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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668133/helminth-eggs-as-parasitic-indicators-of-fecal-contamination-in-agricultural-irrigation-water-biosolids-soils-and-pastures
#1
María Claudia Campos, Milena Beltrán, Nancy Fuentes, Gerardo Moreno
INTRODUCTION: A very common practice in agriculture is the disposal of wastewater and biosolids from water treatment systems due to their high nutrient content, which substantially improves crop yields. However, the presence of pathogens of fecal origin creates a sanitary risk to farmers and consumers. OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence and concentration of helminth eggs in irrigation waters, biosolids, agricultural soils, and pastures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Water, biosolids, soil, and pasture samples were collected and analyzed for helminth egg detection, total eggs and viable eggs counts...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665814/herd-level-seroprevalence-of-fasciola-hepatica-and-ostertagia-ostertagi-infection-in-dairy-cattle-population-in-the-central-and-northeastern-poland
#2
Sławomir J Kowalczyk, Michał Czopowicz, Corinna N Weber, Elisabeth Müller, Tomasz Nalbert, Andrzej Bereznowski, Jarosław Kaba
BACKGROUND: Fasciola hepatica and Ostertagia ostertagi infections are widespread in cattle population of Europe, however data on their prevalence in Poland are only fragmentary. Therefore, the cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the herd-level seroprevalence of F. hepatica and O. ostertagi infection in dairy cattle population in the central and north-eastern provinces Poland, and to identify basic local risk factors for these infections. In total, 598 herds were enrolled, 394 (65...
April 17, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664901/genetic-profiling-of-mycobacterium-bovis-strains-from-slaughtered-cattle-in-eritrea
#3
Michael Kahsay Ghebremariam, Tiny Hlokwe, Victor P M G Rutten, Alberto Allepuz, Simeon Cadmus, Adrian Muwonge, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Anita L Michel
Mycobacterium bovis (M.bovis) is the main causative agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and can also be the cause of zoonotic tuberculosis in humans. In view of its zoonotic nature, slaughterhouse surveillance, potentially resulting in total or partial condemnation of the carcasses and organs, is conducted routinely.Spoligotyping, VNTR profiling, and whole genome sequencing (WGS)ofM. bovis isolated from tissues with tuberculosis-like lesions collected from 14 cattle at Eritrea's largest slaughterhouse in the capital Asmara, were conducted...
April 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659523/antibacterial-efficacy-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-endometritis-caused-by-prevotella-melaninogenica-and-arcanobacterum-pyogenes-in-dairy-cattle
#4
Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Yun-Jung Choi, Jin-Hoi Kim
Bovine postpartum diseases remain one of the most significant and highly prevalent illnesses with negative effects on the productivity, survival, and welfare of dairy cows. Antibiotics are generally considered beneficial in the treatment of endometritis; however, frequent usage of each antibiotic drug is reason for the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) of the pathogenic microorganisms, representing a major impediment for the successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases in both humans and animals...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657426/status-of-theileriosis-among-herbivores-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Masoud Soosaraei, Mousa Motavalli Haghi, Fariborz Etemadifar, Mahdi Fakhar, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Shabnam Asfaram
Aim: Theileriosis is a protozoal disease caused by Theileria spp. mostly in warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide. It is one of the common tick-borne diseases among domestic animals in tropical and sub-tropical regions, which have a variety of unlikable effects on health economy and animal welfare. In the present study, the prevalence of theileriosis among domestic farm animals in Iran was systematically evaluated. Methods: To identify the related papers, 10 English and Persian databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Medical Subject Headings, Google Scholar, Magiran, Barakatns (formerly Iranmedex), Elm net, and Scientific Information Database, were appraised for articles published throughout 1999-2017...
