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Dairy cattle

Vickie J Ruggiero, Oscar J Benitez, Yun-Long Tsai, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Yu-Chun Lin, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang, Paul Bartlett
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a contagious, oncogenic deltaretrovirus of cattle with a worldwide distribution. In the US, over 40% of dairy cows are infected with the virus, and evidence of its economic impact is growing. This study evaluated the performance of a field-deployable automatic nucleic acid-extraction/insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) system for on-site BLV-proviral DNA detection in dairy cows compared with a conventional laboratory real-time PCR (rt-PCR). Assay performance was verified in parallel tests of 36 archived blood samples with 100% agreement (κ = 1...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Sébastien Lambert, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Pauline Freycon, Anne Thébault, Yvette Game, Carole Toïgo, Elodie Petit, Marie-Noëlle Barthe, Gaël Reynaud, Maryne Jaÿ, Bruno Garin-Bastuji, Claire Ponsart, Jean Hars, Sophie Rossi
Wildlife reservoirs of infectious diseases raise major management issues. In Europe, brucellosis has been eradicated in domestic ruminants from most countries and wild ruminants have not been considered important reservoirs so far. However, a high prevalence of Brucella melitensis infection has been recently identified in a French population of Alpine ibex ( Capra ibex ), after the emergence of brucellosis was confirmed in a dairy cattle farm and two human cases. This situation raised the need to identify the factors driving the persistence of Brucella infection at high prevalence levels in this ibex population...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
J P Dubey
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is important to the economy of several countries in Asia, and South America and there are also isolated herds in Europe. In India, buffalo is the main dairy animal. Coccidiosis due to Eimeria is an important cause of diarrhea in livestock worldwide. Eimeria species are generally considered host specific. More than 11 Eimeria species are considered common in buffaloes and cattle (Bos taurus, Bos indicus). Of the numerous species of Eimeria in cattle, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria auburnensis and Eimeria alabamensis are considered pathogenic in cattle, but there is no report of their pathogenicity in naturally infected water buffaloes...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
C Bellet, M J Green, A J Bradley, J Kaler
It is agreed that exposure of adult dairy cattle to helminths on pasture can negatively affect production performances as milking herd. Young animals, especially replacement heifers, represent the future of a dairy farm and are among the most vulnerable to helminth infections in a dairy herd. For this reason, dairy farmers tend to frequently treat heifers against helminths, although the impact of helminths on heifers' production performances is still poorly understood. Using different epidemiological and serological tools, this study examines the relationship between heifer exposure to helminths on pasture and production performances over time...
May 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
L Kovács, F L Kézér, F Ruff, O Szenci, V Jurkovich
Warm summer episodes have a significant effect on the overall health and well-being of young cattle; however, it is not known which temperature measure should be used for estimating heat stress in dairy calves. In this study, generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the relationships between thermal comfort indices and animal-based heat stress indicators in sixteen Holstein bull calves that were housed in individual calf hutches. Data were collected under continental weather characteristics over a 5-day period: day 1 (lower-temperature day), days 2 and 3 (heat stress days), and a 2-day post-stress period...
June 6, 2018: Environmental Research
Sreenidhi Srinivasan, Laurel Easterling, Bipin Rimal, Xiaoyue Maggie Niu, Andrew J K Conlan, Patrick Dudas, Vivek Kapur
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic disease of cattle that impacts productivity and represents a major public health threat. Despite the considerable economic costs and zoonotic risk consequences associated with the disease, accurate estimates of bTB prevalence are lacking in many countries, including India, where national control programmes are not yet implemented and the disease is considered endemic. To address this critical knowledge gap, we performed a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis to estimate bTB prevalence in cattle in India and provide a foundation for the future formulation of rational disease control strategies and the accurate assessment of economic and health impact risks...
