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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340261/effect-of-a-high-concentrate-diet-on-milk-components-and-mammary-health-in-holstein-dairy-cows
#1
Z L Xie, J Zhang, D M Zhang, J F Li, Y H Lin
In order to evaluate the milk yield, milk quality, and health of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet, eight lactating Holstein dairy cattle were randomly assigned to HC or low-concentrate (LC) diet groups and fed for 50 days, and the auto-control studying before and after treatment with the two diets was used. During the experiment, plasma and milk samples were collected and measured. With regard to milk component, HC feeding led to higher milk production (P < 0.05), but significantly lower milk protein percentage (P < 0...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335483/land-use-for-edible-protein-of-animal-origin-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Gerhard Flachowsky, Ulrich Meyer, Karl-Heinz Südekum
The present period is characterized by a growing world population and a higher demand for more and better quality food, as well as other products for an improved standard of living. In the future, there will be increasingly strong competition for arable land and non-renewable resources such as fossil carbon-sources, water, and some minerals, as well as between food, feed, fuel, fiber, flowers, and fun (6 F's). Proteins of animal origin like milk, meat, fish, eggs and, probably, insects are very valuable sources of essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins, but their production consumes some non-renewable resources including arable land and causes considerable emissions...
March 18, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332651/serosurveillance-and-factors-associated-with-the-presence-of-antibodies-against-bluetongue-virus-in-dairy-cattle-in-two-eco-zones-of-nepal
#3
T N Gaire, S Karki, I P Dhakal, D R Khanal, R A Bowen
Cattle play an important role in the epidemiology of bluetongue (BT) by acting as reservoir hosts. However, the status of BT virus (BTV) in dairy cattle in Nepal is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BTV antibodies in dairy cattle in two eco-zones of Nepal, and to identify the factors associated with virus exposure. The authors conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey from March 2012 through February 2013 by sampling 131 dairy cattle from seven clusters (villages) in the Chitwan district in the Terai region (southern lowlands) and the Lamjung district in the Hills region (the middle part of Nepal)...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332649/epidemiological-surveillance-in-dairy-farms-in-the-pastaza-province-of-ecuador
#4
M Perez Ruano, F V Lam Romero, D Benítez Jiménez, S Ríos Núñez, J C Vargas Burgos, R Quinteros Pozo, X Rodríguez Villafuerte
A survey was carried out on dairy cattle farms in Pastaza province to analyse the degree of compliance with epidemiological surveillance activities (based on the main technical aspects in Ecuador's Guide to Good Dairy Farming Practices) and to assess the reduction of the risk of introducing disease into dairy cattle. Visits were made to 70 dairy and dual-purpose beef/dairy farms, where the survey was conducted to evaluate technical aspects relating to epidemiological surveillance and the risk of introducing disease...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332567/dairy-cows-value-access-to-pasture-as-highly-as-fresh-feed
#5
Marina A G von Keyserlingk, Andressa Amorim Cestari, Becca Franks, Jose A Fregonesi, Daniel M Weary
Many dairy cows in the developed world are now housed exclusively indoors with fewer than 5% of the 10 million lactating cows in the United States having access to pasture during the grazing season. Indoor housing systems are designed to meet biological needs for food, water, hygiene, and shelter, but surveys of public and farmer opinion suggest that people think that pasture access is also important for the well-being of dairy cows. To determine if pasture access is important to the cows themselves, we investigated to what extent cows will work to access pasture (by pushing on a weighted gate), and compared it to the motivation to access fresh feed...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323836/single-nucleotide-variants-and-indels-identified-from-whole-genome-re-sequencing-of-guzerat-gyr-girolando-and-holstein-cattle-breeds
#6
Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza, Adhemar Zerlotini, Francisco Pereira Lobo, Michel Eduardo Beleza Yamagishi, Tatiane Cristina Seleguim Chud, Alexandre Rodrigues Caetano, Danísio Prado Munari, Dorian J Garrick, Marco Antonio Machado, Marta Fonseca Martins, Maria Raquel Carvalho, John Bruce Cole, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa da Silva
Whole-genome re-sequencing, alignment and annotation analyses were undertaken for 12 sires representing four important cattle breeds in Brazil: Guzerat (multi-purpose), Gyr, Girolando and Holstein (dairy production). A total of approximately 4.3 billion reads from an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer generated for each animal 10.7 to 16.4-fold genome coverage. A total of 27,441,279 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) and 3,828,041 insertions/deletions (InDels) were detected in the samples, of which 2,557,670 SNVs and 883,219 InDels were novel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322708/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-zoonotic-poxviruses-circulating-in-the-amazon-region-of-colombia-2014
#7
Jose A Usme-Ciro, Andrea Paredes, Diana M Walteros, Erica Natalia Tolosa-Pérez, Katherine Laiton-Donato, Maria Del Carmen Pinzón, Brett W Petersen, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Yu Li, Kimberly Wilkins, Whitni Davidson, Jinxin Gao, Nishi Patel, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Mary G Reynolds, P S Satheshkumar, Ginny L Emerson, Andrés Páez-Martínez
During 2014, cutaneous lesions were reported in dairy cattle and farmworkers in the Amazon Region of western Colombia. Samples from 6 patients were analyzed by serologic and PCR testing, and results demonstrated the presence of vaccinia virus and pseudocowpox virus. These findings highlight the need for increased poxvirus surveillance in Colombia.
