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Dairy cattle

S Bauersachs, C A Simintiras, R G Sturmey, S Krebs, J Bick, H Blum, E Wolf, P Lonergan, N Forde
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the metabolic stresses associated with lactation alter the ability of the endometrium to respond appropriately to the conceptus by examining endometrial gene expression on Day 19 of pregnancy. Immediately after calving, primiparous Holstein cows with similar production and fertility estimated breeding values (EBVs) were randomly divided into two groups and either dried off (i.e. never milked) immediately or milked twice daily. Approximately 65-75 days postpartum, grade 1 blastocysts recovered from superovulated Holstein heifer donors (n = 5) were transferred (1 per recipient) into lactating (n = 11) and non-lactating (n = 11) recipients...
August 31, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
K E Lawrence, S F Forsyth, B Vaatstra, A M J McFadden, D Pulford, K Govindaraju, W Pomroy
AIMS: To present the haematology and biochemistry profiles for cattle in New Zealand naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type and investigate if the results differed between adult dairy cattle and calves aged <6 months. METHODS: Haematology and biochemistry results were obtained from blood samples from cattle which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type by PCR, that were submitted to veterinary laboratories in New Zealand between October 2012 and November 2014...
October 11, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Yolanda Trillo, Luis Angel Quintela, Mónica Barrio, Juan José Becerra, Ana Isabel Peña, Marcos Vigo, Pedro Garcia Herradon
The aim of this study was to describe the status of body condition score (BCS), hock injuries prevalence, locomotion and body hygiene score as animal welfare measures in 73 free-stall dairy cattle farms in Lugo (Spain). A benchmarking process was established across farms: (1) the animal-based indicators were ordered from low to high values; (2) The farms were classified into three categories based on the number of indicators within less than the 25th percentile, 25th to 75th percentile and above the 75th percentile...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
H Escalante, L Castro, M P Amaya, L Jaimes, J Jaimes-Estévez
Cheese whey (CW) is the main waste generated in the cheesemaking process and has high organic matter content and acidity. Therefore, CW disposal is a challenge for small to medium enterprises (SMEs) in the dairy industry that do not have any type of treatment plant. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive process for solving this problem. The aim of this research was to determine the biomethane and struvite precipitation potentials of CW from four dairy SMEs. First, changes in CW properties (organic matter and pH) were evaluated...
October 7, 2017: Waste Management
Racem Ben Romdhane, Gaël Beaunée, Guillaume Camanes, Raphaël Guatteo, Christine Fourichon, Pauline Ezanno
Paratuberculosis is a worldwide disease causing production losses in dairy cattle herds. Variability of cattle response to exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) has been highlighted. Such individual variability could influence Map spread at larger scale. Cattle resistance to paratuberculosis has been shown to be heritable, suggesting genetic selection could enhance disease control. Our objective was to identify which phenotypic traits characterising the individual course of infection influence Map spread in a dairy cattle herd...
October 10, 2017: Veterinary Research
Mabel Kamweli Aworh, Emmanuel Chukuwdi Okolocha, Emmanuel Jolaoluwa Awosanya, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis, a neglected tropical food-borne zoonotic disease, has a negative impact on both animal and human health as well as tremendous socio-economic impact in developing countries where rural income relies largely on livestock breeding and dairy products. It is endemic in the animal population in Nigeria and is a recognized occupational hazard. This work was done to establish the sero-prevalence and predisposing factors of food animals in Abuja, Nigeria to Brucella infection...
October 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
J R Galli, C A Cangiano, M A Pece, M J Larripa, D H Milone, S A Utsumi, E A Laca
Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3...
October 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
D F Mollenkopf, D A Mathys, D A Dargatz, M M Erdman, G G Habing, J B Daniels, T E Wittum
In the US, nontyphoidal Salmonellae are a common foodborne zoonotic pathogen causing gastroenteritis. Invasive Salmonella infections caused by extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistant (ESCR) phenotypes are more likely to result in treatment failure and adverse health outcomes, especially in severe pediatric Salmonella infections where the extended-spectrum β-lactams are the therapy of choice. To examine the genetic and epidemiologic characteristics of ESCR Salmonellae which may enter the food chain, we characterized 44 ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella isolates from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) 2011 beef cattle feedlot health and management study...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
I M G A Santman-Berends, M H Mars, L Van Duijn, K W H Van den Broek, G Van Schaik
Many countries have implemented control programmes aiming to eradicate Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV). After obtaining the free status, a risk of re-introduction of the virus through import may remain. Therefore the risk of introduction of BVDV through cattle imports in the Netherlands was quantified and the effectiveness of subsequent intervention measures was assessed. Data, literature and expert opinion were used to estimate values for input parameters to feed a stochastic simulation model. The probability that BVDV was imported was differentiated into persistently infected (PI) cattle, trojan cows that transmitted the virus vertically resulting in a PI foetus (TR) and transient infected cattle (TI)...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Tim Van De Gucht, Stephanie Van Weyenberg, Annelies Van Nuffel, Ludwig Lauwers, Jürgen Vangeyte, Wouter Saeys
Most automatic lameness detection system prototypes have not yet been commercialized, and are hence not yet adopted in practice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to simulate the effect of detection performance (percentage missed lame cows and percentage false alarms) and system cost on the potential market share of three automatic lameness detection systems relative to visual detection: a system attached to the cow, a walkover system, and a camera system. Simulations were done using a utility model derived from survey responses obtained from dairy farmers in Flanders, Belgium...