June 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Maren Mylius, Johannes Dreesman, Matthias Pulz, Gerhard Pallasch, Konrad Beyrer, Katja Claußen, Franz Allerberger, Angelika Fruth, Christina Lang, Rita Prager, Antje Flieger, Sabine Schlager, Daniela Kalhöfer, Elke Mertens
Following a school ski-trip to Austria from 10 to 18/02/2017, nine of 25 participants of the group from Lower Saxony (Germany) developed gastroenteritis. The students and teachers (17-41 years) shared meals in a hotel. Active case finding revealed further cases among German school groups from North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, staying at the same hotel in February 2017. We conducted two retrospective cohort studies using self-administered questionnaires on clinical symptoms and food consumption...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
S J Symes, J L Allen, P D Mansell, K L Woodward, K E Bailey, J R Gilkerson, G F Browning
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Noroviruses have been recognised as a significant cause of neonatal enteritis in calves in many countries, but there has been no investigation of their occurrence in Australian cattle. This study aimed to establish whether bovine noroviruses could be detected in faecal samples from Australian dairy cattle. It also sought to determine whether bovine coronaviruses, also associated with neonatal enteritis in calves, could be detected in the same faecal samples. METHODS: A selection of faecal samples that were negative for rotaviruses from dairy farms located in three geographically distinct regions of Victoria were pooled and tested by reverse transcription-PCR for the presence of noroviruses (genogroup III), neboviruses and bovine coronaviruses...
June 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
Charles M Benbrook, Donald R Davis, Bradley J Heins, Maged A Latif, Carlo Leifert, Logan Peterman, Gillian Butler, Ole Faergeman, Silvia Abel-Caines, Marcin Baranski
Consumer demand for milk and meat from grass-fed cattle is growing, driven mostly by perceived health benefits and concerns about animal welfare. In a U. S.-wide study of 1,163 milk samples collected over 3 years, we quantified the fatty acid profile in milk from cows fed a nearly 100% forage-based diet (grassmilk) and compared it to profiles from a similar nationwide study of milk from cows under conventional and organic management. We also explored how much the observed differences might help reverse the large changes in fatty acid intakes that have occurred in the United States over the last century...
May 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Alyson S Barratt, Matthieu H Arnoult, Bouda Vosough Ahmadi, Karl M Rich, George J Gunn, Alistair W Stott
Animal diseases are global issues affecting the productivity and financial profitability of affected farms. Johne's disease is distributed on farms worldwide and is an endemic contagious bacterial infection in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. In cattle, the clinical disease manifests itself as chronic enteritis resulting in reduced production, weight loss, and eventually death. Johne's disease is prevalent in the UK, including Scotland. Direct costs and losses associated with Johne's disease have been estimated in previous research, confirming an important economic impact of the disease in UK herds...
2018: PloS One
Ana Paula Andreolla, Luana Marina Scheer Erpen, Rafael Frandoloso, Luiz Carlos Kreutz
Serological testing and culling infected animals are key management practices aiming eradication of bovine leukemia virus infection. Here, we report the development of an indirect ELISA based on BLV recombinant capsid protein (BLVp24r) to detect anti-BLV antibodies in cattle serum. The BLVp24r was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography, and then used to set up the ELISA parameters. The Polysorp® plate coated with 50ng of antigen/well and bovine serum diluted 1:100 gave the best results during standardization...
May 22, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Benjamin D Enger, Carly E Crutchfield, Taylor T Yohe, Kellie M Enger, Stephen C Nickerson, Catherine L M Parsons, Robert Michael Akers
Intramammary infections (IMI) are prevalent in non-lactating dairy cattle and their occurrence during periods of significant mammary growth and development (i.e. pregnant heifers and dry cows) is believed to interfere with growth, development, and subsequent milk production. However, direct study of IMI impacts on non-lactating but developing mammary glands is lacking. The objectives of this study were to (1) define how IMI affected total and differential mammary secretion somatic cell counts in mammary glands stimulated to rapidly grow using estradiol and progesterone, and (2) characterize changes in mammary morphology in response to IMI...
