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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793062/functional-mri-of-brain-physiology-in-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
J Jean Chen
Brain aging and associated neurodegeneration constitute a major societal challenge as well as one for the neuroimaging community. A full understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration still eludes medical researchers, fuelling the development of in vivo neuroimaging markers. Hence it is increasingly recognized that our understanding of neurodegenerative processes likely will depend upon the available information provided by imaging techniques. At the same time, the imaging techniques are often developed in response to the desire to observe certain physiological processes...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793061/microstructural-imaging-of-the-human-brain-with-a-super-scanner-10-key-advantages-of-ultra-strong-gradients-for-diffusion-mri
#2
D K Jones, D C Alexander, R Bowtell, M Cercignani, F Dell'Acqua, D J McHugh, K L Miller, M Palombo, G J M Parker, U S Rudrapatna, C M W Tax
The key component of a microstructural diffusion MRI 'super-scanner' is a dedicated high-strength gradient system that enables stronger diffusion weightings per unit time compared to conventional gradient designs. This can, in turn, drastically shorten the time needed for diffusion encoding, increase the signal-to-noise ratio, and facilitate measurements at shorter diffusion times. This review, written from the perspective of the National Facility for In Vivo MR Imaging of Human Tissue Microstructure, an initiative to establish a shared 300 mT/m-gradient facility amongst the microstructural imaging community, describes ten advantages of ultra-strong gradients for microstructural imaging...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793060/a-computational-framework-for-the-detection-of-subcortical-brain-dysmaturation-in-neonatal-mri-using-3d-convolutional-neural-networks
#3
Rafael Ceschin, Alexandria Zahner, William Reynolds, Jenna Gaesser, Giulio Zuccoli, Cecilia W Lo, Vanathi Gopalakrishnan, Ashok Panigrahy
Deep neural networks are increasingly being used in both supervised learning for classification tasks and unsupervised learning to derive complex patterns from the input data. However, the successful implementation of deep neural networks using neuroimaging datasets requires adequate sample size for training and well-defined signal intensity based structural differentiation. There is a lack of effective automated diagnostic tools for the reliable detection of brain dysmaturation in the neonatal period, related to small sample size and complex undifferentiated brain structures, despite both translational research and clinical importance...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792904/monoclonal-antibody-dl11c8-identifies-adam23-as-a-component-of-lipid-raft-microdomains
#4
Zaine L M Borgonovo, Caroline F Ribeiro, Michele D M Costa, Ingrid L M Souza, Gustavo R Rossi, Monica V Alcantara, Max Ingberman, Luciano G Braga, Adriana F Mercadante, Lia S Nakao, Silvio M Zanata
A disintegrin and metalloprotease protein 23 (ADAM23) is a transmembrane type I glycoprotein involved with the development and maintenance of the nervous system, including neurite outgrowth, neuronal adhesion and differentiation and regulation of synaptic transmission. In addition, ADAM23 seems to participate in immune response and tumor establishment through interaction with different members of integrin receptors. Here, we describe a novel monoclonal antibody (DL11C8) that specifically recognizes the cysteine-rich domain of both pre-protein (100kDa) and mature (70 kDa) forms of ADAM23 from different species, including human, rodents and avian orthologs...
May 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792878/deoxyelephantopin-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharides-lps-induced-memory-impairments-in-rats-evidence-for-its-anti-neuroinflammatory-properties
#5
Shathiswaran N Andy, Vijayapandi Pandy, Zazali Alias, Habsah Abdul Kadir
AIM: Neuroinflammation is a critical pathogenic mechanism of most neurodegenerative disorders especially, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known to induce neuroinflammation which is evident from significant upsurge of pro-inflammatory mediators in in vitro BV-2 microglial cells and in vivo animal models. In present study, we investigated anti-neuroinflammatory properties of deoxyelephantopin (DET) isolated from Elephantopus scaber in LPS-induced neuroinflammatory rat model...
May 21, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792820/hydrogel-tissue-chemistry-principles-and-applications
#6
Viviana Gradinaru, Jennifer Treweek, Kristin Overton, Karl Deisseroth
Over the past five years, a rapidly developing experimental approach has enabled high-resolution and high-content information retrieval from intact multicellular animal (metazoan) systems. New chemical and physical forms are created in the hydrogel-tissue chemistry process, and the retention and retrieval of crucial phenotypic information regarding constituent cells and molecules (and their joint interrelationships) are thereby enabled. For example, rich data sets defining both single-cell-resolution gene expression and single-cell-resolution activity during behavior can now be collected while still preserving information on three-dimensional positioning and/or brain-wide wiring of those very same neurons-even within vertebrate brains...
