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Aya G Elmarsafawi, Maggie M Abbassi, Sameh Elkaffas, Hassan M Elsawy, Nirmeen A Sabry
OBJECTIVES: Comparing different perioperative statin regimens for the prevention of post-coronary artery bypass grafting adverse events. DESIGN: A randomized, prospective study. SETTING: Cardiothoracic surgical units in a government hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 94 patients scheduled for elective, isolated on- or off- pump coronary artery bypass grafting. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned randomly to 1 of the following 3 treatment groups: group I (80 mg of atorvastatin/day for 2 days preoperatively), group II (40 mg of atorvastatin/day for 5-9 days preoperatively), or group III (80 mg of atorvastatin/day for 5-9 days preoperatively)...
May 31, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Claudia A Perez, Niyatee Samudra, Venkatesh Aiyagari
Cardiac arrest is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Better-quality bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation training, cardiocerebral resuscitation principles, and intensive post-resuscitation hospital care have improved survival. However, cognitive and functional impairment after cardiac arrest remain areas of concern. Research focus has shifted beyond prognostication in the immediate post-arrest period to identification of mechanisms for long-term brain injury and implementation of promising protocols to reduce neuronal injury...
August 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Yu Pan, Qi Qiu, Fang Chen, Xuelian Li, Xianpeng Yu, Yawei Luo, Quan Li, Jiqiang He, Yuechun Gao, Xiaoling Zhang, Xuejun Ren
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents (DESs) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease patients with and without chronic kidney disease. BACKGROUND: The optimal coronary revascularization strategy for ULMCA disease patients with chronic kidney disease remains uncertain. METHODS: The sample included 818 ULMCA disease patients who received DESs (n=358) or underwent CABG (n=460)...
November 2016: Coronary Artery Disease
Bo-Yu Li, Xiao-Ming Li, Yan Zhang, Zhan-Yun Wei, Jing Li, Qi Hua
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether coronary artery revascularization therapies (CART), including percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), can improve the in-hospital and long-term outcomes for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with prior ischemic stroke (IS). METHODS: A total of 387 AMI patients with prior IS were enrolled consecutively from January 15, 2005 to December 24, 2011 in this cohort study. All patients were categorized into the CART group (n = 204) or the conservative medications (CM) group (n = 183)...
February 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Cong Hui Wang, Li Ping Zheng, Hao Tian, Jian Wen Wang
Tanshinones are major bioactive diterpenoids of Salvia miltiorrhiza roots used for the treatment of cardiocerebral diseases. To develop effective elicitation and bioprocess strategies for the enhanced production of tanshinones, ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation were applied alone or in combination respectively in S. miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures. Our results showed 40-min UV-B irradiation at 40μW/cm(2) stimulated tanshinone production without any suppression of root growth, suggesting a new effective elicitor to S...
June 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Yan Wang, Qingchan Yang, Jing Feng, Jie Cao, Baoyuan Chen
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common sleep-related breathing disorder. Hypertension is frequently a concomitant disorder in patients with OSAHS. PURPOSE: This study investigates the prevalence and clinical features of hypertension in patients with OSAHS and explores the related nursing strategies. METHODS: Three thousand six hundred seven patients were included in this study. Subjects were divided into four groups that were categorized according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) scores as follows: control group (control, n = 354) with AHI < 5, mild OSAHS (mild, n = 658) with 5 ≤ AHI < 15, moderate OSAHS (moderate, n = 753) with 15 ≤ AHI < 30, and severe OSAHS (severe, n = 1842) with AHI ≥ 30...
March 2016: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Monica Coll, Catarina Allegue, Sara Partemi, Jesus Mates, Bernat Del Olmo, Oscar Campuzano, Vincenzo Pascali, Anna Iglesias, Pasquale Striano, Antonio Oliva, Ramon Brugada
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is defined as the abrupt, no traumatic, witnessed or unwitnessed death, occurring in benign circumstances, in an individual with epilepsy, with or without evidence for a seizure and excluding documented status epilepticus (seizure duration ≥ 30 min or seizures without recovery), and in which postmortem examination does not reveal a cause of death. Although the physiopathological mechanisms that underlie SUDEP remain to be clarified, the genetic background has been described to play a role in this disorder...
March 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Robert C Bertheau, Fabian Bamberg, Elena Lochner, Hannes M Findeisen, Klaus G Parhofer, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Stefan O Schoenberg, Sabine Weckbach, Christopher L Schlett
OBJECTIVES: Whether whole-body MRI can predict occurrence of recurrent events in patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Whole-body MRI was prospectively applied to 61 diabetics and assessed for arteriosclerosis and ischemic cerebral/myocardial changes. Occurrence of cardiocerebral events and diabetic comorbidites was determined. Patients were stratified whether no, a single or recurrent events arose. As a secondary endpoint, events were stratified into organ system-specific groups...
May 2016: European Radiology
Lizhu Zhao, Wen Qi, Fangfang Chen, Jiahong Sun, Dan Yuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Isocorynoxeine (IC), a major alkaloid found in Uncaria rhynchophylla, exhibits wide beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and cardiocerebral vascular systems. Its metabolic pathway, however, has not been well studied yet. In this study, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (U-HPLC/Q-TOFMS) method was developed to investigate IC metabolism in plasma, urine and bile in rats given IC orally at 40 mg/kg. METHODS: Nine male Wistar rats were given IC 40 mg/kg orally...
