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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777356/health-effects-of-carotenoids-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#1
REVIEW
Monika A Zielińska, Aleksandra Wesołowska, Beata Pawlus, Jadwiga Hamułka
Adequate nutrition is particularly important during pregnancy since it is needed not only for maintaining the health of the mother, but also determines the course of pregnancy and its outcome, fetus development as well as the child's health after birth and during the later period of life. Data coming from epidemiological and interventions studies support the observation that carotenoids intake provide positive health effects in adults and the elderly population. These health effects are the result of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties...
August 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723608/breastfeeding-and-the-gut-brain-axis-is-there-a-role-for-melatonin
#2
REVIEW
George Anderson, Cathy Vaillancourt, Michael Maes, Russel J Reiter
The benefits of breastfeeding over formula feed are widely appreciated. However, for many mothers breastfeeding is not possible, highlighting the need for a significant improvement in the contents of formula feed. In this article, the overlooked role of melatonin and the melatonergic pathways in breast milk and in the regulation of wider breast milk components are reviewed. There is a growing appreciation that the benefits of breastfeeding are mediated by its effects in the infant gut, with consequences for the development of the gut-brain axis and the immune system...
July 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658291/importance-of-neonatal-immunoglobulin-transfer-for-hippocampal-development-and-behaviour-in-the-newborn-pig
#3
Kateryna Goncharova, Liudmyla Lozinska, Ester Arevalo Sureda, Jarosław Woliński, Björn Weström, Stefan Pierzynowski
Neurological disorders are among the main clinical problems affecting preterm children and often result in the development of communication and learning disabilities later in life. Several factors are of importance for brain development, however the role of immunoglobulins (passive immunity transfer) has not yet been investigated. Piglets are born agammaglobulinemic, as a result of the lack of transfer of maternal immunoglobulins in utero, thus, they serve as an ideal model to mimic the condition of immunoglobulin deficiency in preterm infants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649601/excessive-early-life-dietary-exposure-a-potential-source-of-elevated-brain-iron-and-a-risk-factor-for-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Dominic J Hare, Bárbara Rita Cardoso, Erika P Raven, Kay L Double, David I Finkelstein, Ewa A Szymlek-Gay, Beverley-Ann Biggs
Iron accumulates gradually in the ageing brain. In Parkinson's disease, iron deposition within the substantia nigra is further increased, contributing to a heightened pro-oxidant environment in dopaminergic neurons. We hypothesise that individuals in high-income countries, where cereals and infant formulae have historically been fortified with iron, experience increased early-life iron exposure that predisposes them to age-related iron accumulation in the brain. Combined with genetic factors that limit iron regulatory capacity and/or dopamine metabolism, this may increase the risk of Parkinson's diseases...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630878/prediction-of-brain-tissue-temperature-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#5
Lisa Holper, Subhabrata Mitra, Gemma Bale, Nicola Robertson, Ilias Tachtsidis
Broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can provide an endogenous indicator of tissue temperature based on the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum. We describe a first evaluation of the calibration and prediction of brain tissue temperature obtained during hypothermia in newborn piglets (animal dataset) and rewarming in newborn infants (human dataset) based on measured body (rectal) temperature. The calibration using partial least squares regression proved to be a reliable method to predict brain tissue temperature with respect to core body temperature in the wavelength interval of 720 to 880 nm with a strong mean predictive power of [Formula: see text] (animal dataset) and [Formula: see text] (human dataset)...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558635/recent-technology-development-for-the-biosynthesis-of-human-milk-oligosaccharide
#6
Ningzi Guan, Rachel Chen
Human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) is a third most abundant component in breast milk. HMOs are molecules naturally tailored to the need of an infant. They protect infants from diseases, foster healthy gastrointestinal systems, reinforce fledgling immune function, and promote early brain development. Supplementing HMOs to infant formulae, which lack this critical element, would substantially improve the function of formulae. Overwhelming evidences also indicate that HMOs can be used for the treatment of arthritis and related autoimmune disease, and inhibition of bacteria adhesion or as potential prebiotics...