May 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792708/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-is-associated-with-decreased-cyp3a4-protein-expression-and-activity-in-human-liver
#7
Rohitash Jamwal, Suzanne M de la Monte, Ken Ogasawara, Sravani Adusumalli, Benjamin B Barlock, Fatemeh Akhlaghi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease in Western population. We investigated the effect of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes mellitus on CYP3A4 activity in human liver tissue from brain dead donors (N=74). Histopathologically graded livers were grouped into normal (n=24), nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL, n=26) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n=24) categories. The rate of conversion of midazolam to its 1-hydroxy metabolite was used to assess in vitro CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes (HLM)...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792577/serious-consequences-of-malnutrition-and-delirium-in-frail-older-patients
#8
Elizabeth Rosted, Tatiana Prokofieva, Suzanne Sanders, Martin Schultz
Malnutrition is highly prevalent in geriatric patients and is associated with an increased risk of death. In addition, delirium is a common condition of the older hospitalized patients. As brain has a high nutritional requirement, malnutrition may play an important role in cognitive dysfunction including the development of delirium. This study investigated the association between delirium and malnutrition in frail older patients and the effects on adverse outcomes. It was found that 75% of the patients with delirium suffered from malnutrition indicating that malnutrition contributes to the development of delirium in older hospitalized patients...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792540/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-diagnosis-and-potential-therapies
#9
Stewart A Weber, Ranish K Patel, Helmi L Lutsep
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the pathologic deposition of amyloid-beta within cortical and leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, capillaries and, in rare cases, the venules of the brain. It is often associated with the development of lobar intracerebral hemorrhages but may cause other neurologic symptoms or be asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, such as lobar microbleeds, support a diagnosis of CAA and assist with hemorrhage risk assessments. Immunosuppressants are used to treat rarer inflammatory forms of CAA...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792528/dissociation-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-tau-levels-in-patients-with-prolonged-posttraumatic-disorders-of-consciousness
#10
Sergio Bagnato, Maria Andriolo, Cristina Boccagni, Antonino Sant'Angelo, Maria Enza D'Ippolito, Giuseppe Galardi
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanisms that lead to AD after a TBI are unclear, we hypothesize that changes in amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolism and abnormal tau phosphorylation are reasonable candidates. OBJECTIVE: To investigate Aβ and tau dynamics in the chronic phase of TBI. METHODS: We evaluated Aβ1-42 , total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 15 patients who developed a prolonged disorder of consciousness after a severe TBI (mean time from TBI 271...
May 24, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792360/newer-human-inosine-5-monophosphate-dehydrogenase-2-himpdh2-inhibitors-as-potential-anticancer-agents
#11
Chetan P Shah, Prashant S Kharkar
Human inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (hIMPDH2), being an age-old target, has attracted attention recently for anticancer drug development. Mycophenolic acid (MPA), a well-known immunosuppressant drug, was used a lead structure to design and develop modestly potent and selective analogues. The steep structure-activity relationship (SAR) requirements of the lead molecule left little scope to synthesise newer analogues. Here, newer MPA amides were designed, synthesised and evaluated for hIMPDH2 inhibition and cellular efficacy in breast, prostate and glioblastoma cell lines...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792187/carbonic-anhydrase-related-protein-expression-in-astrocytomas-and-oligodendroglial-tumors
#12
Sini L Karjalainen, Hannu K Haapasalo, Ashok Aspatwar, Harlan Barker, Seppo Parkkila, Joonas A Haapasalo
BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs) VIII, X and XI functionally differ from the other carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes. Structurally, they lack the zinc binding residues, which are important for enzyme activity of classical CAs. The distribution pattern of the CARPs in fetal brain implies their role in brain development. In the adult brain, CARPs are mainly expressed in the neuron bodies but only weaker reactivity has been found in the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes...
May 23, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792126/neuropathological-profile-of-the-pentylenetetrazol-ptz-kindling-model
#13
E Samokhina, Alexander Samokhin
Epilepsy is a complex neurological disease characterized by spontaneous episodes of abnormal, simultaneous firing of a neuronal population and disturbances of consciousness (so-called seizures) of unknown cause. Antiepileptic drugs are only symptomatic treatment, and there is a strong demand for the search of an alternative treatment of epilepsy. For this purpose, animal models of epilepsy are an important prerequisite. There are various animal models with chronic brain dysfunctions thought to reflect the processes underlying human epilepsy...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792024/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorder-physiology-plasticity-and-promising-pharmacotherapies
#14
Max E Joffe, Samuel W Centanni, Anel A Jaramillo, Danny G Winder, P Jeffrey Conn
Developing efficacious treatments for alcohol use disorder (AUD) has proven difficult. The insidious nature of the disease necessitates a deep understanding of its underlying biology as well as innovative approaches to ameliorate ethanol-related pathophysiology. Excessive ethanol-seeking and relapse are generated by long-term changes to membrane properties, synaptic physiology, and plasticity throughout the limbic system and associated brain structures. Each of these factors can be modulated by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, a diverse set of G protein-coupled receptors highly expressed throughout the central nervous system...
