analysed total α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol stereoisomers in the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampus (HPC) and visual cortex (VC) of infants (n 36) who died of sudden infant death syndrome or other conditions...
July 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146919/a-postnatal-diet-containing-phospholipids-processed-to-yield-large-phospholipid-coated-lipid-droplets-affects-specific-cognitive-behaviors-in-healthy-male-mice
#19
Lidewij Schipper, Gertjan van Dijk, Laus M Broersen, Maarten Loos, Nana Bartke, Anton Jw Scheurink, Eline M van der Beek
BACKGROUND: Infant cognitive development can be positively influenced by breastfeeding rather than formula feeding. The composition of breast milk, especially lipid quality, and the duration of breastfeeding have been linked to this effect. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the physical properties and composition of lipid droplets in milk may contribute to cognitive development. METHODS: From postnatal day (P) 16 to P44, healthy male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice were fed either a control or a concept rodent diet, in which the dietary lipid droplets were large and coated with milk phospholipids, resembling more closely the physical properties and composition of breast milk lipids...
June 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142842/oral-dextrose-gel-for-the-treatment-of-hypoglycaemia-in-newborn-infants
#20
REVIEW
Philip J Weston, Deborah L Harris, Malcolm Battin, Julie Brown, Joanne E Hegarty, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoglycaemia, a common condition, can be associated with brain injury. It is frequently managed by providing infants with an alternative source of glucose, given enterally with formula or intravenously with dextrose solution. This often requires that mother and baby are cared for in separate environments and may inhibit breast feeding. Dextrose gel is simple and inexpensive and can be administered directly to the buccal mucosa for rapid correction of hypoglycaemia, in association with continued breast feeding and maternal care...
May 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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