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Beta catenin and radial glia

Qini Gan, Albert Lee, Ryusuke Suzuki, Takashi Yamagami, Arjun Stokes, Bao Chau Nguyen, David Pleasure, Junjiang Wang, Hong-Wu Chen, Chengji J Zhou
The Wnt/ß-catenin pathway is a critical stem cell regulator and plays important roles in neuroepithelial cells during early gestation. However, the role of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in radial glia, a major neural stem cell population expanded by midgestation, remains poorly understood. This study shows that genetic ablation of ß-catenin with hGFAP-Cre mice inhibits neocortical formation by disrupting radial glial development. Reduced radial glia and intermediate progenitors are found in the ß-catenin-deficient neocortex during late gestation...
January 2014: Stem Cells
Sabrina Malik, Govindaiah Vinukonda, Linnea R Vose, Daniel Diamond, Bala B R Bhimavarapu, Furong Hu, Muhammad T Zia, Robert Hevner, Nada Zecevic, Praveen Ballabh
Premature infants exhibit neurodevelopmental delay and reduced growth of the cerebral cortex. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Therefore, we hypothesized that neurogenesis in the ventricular and subventricular zones of the cerebral cortex would continue in the third trimester of pregnancy and that preterm birth would suppress neurogenesis. To test our hypotheses, we evaluated autopsy materials from human fetuses and preterm infants of 16-35 gestational weeks (gw). We noted that both cycling and noncycling Sox2(+) radial glial cells and Tbr2(+) intermediate progenitors were abundant in human preterm infants until 28 gw...
January 9, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jason R Meyers, Lily Hu, Ariel Moses, Kavon Kaboli, Annemarie Papandrea, Pamela A Raymond
BACKGROUND: The zebrafish retina maintains two populations of stem cells: first, the germinal zone or ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) contains multipotent retinal progenitors that add cells to the retinal periphery as the fish continue to grow; second, radial glia (Müller cells) occasionally divide asymmetrically to generate committed progenitors that differentiate into rod photoreceptors, which are added interstitially throughout the retina with growth. Retinal injury stimulates Müller glia to dedifferentiate, re-enter the cell cycle, and generate multipotent retinal progenitors similar to those in the CMZ to replace missing neurons...
2012: Neural Development
Xiaohong Wang, Tetsuya Imura, Michael V Sofroniew, Shinji Fushiki
The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a multifunctional protein that inhibits the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway and regulates the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons. Using conditional knockout (CKO) mice in which the APC gene is inactivated in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells, we show a selective and critical role for APC in maintaining the morphology and function of cerebellar Bergmann glia, which are specialized astroglia that extend polarized radial processes from the Purkinje cell layer to the pial surface...
June 2011: Glia
Roeben N Munji, Youngshik Choe, Guangnan Li, Julie A Siegenthaler, Samuel J Pleasure
Cortical intermediate progenitors (IPs) comprise a secondary neuronal progenitor pool that arises from radial glia (RG). IPs are essential for generating the correct number of cortical neurons, but the factors that regulate the expansion and differentiation of IPs in the embryonic cortex are essentially unknown. In this study, we show that the Wnt-β-catenin pathway (canonical Wnt pathway) regulates IP differentiation into neurons. Upregulation of Wnt-β-catenin signaling by overexpression of Wnt3a in the neocortex induced early differentiation of IPs into neurons and the accumulation of these newly born neurons at the subventricular zone/intermediate zone border...
February 2, 2011: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jill M Weimer, Yukako Yokota, Amelia Stanco, Deborah J Stumpo, Perry J Blackshear, E S Anton
The radial glial cells serve as neural progenitors and as a migratory guide for newborn neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. These functions require appropriate organization and proliferation of the polarized radial glial scaffold. Here, we demonstrate in mice that the myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate protein (MARCKS), a prominent cellular substrate for PKC, modulates radial glial placement and expansion. Loss of MARCKS results in ectopic collection of mitotically active radial progenitors away from the ventricular zone (VZ) in the upper cerebral wall...
September 2009: Development
Mianzhi Tang, Yasunori Miyamoto, Eric J Huang
Stem cell-based replacement therapy has emerged as a potential strategy to alleviate specific features of movement disorder in Parkinson's disease. However, the current strategy to produce dopamine (DA) neurons from embryonic stem cells has many limitations, including the difficulty of generating DA neurons with high yields. Further insights into the mechanisms that control the neurogenesis of DA neurons will reduce or mitigate such limitations. It is well established that the ventral midbrain (vMB) contains the neurogenic niche that produces DA neurons...
June 2009: Development
Yukako Yokota, Woo-Yang Kim, Youjun Chen, Xinshuo Wang, Amelia Stanco, Yutaro Komuro, William Snider, E S Anton
Radial glia are highly polarized cells that serve as neuronal progenitors and as scaffolds for neuronal migration during construction of the cerebral cortex. How radial glial cells establish and maintain their morphological polarity is unknown. Using conditional gene targeting in mice, we demonstrate that adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) serves an essential function in the maintenance of polarized radial glial scaffold during brain development. In the absence of APC, radial glial cells lose their polarity and responsiveness to the extracellular polarity maintenance cues, such as neuregulin-1...
January 15, 2009: Neuron
Carolyn N Wrobel, Christopher A Mutch, Sruthi Swaminathan, Makoto M Taketo, Anjen Chenn
Transgenic mice expressing stabilized beta-catenin in neural progenitors develop enlarged brains resulting from increased progenitor expansion. To more precisely define beta-catenin regulation of progenitor fate, we employed a conditional transgenic approach to delete the beta-catenin regulatory domain from neural progenitors, resulting in expression of stabilized protein from its endogenous promoter in these cells and their progeny. An increased fraction of transgenic cortical cells express the progenitor markers Nestin and LewisX, confirming a relative expansion of this population...
September 15, 2007: Developmental Biology
Lei Chen, Guanghong Liao, Linda Yang, Kenneth Campbell, Masato Nakafuku, Chia-Yi Kuan, Yi Zheng
The telencephalic neuroepithelium (NE) of mammalian brain has an apical-basal polarity that is marked by the positioning of neural progenitors and adherens junctions on the apical/ventricular surface and the ascending of radial glia/progenitor fibers toward the pial/basal surface. The signaling pathway that establishes this apical-basal polarity of NE is not completely understood, but the Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 may play a critical role because it controls cadherin-based intercellular junctions and cell polarity in many species...
October 31, 2006: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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