March 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657001/accuracy-of-a-diagnostic-model-based-on-serum-biochemical-parameters-in-detecting-cows-at-an-increased-risk-of-chronic-fascioliasis
#6
Sławomir J Kowalczyk, Michał Czopowicz, Corinna N Weber, Elisabeth Müller, Jarosław Kaba
In adult cattle Fasciola hepatica infection usually follows a chronic subclinical course, and reduces both the milk yield and milk quality, resulting in considerable financial losses. Effective control of the disease is based on reliable identification of asymptomatically infected individuals, which now requires special parasitological or serological diagnostic tests. It is also known that F. hepatica infection induces alterations in some serum biochemical parameters. Therefore, the study was conducted to develop a model based on serum biochemical parameters allowing to identify cows at higher risk of chronic fascioliasis...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655559/associations-between-bone-and-energy-metabolism-in-cows-fed-diets-differing-in-level-of-dietary-cation-anion-difference-and-supplemented-with-cholecalciferol-or-calcidiol
#7
R M Rodney, N P Martinez, P Celi, E Block, P C Thomson, G Wijffels, D R Fraser, J E P Santos, I J Lean
Bone-derived hormones play an important role in metabolism. This study examined the hypothesis that interactions between bone and energy metabolism, particularly those involving osteocalcin, are present in dairy cattle and have feedback mechanisms over time. Associations between metabolites in blood were examined in 32 Holstein cows blocked by parity and milk yield and randomly allocated to diets containing either 0.27 mg/kg dry matter (DM) calcidiol or cholecalciferol for an anticipated intake of 3 mg/d (120,000 IU/d) at 11 kg of DM, and positive (+130 mEq/kg DM) or negative (-130 mEq/kg DM) dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) from 252 d of gestation to calving...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650032/biosecurity-and-animal-disease-management-in-organic-and-conventional-swedish-dairy-herds-a-questionnaire-study
#8
Ulf Emanuelson, Karin Sjöström, Nils Fall
BACKGROUND: Good animal health is a notion that is germane to organic dairy production, and it is expected that such herds would pay significant attention on the health of their animals. However, it is not known if the applied animal disease management is actually more adequate in organic dairy cattle herds than in conventional dairy herds. A questionnaire study on biosecurity and animal disease management activities was therefore conducted among Swedish farmers with organic and conventional dairy cattle herds...
April 12, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644542/challenges-in-inbreeding-estimation-of-large-populations-based-on-polish-holstein-friesian-cattle-pedigree
#9
Ewa Sell-Kubiak, Łukasz Czarniecki, Tomasz Strabel
The aim of this study was to evaluate observed and future inbreeding level in Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle population. In total, over 9.8 mln animals were used in the analysis coming from the pedigree of Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. Inbreeding level, as an average per birth year, was estimated with the method accounting for missing parent information with the assumption of year 1950 as the base year of the population. If an animal had no ancestral records, an average inbreeding level from its birth year was assigned...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643295/prevalence-and-etiology-of-mastitis-in-dairy-cattle-in-el-oro-province-ecuador
#10
Said Amer, Fernando Lenin Aguilar Gálvez, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Chika Tada, Ivan Ludeña Jimenez, Wunster Favian Maza Valle, Yutaka Nakai
This study described the occurrence of clinical and subclinical forms of mastitis in 250 cattle from 5 dairy farms around the cities of Santa Rosa and Machala, El Oro Province, Ecuador. Clinical mastitis (CM) was determined based on obvious changes in milk (mild), signs of inflammation in the udder (moderate), and/or generalized clinical symptoms (severe). Subclinical mastitis (SCM) was assessed using the California mastitis test. CM and SCM were detected in 30 (12.0%) and 150 (60%) of the 250 tested cattle, respectively...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642676/can-the-body-composition-of-crossbred-dairy-cattle-be-predicted-by-equations-for-beef-cattle
#11
Maria Luciana Menezes Wanderley Neves, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira de Souza, Robson Magno Liberal Véras, Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho, Marcos Inácio Marcondes, Gabriel Santana da Silva, Lígia Maria Gomes Barreto, Marcelo de Andrade Ferreira, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves Véras
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of the Hankins and Howe (HH46), Valadares Filho (V06), and Marcondes (M12) equations for predicting the physical and chemical composition of dairy crossbred bulls carcasses, as well as the chemical composition of their empty bodies. Methods: 30 dairy crossbred bulls were confined. One group of five animals was slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment, and the remaining were slaughtered 112 days later...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642673/the-use-of-data-mining-methods-for-dystocia-detection-in-polish-holstein-friesian-black-and-white-cattle
#12
Daniel Zaborski, Witold Stanislaw Proskura, Wilhelm Grzesiak
Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of artificial neural networks (ANN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), naïve Bayes classifier (NBC), general discriminant analysis (GDA) and logistic regression (LR) for dystocia detection in Polish Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White heifers and cows and to indicate the most influential predictors of calving difficulty. Methods: A total of 1,342 and 1,699 calving records including six categorical and four continuous predictors were used...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642663/association-of-leptin-tlr4-and-cxcr1-snps-with-fertility-traits-in-czech-fleckvieh-cattle
#13
Katerina Jecminkova, Uwe Müller, Jitka Kyselova, Zuzana Sztankoova, Ludmila Zavadilova, Miloslava Stipkova, Ivan Majzlik
Objective: The use of genetic markers can help to enhance reproduction in cattle, which is a very important trait for profitability in dairy production systems. This study evaluated the association between genotypes of Leptin (LEP), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and Chemokine receptor of interleukin 8 C-X-C motif (CXCR1) genes and fertility traits in Czech Fleckvieh cattle. Methods: Phenotypic data from 786 Czech Fleckvieh cows raised on 5 farms in the Czech Republic were used, along with information from the 1st three parities...