May 30, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460602/an-automated-quiet-sleep-detection-approach-in-preterm-infants-as-a-gateway-to-assess-brain-maturation
#7
Anneleen Dereymaeker, Kirubin Pillay, Jan Vervisch, Sabine Van Huffel, Gunnar Naulaers, Katrien Jansen, Maarten De Vos
Sleep state development in preterm neonates can provide crucial information regarding functional brain maturation and give insight into neurological well being. However, visual labeling of sleep stages from EEG requires expertise and is very time consuming, prompting the need for an automated procedure. We present a robust method for automated detection of preterm sleep from EEG, over a wide postmenstrual age ([Formula: see text] age) range, focusing first on Quiet Sleep (QS) as an initial marker for sleep assessment...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439520/relationship-between-relative-cerebral-blood-flow-relative-cerebral-blood-volume-and-relative-cerebral-metabolic-rate-of-oxygen-in-the-preterm-neonatal-brain
#8
Mina Nourhashemi, Guy Kongolo, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Sabrina Goudjil, Fabrice Wallois
The mechanisms responsible for coupling between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]), an important function of the microcirculation in preterm infants, remain unclear. Identification of a causal relationship between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text] in preterms may, therefore, help to elucidate the principles of cortical hemodynamics during development. We simultaneously recorded rCBF and rCBV and estimated [Formula: see text] by two independent acquisition systems: diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, in 10 preterms aged between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285606/the-importance-of-dietary-dha-and-ara-in-early-life-a-public-health-perspective
#9
Stewart Forsyth, Sheila Gautier, Norman Salem
Although the literature on the contribution of DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) to fundamental metabolic functions in brain, immune and cardiovascular systems is extensive, there is a lack of consensus on the need for explicit recommendations on dietary intake for both DHA and ARA during the early years of life. This review takes a public health perspective with the objective of ensuring that recommendations protect the most vulnerable children worldwide. Most studies on the effects of DHA and ARA in early life have been undertaken in high-income countries and this is reflected in policy recommendations...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281303/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-infants-born-at-term
#10
REVIEW
Bonny Jasani, Karen Simmer, Sanjay K Patole, Shripada C Rao
BACKGROUND: The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are considered essential for maturation of the developing brain, retina and other organs in newborn infants. Standard infant milk formulae are not supplemented with LCPUFA; they contain only alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, from which formula-fed infants must synthesise their own DHA and AA, respectively. Over the past few years, some manufacturers have added LCPUFA to formula milk and have marketed these products as providing an advantage for the overall development of full-term infants...
March 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241501/early%C3%A2-nutritional%C3%A2-interventions%C3%A2-for%C3%A2-brain%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-cognitive%C3%A2-development%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-preterm%C3%A2-infants-a%C3%A2-review%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-literature
#11
REVIEW
Nora Schneider, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm-born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split in general dietary intervention studies and studies investigating specific nutrients or nutritional supplements. In general, mother's breast milk was reported to be better for preterm infants' neurodevelopment compared to infant formula...
February 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094019/the-first-model-of-keeping-energy-balance-and-optimal-psycho-affective-development-breastfed-infants
#12
REVIEW
Carlo Agostoni, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Ludovica Leone, Valentina Ciappolino, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Carlo A Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Breastfed infants follow a peculiar growth fashion characterized by a rapid weight gain in the first weeks of life, then followed by a fast decrease in growth rates, a capacity to self-regulate the sense of hungry and satiety, and a minor propensity towards overweight and obesity later on, in parallel with a better neurodevelopmental performance. METHODS: We searched studies investigating the relationship between the feeding mode in infancy and the energy balance, so the possible associations with total energy expenditure and intake regulation...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075370/effect-of-carotenoid-supplemented-formula-on-carotenoid-bioaccumulation-in-tissues-of-infant-rhesus-macaques-a-pilot-study-focused-on-lutein
#13
Sookyoung Jeon, Martha Neuringer, Emily E Johnson, Matthew J Kuchan, Suzette L Pereira, Elizabeth J Johnson, John W Erdman
Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group)...