October 8, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
L K Whitfield, R A Laven
AIM: To compare, in cows treated with an internal teat sealant, the effect of short-acting and long-acting cloxacillin-based dry-cow therapy on somatic cell counts (SCC) after calving. METHODS: Cows from a spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farm in the Manawatu-Whanganui region of New Zealand were randomly allocated to receive either a short-acting cloxacillin and ampicillin dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant (n=291) or a long-acting cloxacillin and ampicillin dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant (n=288) at the end of lactation...
October 8, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Francesco Testa, Giuseppe Marano, Federico Ambrogi, Patrizia Boracchi, Antonio Casula, Elia Biganzoli, Paolo Moroni
Elevated bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) has a negative impact on milk production, milk quality, and animal health. Seasonal increases in herd level somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly associated with elevated environmental temperature and humidity. The Temperature Humidity Index (THI) has been developed to measure general environmental stress in dairy cattle; however, additional work is needed to determine a specific effect of the heat stress index on herd-level SCC. Generalized Additive Model methods were used for a flexible exploration of the relationships between daily temperature, relative humidity, and bulk milk somatic cell count...
September 28, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
Irene R Grant, Antonio C G Foddai, James C Tarrant, Brenna Kunkel, Faye A Hartmann, Sheila McGuirk, Chungyi Hansen, Adel M Talaat, Michael T Collins
When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Robin R White, Mary Beth Hall, Jeffrey L Firkins, Paul J Kononoff
The objective of this work was to leverage equations derived in a meta-analysis into an ensemble modeling system for estimating dietary physical and chemical characteristics required to maintain desired rumen conditions in lactating dairy cattle. Given the availability of data, responsiveness of ruminal pH to animal behaviors, and the chemical composition and physical form of the diet, mean ruminal pH was chosen as the primary rumen environment indicator. Physically effective fiber (peNDF) is defined as the fraction of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) that stimulates chewing activity and contributes to the floating mat of large particles in the rumen...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Rostam Abdollahi-Arpanahi, Gota Morota, Francisco Peñagaricano
The genomic prediction of unobserved genetic values or future phenotypes for complex traits has revolutionized agriculture and human medicine. Fertility traits are undoubtedly complex traits of great economic importance to the dairy industry. Although genomic prediction for improved cow fertility has received much attention, bull fertility largely has been ignored. The first aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of genomic prediction of sire conception rate (SCR) in US Holstein dairy cattle. Standard genomic prediction often ignores any available information about functional features of the genome, although it is believed that such information can yield more accurate and more persistent predictions...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
N P Martin, M P Russelle, J M Powell, C J Sniffen, S I Smith, J M Tricarico, R J Grant
A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Babafela B Awosile, Ben A Smith
Waste milk feeding is a common practice in dairy operations. Regardless of the benefits of this practice to the dairy farmers, concerns from the potential dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria through the gut and subsequent shedding by calves into the environment are increasing. In this study, we employed Monte Carlo simulation to assess the risk of shedding extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (ESC-R E. coli) caused by waste milk feeding in pre-weaned calves using an exponential dose-response model fit to data for E...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Gerson A Oliveira Júnior, Tatiane C S Chud, Ricardo V Ventura, Dorian J Garrick, John B Cole, Danísio P Munari, José B S Ferraz, Erik Mullart, Sue DeNise, Shannon Smith, Marcos Vinícius G B da Silva
The objective of this study was to investigate different strategies for genotype imputation in a population of crossbred Girolando (Gyr × Holstein) dairy cattle. The data set consisted of 478 Girolando, 583 Gyr, and 1,198 Holstein sires genotyped at high density with the Illumina BovineHD (Illumina, San Diego, CA) panel, which includes ∼777K markers. The accuracy of imputation from low (20K) and medium densities (50K and 70K) to the HD panel density and from low to 50K density were investigated. Seven scenarios using different reference populations (RPop) considering Girolando, Gyr, and Holstein breeds separately or combinations of animals of these breeds were tested for imputing genotypes of 166 randomly chosen Girolando animals...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Joanna Szyda, Tomasz Suchocki, Saber Qanbari, Zengting Liu, Henner Simianer
Genomic information is an important part of the routine evaluation of dairy cattle and provides the wide availability of animals genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays. We analyzed 2243 Polish and 2294 German Holstein-Friesian bulls genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. For each bull, estimated breeding values (EBVs) calculated from national routine genetic evaluation were available for production traits and for somatic cell score (SCS). Separately for each population, we estimated SNP haplotypes, pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD), and SNP effects...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
Md Mesbah-Uddin, Bernt Guldbrandtsen, Terhi Iso-Touru, Johanna Vilkki, Dirk-Jan De Koning, Didier Boichard, Mogens Sandø Lund, Goutam Sahana
Large genomic deletions are potential candidate for loss-of-function, which could be lethal as homozygote. Analysing whole genome data of 175 cattle, we report 8,480 large deletions (199 bp-773 KB) with an overall false discovery rate of 8.8%; 82% of which are novel compared with deletions in the dbVar database. Breakpoint sequence analyses revealed that majority (24 of 29 tested) of the deletions contain microhomology/homology at breakpoint, and therefore, most likely generated by microhomology-mediated end joining...
September 8, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
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