April 12, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622349/impaired-insulin-signaling-pathways-affect-ovarian-steroidogenesis-in-cows-with-cod
#14
N C Gareis, E Huber, G J Hein, F M Rodríguez, N R Salvetti, E Angeli, H H Ortega, F Rey
Cystic ovarian disease (COD) represents an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle and is associated with multiple physiological disorders. Steroidogenesis, which is necessary to ensure normal ovarian functions, involves multiple enzymatic pathways coordinated by insulin and other proteins. We have previously shown that cows with COD have an altered insulin response. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated further alterations in intermediates downstream of the PI3K pathway and pathways mediated by ERK as critical signals for the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the ovaries of control cows and cows with spontaneous COD...
March 29, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618393/review-genomics-of-bull-fertility
#15
Jeremy F Taylor, Robert D Schnabel, Peter Sutovsky
Fertility is one of the most economically important traits in both beef and dairy cattle production; however, only female fertility is typically subjected to selection. Male and female fertility have only a small positive genetic correlation which is likely due to the existence of a relatively small number of genetic variants within each breed that cause embryonic and developmental losses. Genomic tools have been developed that allow the identification of lethal recessive loci based upon marker haplotypes. Selection against haplotypes harbouring lethal alleles in conjunction with selection to improve female fertility will result in an improvement in male fertility...
April 5, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618315/variance-explained-by-whole-genome-sequence-variants-in-coding-and-regulatory-genome-annotations-for-six-dairy-traits
#16
Lambros T Koufariotis, Yi-Ping Phoebe Chen, Paul Stothard, Ben J Hayes
BACKGROUND: There are an exceedingly large number of sequence variants discovered through whole genome sequencing in most populations, including cattle. Deciphering which of these affect complex traits is a major challenge. In this study we hypothesize that variants in some functional classes, such as splice site regions, coding regions, DNA methylated regions and long noncoding RNA will explain more variance in complex traits than others. Two variance component approaches were used to test this hypothesis - the first determines if variants in a functional class capture a greater proportion of the variance, than expected by chance, the second uses the proportion of variance explained when variants in all annotations are fitted simultaneously...
April 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615502/postgenomics-characterization-of-an-essential-genetic-determinant-of-mammary-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#17
Shlomo E Blum, Robert J Goldstone, James P R Connolly, Maryline Répérant-Ferter, Pierre Germon, Neil F Inglis, Oleg Krifucks, Shubham Mathur, Erin Manson, Kevin Mclean, Pascal Rainard, Andrew J Roe, Gabriel Leitner, David G E Smith
Escherichia coli are major bacterial pathogens causing bovine mastitis, a disease of great economic impact on dairy production worldwide. This work aimed to study the virulence determinants of mammary pathogenic E. coli (MPEC). By whole-genome sequencing analysis of 40 MPEC and 22 environmental ("dairy-farm" E. coli [DFEC]) strains, we found that only the fec locus ( fecIRABCDE ) for ferric dicitrate uptake was present in the core genome of MPEC and that it was absent in DFEC genomes ( P < 0...
April 3, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615142/impact-of-automatic-milking-systems-on-dairy-cattle-producers-reports-of-milking-labour-management-milk-production-and-milk-quality
#18
C Tse, H W Barkema, T J DeVries, J Rushen, E A Pajor
Automatic milking systems (AMS), or milking robots, are becoming widely accepted as a milking technology that reduces labour and increases milk yield. However, reported amount of labour saved, changes in milk yield, and milk quality when transitioning to AMS vary widely. The purpose of this study was to document the impact of adopting AMS on farms with regards to reported changes in milking labour management, milk production, milk quality, and participation in dairy herd improvement (DHI) programmes. A survey was conducted across Canada over the phone, online, and in-person...
April 4, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614327/neospora-caninum-in-birds-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Luiz Daniel de Barros, Ana Carolina Miura, Ana Flávia Minutti, Odilon Vidotto, João Luis Garcia
Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects domestic and wild animals. Canids are considered to be definitive hosts since they may shed oocysts into the environment through their feces. The disease is recognized as one of the major causes of bovine abortion worldwide, leading to important economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industries. Previous studies have reported N. caninum infection in different species of birds; infection in birds has been associated with increased seroprevalence and reproductive problems in dairy cattle...
March 31, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611662/adrenal-gland-tumors-in-dairy-cattle-from-northern-italy-morphological-and-phenotypical-characterization-in-comparison-with-human-pathology
#20
E Biasibetti, J Giorcelli, F Deideri, P Bianco, M T Capucchio, M Volante
Bovine adrenal gland tumours are considered relatively common, although scarce data are available about their real incidence, pathological characterization, classification criteria and immunohistochemical profile. This study describes the morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics of 35 dairy cattle adrenal gland tumors from Northern Italy and compare them with human pathology. Macroscopical, histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical investigations were performed. Microscopically proliferative lesions were classified as focal hyperplasia (8/35), primary cortical tumors (15/35) , primary medullary tumors (12/35)...
December 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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