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318588/comparative-composition-diversity-and-abundance-of-oligosaccharides-in-early-lactation-milk-from-commercial-dairy-and-beef-cows
#8
William M Sischo, Diana M Short, Mareen Geissler, Apichaya Bunyatratchata, Daniela Barile
Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318580/the-canadian-national-dairy-study-2015-adoption-of-milking-practices-in-canadian-dairy-herds
#9
E Belage, S Dufour, C Bauman, A Jones-Bitton, D F Kelton
Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303655/cholangiohepatitis-in-dairy-cattle-13-cases
#10
D E Gomez, E Doré, D Francoz, A Desrochers, H Pierre, G Fecteau
BACKGROUND: The signalment, clinicopathologic, bacteriological, histopathological, ultrasonographic characteristics, and the treatment and outcomes of adult cattle with cholangiohepatitis are poorly defined. ANIMALS: Thirteen Holstein cows with cholangiohepatitis. METHODS: Retrospective study of medical records of cattle admitted to the CHUV and the AVC between 1992 and 2012 and 2000 and 2012, respectively, for cattle older than 3 months of age with a histopathological diagnosis of cholangiohepatitis...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299852/energy-and-protein-requirements-for-growth-of-holstein%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-gyr-heifers
#11
F A S Silva, S C Valadares Filho, L N Rennó, D Zanetti, L F Costa E Silva, L A Godoi, J M P Vieira, A C B Menezes, P Pucetti, P P Rotta
There is little information regarding the nutritional requirements for dairy heifers, leading the majority of nutrient requirement systems to consider dairy heifers to be similar to beef heifers. Therefore, we evaluated the muscle protein metabolism and physical and chemical body composition of growing Holstein × Gyr heifers and estimated the energy and protein requirements. We performed a comparative slaughter experiment with 20 Holstein × Gyr heifers at an initial body weight of 218 ± 36.5 kg and an average age of 12 ± 1...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299287/low-prevalence-of-salmonella-enterica-in-cull-dairy-cattle-at-slaughter-in-northern-italy
#12
Silvia Bonardi, Ilaria Bruini, Rossella Magnani, Nicolò Cannistrà, Franco Brindani
In order to evaluate Salmonella carrier status of cull dairy cattle at slaughter, 125 animals were randomly selected during the period February-May 2016. Dairy cows were reared in 89 farms located in two regions of Northern Italy (Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions), where bovine milk is primarily used for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese and Grana Padano cheese production. Samples were collected by swabbing a 400-cm(2) area of the brisket hide and by rectoanal mucosal swabs. They were tested following the reference ISO 6579 method and the isolates were serotyped following the Kauffmann-White-Le Minor scheme and genotyped by XbaI PFGE...
January 24, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296930/seasonal-changes-in-the-digesta-adherent-rumen-bacterial-communities-of-dairy-cattle-grazing-pasture
#13
Samantha J Noel, Graeme T Attwood, Jasna Rakonjac, Christina D Moon, Garry C Waghorn, Peter H Janssen
The complex microbiota that resides within the rumen is responsible for the break-down of plant fibre. The bacteria that attach to ingested plant matter within the rumen are thought to be responsible for initial fibre degradation. Most studies examining the ecology of this important microbiome only offer a 'snapshot' in time. We monitored the diversity of rumen bacteria in four New Zealand dairy cows, grazing a rye-grass and clover pasture over five consecutive seasons, using high throughput pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296882/detection-and-characterization-of-brucella-spp-in-bovine-milk-in-small-scale-urban-and-peri-urban-farming-in-tajikistan
#14
Elisabeth Lindahl-Rajala, Tove Hoffman, David Fretin, Jacques Godfroid, Nosirjon Sattorov, Sofia Boqvist, Åke Lundkvist, Ulf Magnusson
Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses globally, and Central Asia remains a Brucella hotspot. The World Health Organization classifies brucellosis as a neglected zoonotic disease that is rarely in the spotlight for research and mainly affects poor, marginalized people. Urban and peri-urban farming is a common practice in many low-income countries, and it increases the incomes of families that are often restrained by limited economic resources. However, there is a concern that the growing number of people and livestock living close together in these areas will increase the transmission of zoonotic pathogens such as Brucella...
