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Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Allan D Sniderman, Shofiqul Islam, Matthew McQueen, Michael Pencina, Curt D Furberg, George Thanassoulis, Salim Yusuf
BACKGROUND: Higher concentrations of the apolipoprotein B (apoB) lipoproteins increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether the risk associated with apoB lipoproteins varies with age has not been well examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: We determined the associations for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C), apoB, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with myocardial infarction at different ages in 11 760 controls and 8998 myocardial infarction cases of the INTERHEART Study...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Patricia Azevedo de Lima, Mariana Baldini Prudêncio, Daniela Kawamoto Murakami, Leticia Pereira de Brito Sampaio, Antônio Martins Figueiredo Neto, Nágila Raquel Teixeira Damasceno
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the classic ketogenic diet (KD) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy. METHODS: This prospective study recruited children and adolescents of either sex, whose epilepsy was refractory to treatment with multiple drugs. To be included, the patient had to have an indication for treatment with the KD and be treated as an outpatient...
July 26, 2016: Nutrition
Christopher A Toth, Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik, Jeffrey I Jones, Bryan A Parks, Michael S Gardner, David M Schieltz, Jon C Rees, Michael L Andrews, Lisa G McWilliams, James L Pirkle, John R Barr
: Apolipoproteins measured in plasma or serum are potential biomarkers for assessing metabolic irregularities that are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). LC-MS/MS allows quantitative measurement of multiple apolipoproteins in the same sample run. However, the accuracy and precision of the LC-MS/MS measurement depends on the reproducibility of the enzymatic protein digestion step. With the application of an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER), the reproducibility of the trypsin digestion can be controlled with high precision via flow rate, column volume and temperature...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Jay H Lubin, David Couper, Pamela L Lutsey, Hiroshi Yatsuya
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking, various metabolic and lipid-related factors and hypertension are well-recognized cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Since smoking affects many of these factors, use of a single imprecise smoking metric, e.g., ever or never smoked, may allow residual confounding and explain inconsistencies in current assessments of interactions. METHODS: Using a comprehensive model in pack-years and cigarettes/day for the complex smoking-related relative risk (RR) of CVD to reduce residual confounding, we evaluated interactions with non-tobacco risk factors, including additive (non-synergistic) and multiplicative (synergistic) forms...
September 20, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Yujia Yang, Qiang Fu, Tao Zhou, Yun Li, Shikai Liu, Qifan Zeng, Xiaozhu Wang, Yulin Jin, Changxu Tian, Zhenkui Qin, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
Apolipoproteins are protein component of plasma lipoproteins. They exert crucial roles in lipoprotein metabolism and serve as enzyme cofactors, receptor ligands, and lipid transfer carriers in mammals. In teleosts, apolipoproteins are also involved in diverse processes including embryonic and ontogenic development, liver and digestive system organogenesis, and innate immunity. In this study, we identified a set of 19 apolipoprotein genes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Phylogenetic analysis and syntenic analysis were conducted to determine their identities and evolutionary relationships...
September 15, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Y Jiang, Y F Zhang, M Liu, L L Ma, F H Peng, Q L Huang, X M Ma, X H Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic syphilitic infection may lead to dementia. It is in general paresis (GP), which is the major late form of neurosyphilis, that cognitive impairment frequently occurs. The association between lipid metabolism and GP is unclear. METHODS: In this study, serum lipids were studied in 188 GP patients, in 241 syphilitic patients without neurosyphilis and in 539 healthy controls. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was tested in all GP patients...
October 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Yun Wang, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Feng-Hua Wang, Xue-Fen Lei, Shu-Mei Yan, De-Shen Wang, Fei Zhang, Rui-Hua Xu, Ling-Yun Wang, Yu-Hong Li
BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of chemotherapy-related lipid alterations has been reported based on a small number of patients and varies among different cancers. However, little is known about these alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. RESULTS: Patients in cohort 1, but not in cohort 2, exhibited significantly increased cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, and ApoA-I levels, and decreased LDL-C and ApoB levels after adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with chemotherapy-related HDL-C elevation exhibited better 3-year DFS (84...
June 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Ji Cheol Bae, Ji Min Han, Sam Kwon, Jae Hwan Jee, Tae Yang Yu, Moon Kyu Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of lipid variables to predict the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the longitudinal association between lipid profiles and incident CKD in a large apparently healthy cohort. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal analysis of 10,288 subjects who had participated in comprehensive health check-ups at least four times over a 7-year period was conducted. The risk of incident CKD associated with lipid variables was analyzed using adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for CKD per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in lipid level...
August 2016: Atherosclerosis
Wi-Sun Ryu, Dawid Schellingerhout, Sang-Wook Jeong, Matthias Nahrendorf, Dong-Eog Kim
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is associated with chronic cardiovascular disease. However, the effect of dyslipidemia on acute ischemic stroke is unclear. We hypothesized that dyslipidemia could contribute to early neurological deterioration (END) after ischemic stroke. METHODS: A total of 410 acute ischemic stroke patients who were admitted to our stroke center within 24 hours after ictus were consecutively included in this study. END was defined as any new neurological symptoms/signs or any neurological worsening occurring during the admission and/or within 3 weeks after the index stroke...