June 5, 2018: Veterinary Research
Jian Liu, John T Spargo, Peter J A Kleinman, Robert Meinen, Philip A Moore, Douglas B Beegle
Water-extractable P (WEP) in manure and manure compost is widely used as an indicator of P release to runoff from manure and compost that are land applied. A survey of 600 manures and composts was conducted to assess trends in WEP (dry weight equivalent) related to manure and compost types from sources in the Mid-Atlantic region. Manure and compost WEP ranged from 0.2 to 20.8 g kg. Mean WEP was highest in turkey and swine manures (manure: 4.1-5.6 g kg; no composts tested), followed by layer and broiler chicken manures (manure: 3...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Yusuf Yakubu, Abdulmalik Bello Shuaibu, Aliyu Musawa Ibrahim, Ummukulthum Lawal Hassan, Raymond Junior Nwachukwu
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enteric foodborne pathogen associated with life threatening disease conditions. The enterobacteria are frequently found in cattle gastrointestinal tract with high potential of contaminating animal products such as meat, milk, and cheese. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk products sold within Sokoto metropolis. Two hundred and sixty (260) samples (comprising 160 raw and 100 fermented milk samples) were collected from different sources within the study area...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Zhihua Ju, Jinming Huang, Qiang Jiang, Changfa Wang, Xiuge Wang, Shuhong Zhao
Bovine mastitis is an inflammation response of the mammary gland tissues caused mainly by pathogenic bacteria in cows. Previous studies showed that bta-miR-15a and bta-miR-16a modulate immunity and inflammation responses. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern and tissue localization of bta-miR-15a and bta-miR-16a. The expression levels of bta-miR-15a and bta-miR-16a were significantly upregulated in mammary tissues and blood neutrophils of mastitis-infected cows, compared with those of healthy cows (P < 0...
May 30, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Qianqian Zhang, Mario Calus, Mirte Bosse, Goutam Sahana, Mogens Sandø Lund, Bernt Guldbrandtsen
Domestic animals can serve as model systems of adaptive introgression and their genomic signatures. In part their usefulness as model systems is due to their well-known histories. Different breeding strategies such as introgression and artificial selection have generated numerous desirable phenotypes and superior performance in domestic animals. The Modern Danish Red Dairy Cattle is studied as an example of an introgressed population. It originates from crossing the traditional Danish Red Dairy Cattle with the Holstein and Brown Swiss breeds, both known for high milk production...
May 30, 2018: Genetics
Tiago Facury Moreira, Rafael Romero Nicolino, Leandro Silva de Andrade, Elias Jorge Facury Filho, Antônio Ultimo de Carvalho
Lameness is a growing concern to the dairy industry worldwide. However, little is known about lameness and its causes in grazing cattle, especially in tropical climates. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of hoof lesions and lameness in dairy herds of all year-round grazing cattle under tropical condition, and to identify the main lesions associated with lameness. We visited 48 farms located in the Minas Gerais state, Brazil, equally divided into four groups based on daily milk production. All lactating cows in the visited farms were locomotion scored, and a representative sample was randomly chosen for hoof inspection...
May 30, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
R R Alyethodi, S Kumar, R Deb, R Alex, U Singh, S Sharma, Ashish, J Choudhary, G Sengar, R Singh, S Tyagi, P Birham
Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) has considerable economic impact on dairy cattle breeding due to extensive use of artificial insemination (AI). Identifying the carrier is an important factor to reduce the incidence of the genetic disorder. The study was conducted to identify the carriers of CVM in Frieswal cattle by polymerase chain reaction-primer-introduced restriction analysis (PCR-PIRA) method, which was further confirmed by sequencing. Carrier prevalence of 1% was observed in the Frieswal cattle. The results of the study clearly demonstrated the existence of carriers of CVM among Frieswal bull calves...
2018: Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research
Rathinam Murugeswari, Chinnamani Valli, Raman Karunakaran, Venkatasubramanian Leela, Amaresan Serma Saravana Pandian
Background and Aim: In Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India, rice is readily available at a low cost, hence, is cooked (cooking akin to human consumption) and fed irrationally to cross-bred dairy cattle with poor productivity. Hence, a study was carried out with the objective to examine the prevalence of acidosis sequelae to rice-based feeding regimen and assess its magnitude. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted in all the 32 districts of Tamil Nadu, by randomly selecting two blocks per districts and from each block five villages were randomly selected...
April 2018: Veterinary World
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