March 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295666/impact-of-diet-composition-and-temperature-humidity-index-on-water-and-dry-matter-intake-of-high-yielding-dairy-cows
#15
S Ammer, C Lambertz, D von Soosten, K Zimmer, U Meyer, S Dänicke, M Gauly
The temperature-humidity index (THI) is widely used to characterize heat stress in dairy cattle. Diet composition is known to induce variation in metabolic-associated heat production. However, the relationships between THI and diet are poorly characterized with regard to performance and intake behaviour. Therefore, the objectives were to evaluate the impact of THI on water intake (WI), dry matter intake (DMI) and the frequency of drinking and feeding bouts in lactating dairy cows offered four dietary treatments: each contained 20% grass silage and additionally (i) 20% maize silage, 60% concentrate (M-HC); (ii) 60% maize silage, 20% concentrate (M-LC); (iii) 20% pressed beet pulp silage, 60% concentrate (BPS-HC); or (iv) 60% pressed beet pulp silage, 20% concentrate (BPS-LC) (DM basis)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295570/agreement-among-4-sampling-methods-to-identify-respiratory-pathogens-in-dairy-calves-with-acute-bovine-respiratory-disease
#16
D Doyle, B Credille, T W Lehenbauer, R Berghaus, S S Aly, J Champagne, P Blanchard, B Crossley, L Berghaus, S Cochran, A Woolums
BACKGROUND: Four sampling techniques commonly are used for antemortem identification of pathogens from cattle with bovine respiratory disease (BRD): the nasal swab (NS), guarded nasopharyngeal swab (NPS), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transtracheal wash (TTW). Agreement among these methods has not been well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate agreement among TTW and NS, NPS, or BAL for identification of viral and bacterial pathogens in dairy calves with BRD...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294375/identification-of-the-interaction-between-bta-mir-370-and-olr1-gene-in-bovine-adipocyte
#17
H F Li, S H Wang, Y Guo, H B Zhao, X Y Li, X Wang
It has been shown that the oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1) gene plays an important role in the degradation of oxidized low density lipoprotein. Previous studies found a SNP in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the OLR1 gene associated with milk production traits in different dairy cattle populations and with loin eye area and marbling depth in beef cattle. MicroRNAs can regulate gene expression by binding the 3'-UTR of target genes to degrade or to repress the translation of target genes...
March 10, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294091/modifications-of-the-g6g-timed-ai-protocol-improved-pregnancy-per-ai-and-reduced-pregnancy-loss-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#18
F Heidari, E Dirandeh, Z Ansari Pirsaraei, M G Colazo
In dairy cows, subjected to a G6G protocol, objectives were to determine effects of (1) extending the interval from prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) during presynchronization; and (2) adding a second PGF2α treatment before artificial insemination (AI), on ovarian response, plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations and pregnancy per AI (P/AI). In a 2×2 factorial design, lactating cows were randomly assigned to one of four timed AI (TAI) protocols: (1) G6G (n=149), one injection of PGF2α, GnRH 2 days later and a 7-day Ovsynch (GnRH, 7 days, PGF2α, 56 h, GnRH, 16 h, TAI) was initiated 6 days later; (2) G6GP (n=144), an additional PGF2α treatment (24 h after the first) during Ovsynch of the G6G protocol; (3) MG6G, one injection of PGF2α, GnRH 4 days later before initiation of the G6G protocol; and (4) MG6GP, an additional PGF2α treatment (24 h after the first) during Ovsynch of the MG6G protocol...
March 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290594/-effects-of-vaccination-against-q-fever-in-lower-saxony-dairy-cattle-farms
#19
Stefanie Lehner, Katja Lohan, Heinz-Josef Dieckhoff, Ursula Gerdes
OBJECTIVE: Being a notifiable and zoonotic disease, Q-fever is coming under increasing focus of epizootic disease control. Current studies indicate that the disease is more widespread in Germany than the number of notifications suggest. Therefore, since 2013, under certain conditions a hardship allowance is granted by the Animal Diseases Fund of Lower Saxony for the vaccine costs of the basic immunization to support affected farms. Material und methods: All farmers, on whose farms clinical signs of Q-fever and the pathogen Coxiella burnetii had been detected prior to vaccination and who had taken advantage of the hardship allowance during the previous 2 years were surveyed to assess the effectiveness of the measure...
March 14, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288845/sodium-houttuyfonate-inhibits-lps-induced-inflammatory-response-via-suppressing-tlr4-nf-%C3%A4-b-signaling-pathway-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#20
Wenqing Wang, Xiaoyu Hu, Peng Shen, Naisheng Zhang, Yunhe Fu
Mastitis is an inflammatory reaction caused by microorganisms in the mammary gland which usually leads to the decrease of the dairy production. It vastly makes bad effect on the cattle industry all over the world. Nowadays, an increasing number of scientists keep a watchful eye on natural compounds to prevent mastitis. Sodium houttuyfonate (SH) has been reported to have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. This experiment aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of SH on LPS-stimulated primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC)...
March 10, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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