August 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Alena Viktorinova, Klara Svitekova, Anna Stecova, Marian Krizko
OBJECTIVES: Decreased activity of HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and elevated levels of lipid peroxides together with abnormal lipid profile may prognosticate the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess associations between selected oxidative stress markers (PON1, lipid peroxides) and lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged subjects. DESIGN AND METHODS: Arylesterase activity of PON1; lipid peroxides; total-, HDL-, LDL-, non-HDL-cholesterol; triglycerides; apolipoproteins A-I (ApoA-I) and B (ApoB), and lipid risk indexes were determined in serum of 75 volunteers (mean age 41...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Anna Rull, Shobini Jayaraman, Donald L Gantz, Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Montserrat Pérez-Cuellar, Jordi Ordóñez-Llanos, Jose Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Olga Gursky
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) aggregation is central in triggering atherogenesis. A minor fraction of electronegative plasma LDL, termed LDL(-), plays a special role in atherogenesis. To better understand this role, we analyzed the kinetics of aggregation, fusion and disintegration of human LDL and its fractions, LDL(+) and LDL(-). Thermal denaturation of LDL was monitored by spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Initially, LDL(-) aggregated and fused faster than LDL(+), but later the order reversed. Most LDL(+) disintegrated and precipitated upon prolonged heating...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Jeffrey Kroon, Jan Borén, M John Chapman
It is now evident that elevated circulating levels of triglycerides in the non-fasting state, a marker for triglyceride (TG)-rich remnant particles, are associated with increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent findings from basic and clinical studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute to the atherogenicity of these apoB-containing particles. Here, we review current knowledge of the formation, intravascular remodelling and catabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins and highlight (i) the pivotal players involved in this process, including lipoprotein lipase, glycosylphosphatidylinositol HDL binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), apolipoprotein (apo) C-II, apoC-III, angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 3, 4 and 8, apoA-V and cholesteryl ester transfer protein; (ii) key determinants of triglyceride (TG) levels and notably rates of production of very-low-density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) particles; and (iii) the mechanisms which underlie the atherogenicity of remnant particles...
July 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Laura Pertl, Sabine Kern, Martin Weger, Silke Hausberger, Markus Trieb, Vanessa Gasser-Steiner, Anton Haas, Hubert Scharnagl, Akos Heinemann, Gunther Marsche
PURPOSE: High-density lipoproteins (HDL) have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, conflicting results have been reported with regard to the associations of AMD with HDL-cholesterol levels. The present study is the first to assess HDL composition and metrics of HDL function in patients with exudative AMD and control patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 29 patients with exudative AMD and 26 age-matched control patients...
2016: PloS One
Nathalie Hennuyer, Isabelle Duplan, Charlotte Paquet, Jonathan Vanhoutte, Eloise Woitrain, Véronique Touche, Sophie Colin, Emmanuelle Vallez, Sophie Lestavel, Philippe Lefebvre, Bart Staels
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation in the arterial wall. Elevated levels of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). By contrast, plasma levels of functional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apoA-I are protective against CVD by enhancing reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), a ligand-activated transcription factor, controls lipid metabolism, cellular cholesterol trafficking in macrophages and influences inflammation...
June 2016: Atherosclerosis
Markus Trieb, Angela Horvath, Ruth Birner-Gruenberger, Walter Spindelboeck, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Ulrike Taschler, Sanja Curcic, Rudolf E Stauber, Michael Holzer, Lisa Pasterk, Akos Heinemann, Gunther Marsche
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are important endogenous inhibitors of inflammatory responses. Functional impairment of HDL might contribute to the excess mortality experienced by patients with liver disease, but the effect of cirrhosis on HDL metabolism and function remain elusive. To get an integrated measure of HDL quantity and quality, we assessed several metrics of HDL function using apolipoprotein (apo) B-depleted sera from patients with compensated cirrhosis, patients with acutely decompensated cirrhosis and healthy controls...
July 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Panagiotis Anagnostis, John C Stevenson, David Crook, Desmond G Johnston, Ian F Godsland
OBJECTIVE: to undertake a comprehensive evaluation of apolipoprotein risk markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) according to gender, age and menopausal status. DESIGN: cross-sectional analysis of independent associations of gender, age and menopause with serum apolipoproteins PARTICIPANTS: apparently healthy Caucasian premenopausal (n=109) and postmenopausal (n=252) women not taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement, and Caucasian men (n=307). MEASUREMENTS: Serum apolipoprotein (apo) B, A-I and A-II concentrations were measured, plus serum total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C respectively), triglycerides, cholesterol in HDL subfractions and the apoB/apoA-I, LDL-C/apoB, HDL-C/apoA-I and HDL-C/apoA-II ratios...
April 18, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Basemeh Khoshpey, Shima Djazayeri, Fatemehsadat Amiri, Mojtaba Malek, Agha Fateme Hosseini, Sharieh Hosseini, Shahrzad Shidfar, Farzad Shidfar
OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Evidence supports a role for royal jelly (RJ) in reduction of serum glucose and lipids in animals and healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of RJ intake on serum glucose, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and ApoB/ApoA-I ratios in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Fifty patients with type 2 diabetes participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Shengjie Guo, Xiaobo He, Qian Chen, Guangwei Yang, Kai Yao, Pei Dong, Yunlin Ye, Dong Chen, Zhiling Zhang, Zike Qin, Zhuowei Liu, Zaishang Li, Yunfei Xue, Meng Zhang, Ruiwu Liu, Fangjian Zhou, Hui Han
The prognostic value of serum lipid-profile in renal cell cancer (RCC) remains unknown. The purpose of the study is to explore the association between the serum lipid-profile and RCC patients.The levels of preoperative serum lipid-profile (including cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoA-I], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) were retrospectively performed in 786 patients with RCC. The cutoff values of the lipids were determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Thomas A Hughes, Rossana M Calderon, Sylvia Diaz, Armando J Mendez, Ronald B Goldberg
OBJECTIVE: High cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is widely recognized. Paradoxically, these patients have been shown to have elevated HDL-C and reduced apoB-containing lipoproteins. The purpose of this investigation was to further characterize the lipoprotein composition in T1DM and to assess the role that lipases and adipokines may play in these differences. METHODS: T1DM patients (89) attending the Diabetes Clinic at the University of Miami and 42 healthy controls were recruited...
May 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
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