May 23, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791992/role-of-the-duodenum-in-the-pathogenesis-of-functional-dyspepsia-a-paradigm-shift
#15
REVIEW
Hye-Kyung Jung, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder characterized by chronic epigastric pain or burning, or bothersome postprandial fullness or early satiation, without a definitive organic cause. The pathogenesis of FD is likely heterogeneous. Classically, motor disorders, visceral hypersensitivity, and brain-gut interactions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of FD, but recently an important role for chronic low-grade inflammation and post-infectious gastroenteritis in FD has been reported and confirmed...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791872/gene-expression-in-cord-blood-links-genetic-risk-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders-with-maternal-psychological-distress-and-adverse-childhood-outcomes
#16
Michael S Breen, Aliza P Wingo, Nastassja Koen, Kirsten A Donald, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph D Buxbaum, Dan J Stein
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress and depression has been identified as a risk factor for adverse behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. However, the molecular mechanisms through which maternal psychopathology shapes offspring development remain poorly understood. We applied transcriptome-wide screens to 149 umbilical cord blood samples from neonates born to mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n=20), depression (n=31) and PTSD with comorbid depression (n=13), compared to carefully matched trauma exposed controls (n=23) and healthy mothers (n=62)...
May 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791868/ontogeny-of-white-matter-toll-like-receptor-expression-and-motor-skills-in-the-neonatal-ferret
#17
Jessica M Snyder, Thomas R Wood, Kylie Corry, Daniel H Moralejo, Pratik Parikh, Sandra E Juul
Inflammation caused by perinatal infection, superimposed with hypoxia and/or hyperoxia, appears to be important in the pathogenesis of preterm neonatal encephalopathy, with white matter particularly vulnerable during the third trimester. The associated inflammatory response is at least partly mediated through Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent mechanisms. Immunohistochemistry, gene expression, and behavioral studies were used to characterize white matter development and determine TLR3 and TLR4 expression and accumulation in the neonatal ferret brain...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791735/practical-considerations-for-transitioning-early-childhood-interventions-to-scale-lessons-from-the-saving-brains-portfolio
#18
James M Radner, Marvin J S Ferrer, Dominique McMahon, Anuraj H Shankar, Karlee L Silver
Small pilot studies of young children have frequently shown promise, but very few have been successfully scaled to the regional or national levels. How can we ensure that these promising approaches move from a suite of pilots to full-scale implementation that can deliver sustainable impact for hundreds of millions of children? To elucidate concrete lessons learned and suggestions on accelerating the transition to impact at scale, we reviewed the Saving Brains portfolio to better understand three points: (1) the extent to which useful signals of impact could be extracted from data at the seed phase, (2) the ways in which innovators (project leaders) were approaching human resource challenges critical for scaling, and (3) the multisector diversity of the portfolio and the way innovators entered partnerships...
May 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791504/periconceptional-maternal-dairy-rich-dietary-pattern-is-associated-with-prenatal-cerebellar-growth
#19
Francesca Parisi, Melek Rousian, Irene V Koning, Sten P Willemsen, Jeanne H M de Vries, Eric A P Steegers, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen
BACKGROUND: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has been related to intrauterine brain development and neurodevelopmental disabilities in adult life. We aim to investigate associations between periconceptional maternal dietary patterns and prenatal cerebellar growth from the first trimester onwards. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 126 women with singleton non-malformed pregnancies were enrolled before 8 weeks of gestation in the Rotterdam periconceptional cohort between 2013 and 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791316/roles-of-the-exon-junction-complex-components-in-the-central-nervous-system-a-mini-review
#20
Katarzyna Bartkowska, Beata Tepper, Kris Turlejski, Ruzanna L Djavadian
The exon junction complex (EJC) consists of four core proteins: Magoh, RNA-binding motif 8A (Rbm8a, also known as Y14), eukaryotic initiation factor 4A3 (eIF4A3, also known as DDX48), and metastatic lymph node 51 (MLN51, also known as Casc3 or Barentsz), which are involved in the regulation of many processes occurring between gene transcription and protein translation. Its main role is to assemble into spliceosomes at the exon-exon junction of mRNA during splicing. It is, therefore, a range of functions concerning post-splicing events such as mRNA translocation, translation, and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD)...
May 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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