October 2016: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Jiapeng Huang, Macarius Donneyong, Jaimin Trivedi, April Barnard, John Chaney, Adam Dotson, Sherri Raymer, Allen Cheng, Hong Liu, Mark S Slaughter
BACKGROUND: Preoperative aspirin use within 5 days of cardiac operations is controversial. Aspirin could reduce cardiovascular complications and yet might increase risk of bleeding. Recent reports showed conflicting results, and whether aspirin has variable effects for different cardiac surgical procedures is unclear. METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort analysis was performed. After propensity score matching (PSM) for identified confounders, the relationship between preoperative aspirin use and 30-day all-cause mortality, postoperative renal failure, major adverse cardiocerebral events (MACE), blood transfusion, reoperation for bleeding, and postoperative infection were estimated with separate logistic regression models...
June 2015: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Ya-Jie Zhang, Meng-Jun Wu, Yi Li, Hai Yu
Although improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance and the increasing success at achieving return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) have been possible in recent years, the survival and discharge rates of post-cardiac arrest (CA) patients remain disappointing. The high mortality rate is attributed to whole-body ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced multi-organ dysfunction that is well known as post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction and brain injury are the main clinical features of this complex pathophysiological process...
January 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Gordon A Ewy, Bentley J Bobrow
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health problem. In the United States, OHCA accounts for more premature deaths than any other cause. For over a half-century, the national "Guidelines" for resuscitation have recommended the same initial treatment of primary and secondary cardiac arrests. Using this approach, the overall survival of patients with OHCA, while quite variable, was generally very poor. One reason is that the etiologies of cardiac arrests are not all the same. The vast majority of nontraumatic OHCA in adults are due to a "primary" cardiac arrest, rather than secondary to respiratory arrest...
January 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Fuhai Ji, Zhongmin Li, Nilas Young, Peter Moore, Hong Liu
OBJECTIVE: This study retrospectively investigated the effect of dexmedetomidine on outcomes of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective investigation. SETTING: Patients from a single tertiary medical center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 724 patients undergoing CABG surgery met the inclusion criteria and were categorized into 2 groups: 345 in the dexmedetomidine group (DEX) and 379 in the nondexmedetomidine group (Non-DEX)...
April 2014: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Gordon A Ewy, Mathias Zuercher
The previously published randomized trials of mechanical versus manual resuscitation of patients with cardiac arrest are inconclusive, but a recent systematic review concluded: "There is no evidence that mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices improve survival; to the contrary they may worsen neurological outcome." However, in our view, none of the randomized trials to date are definitive as the manual groups with primary cardiac arrest have not been treated optimally; that is, with minimally interrupted manual chest compressions, as advocated with cardiocerebral resuscitation...
November 2013: Future Cardiology
Zheng Zhang, Li-Jun Liu, Chen Zhang, Yong-Peng Yu
Increasing evidence suggests that IL-1 β (C-511T) and IL-1 α (C-889T) genes polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility to cardiocerebral vascular disease. In this paper, we investigated the relationships between these polymorphisms and the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) classified by TOAST criteria in the north Chinese Han population. 440 cases of IS and 486 age- and gender-matched controls of Chinese Han population were enrolled. Association study showed that the TT genotype and T allele of IL-1 α -889 C/T were significantly associated with IS of a large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) (TT: OR = 2...
2013: BioMed Research International
Pasquale Parisi, Antonio Oliva, Monica Coll Vidal, Sara Partemi, Oscar Campuzano, Anna Iglesias, Daniela Pisani, Vincenzo L Pascali, Maria Chiara Paolino, Maria Pia Villa, Federico Zara, Carlo Alberto Tassinari, Pasquale Striano, Ramon Brugada
Cardiac arrhythmias are associated with abnormal channel function due to mutations in ion channel genes. Epilepsy is a disorder of neuronal function also involving abnormal channel function. It is increasingly demonstrated that the etiologies of long QT syndrome and epilepsy may partly overlap. However, only a few genetic studies have addressed a possible link between cardiac and neural channelopathies. We describe a family showing the association between Brugada syndrome and epilepsy in which a known mutation in the SCN5A gene (p...
August 2013: Epilepsy Research
Chih-Yen Chen, Wei-Jei Lee, A Asakawa, N Fujitsuka, Keong Chong, Shu-Chun Chen, Shou-Dong Lee, A Inui
To compare endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory changes induced by gastric bypass (GB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to investigate the mechanisms of success after metabolic surgery. Sixteen GB and 16 SG patients were followed up before and at 1 year after surgery. The 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before and after surgery. Glucose homeostasis, serum interleukin-1β, plasma gut hormones and adipokines, and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) ten-year cardiovascular risks were evaluated...
2013: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Fuhai Ji, Zhongmin Li, Hung Nguyen, Nilas Young, Pengcai Shi, Neal Fleming, Hong Liu
BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular and other complications that translate into increased mortality and healthcare costs. This retrospective study was designed to determine whether the perioperative use of dexmedetomidine could reduce the incidence of complications and mortality after cardiac surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1134 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery and coronary artery bypass surgery plus valvular or other procedures were included...
April 16, 2013: Circulation
Gordon A Ewy, Arthur B Sanders
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a common cause of death. In spite of recurring updates of guidelines, the survival of patients with OHCA was essentially unchanged from the mid 1970s to the mid 2000s, averaging 7.6% for all OHCA and 17.7% for OHCA due to ventricular fibrillation. In the past, changes in one's approach to resuscitation had to await the semi-decennial publications of guidelines. Following approved guidelines (at times based on consensus), survival rates of patients with OHCA were extremely variable, with only a few areas having good results...
January 15, 2013: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Marcus Salmen, Gordon A Ewy, Comilla Sasson
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the use of cardiocerebral resuscitation (CCR) or AHA/ERC 2005 Resuscitation Guidelines improved patient outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) compared to older guidelines. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases. We also hand-searched study references and consulted experts. STUDY SELECTION: Design: randomised controlled trials and observational studies...
2012: BMJ Open
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