January 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056712/neonatal-head-and-torso-vibration-exposure-during-inter-hospital-transfer
#14
Laurence Blaxter, Mildrid Yeo, Donal McNally, John Crowe, Caroline Henry, Sarah Hill, Neil Mansfield, Andrew Leslie, Don Sharkey
Inter-hospital transport of premature infants is increasingly common, given the centralisation of neonatal intensive care. However, it is known to be associated with anomalously increased morbidity, most notably brain injury, and with increased mortality from multifactorial causes. Surprisingly, there have been relatively few previous studies investigating the levels of mechanical shock and vibration hazard present during this vehicular transport pathway. Using a custom inertial datalogger, and analysis software, we quantify vibration and linear head acceleration...
February 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995607/longchain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-preterm-infants
#15
REVIEW
Kwi Moon, Shripada C Rao, Sven M Schulzke, Sanjay K Patole, Karen Simmer
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists over whether longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are essential nutrients for preterm infants because they may not be able to synthesise sufficient amounts of LCPUFA to meet the needs of the developing brain and retina. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether supplementation of formula milk with LCPUFA is safe and of benefit to preterm infants. The main areas of interest were the effects of supplementation on the visual function, development and growth of preterm infants...
December 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759424/infant-diet-related-changes-in-syllable-processing-between-4-and-5-months-implications-for-developing-native-language-sensitivity
#16
R T Pivik, Aline Andres, Shasha Bai, Mario A Cleves, Kevin B Tennal, Yuyuan Gu, Thomas M Badger
Since maturational processes triggering increased attunement to native language features in early infancy are sensitive to dietary factors, infant-diet related differences in brain processing of native-language speech stimuli might indicate variations in the onset of this tuning process. We measured cortical responses (ERPs) to syllables in 4 and 5 month old infants fed breast milk, milk formula, or soy formula and found syllable discrimination (P350) and syntactic-related functions (P600) but not syllable perception (P170) varied by diet, but not gender or background measures...
May 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747986/event-related-potential-differences-in-children-supplemented-with-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-infancy
#17
Ke Liao, Bruce D McCandliss, Susan E Carlson, John Colombo, D Jill Shaddy, Elizabeth H Kerling, Rebecca J Lepping, Wichian Sittiprapaporn, Carol L Cheatham, Kathleen M Gustafson
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have been shown to be necessary for early retinal and brain development, but long-term cognitive benefits of LCPUFA in infancy have not been definitively established. The present study sought to determine whether LCPUFA supplementation during the first year of life would result in group differences in behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) while performing a task requiring response inhibition (Go/No-Go) at 5.5 years of age. As newborns, 69 children were randomly assigned to infant formulas containing either no LCPUFA (control) or formula with 0...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720041/enriched-dairy-fat-matrix-diet-prevents-early-life-lipopolysaccharide-induced-spatial-memory-impairment-at-adulthood
#18
A L Dinel, C Rey, C Baudry, C Fressange-Mazda, P Le Ruyet, A Nadjar, P Pallet, C Joffre, S Layé
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids, which are critical for brain development and later life cognitive functions. The main brain PUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the n-3 family and arachidonic acid (ARA) for the n-6 family, which are provided to the post-natal brain by breast milk or infant formula. Recently, the use of dairy lipids (DL) in replacement of vegetable lipids (VL) was revealed to potently promote the accretion of DHA in the developing brain. Brain DHA, in addition to be a key component of brain development, display potent anti-inflammatory activities, which protect the brain from adverse inflammatory events...
October 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672632/comparison-of-brain-development-in-sow-reared-and-artificially-reared-piglets
#19
Reeba M Jacob, Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Chron-Si Lai, Ryan N Dilger
INTRODUCTION: Provision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared (SR) or artificially reared (AR) in an artificial setting. METHODS: Over a 25-day feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504516/biological-roles-of-milk-osteopontin
#20
REVIEW
Rulan Jiang, Bo Lönnerdal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Osteopontin (OPN) is an extensively phosphorylated acidic glycoprotein that is present at high concentration in human milk. Bovine milk OPN has recently become commercially available, and can thus be added to infant formula as well as other food products. Studies in experimental animals as well as a clinical trial in human infants reveal important biological roles for milk OPN. RECENT FINDINGS: Newborn wild-type mice nursing knock-out dams lacking milk OPN showed impaired cognitive development, reduced brain OPN and myelin-related proteins as compared with pups nursing wild-type dams...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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