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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731206/comparative-plasma-and-interstitial-fluid-pharmacokinetics-of-flunixin-meglumine-and-ceftiofur-hydrochloride-following-individual-and-co-administration-in-dairy-cows
#1
P J Gorden, M D Kleinhenz, L W Wulf, S J Rajewski, C Wang, R Gehring, J F Coetzee
Ceftiofur (CEF) and flunixin meglumine (FLU) are two drugs approved for use in beef and dairy cattle that are frequently used in combination for many diseases. These two drugs are the most commonly used drugs in dairy cattle in their respective drug classes. Two research groups have recently published manuscripts demonstrating altered pharmacokinetics of FLU and CEF in cows affected with naturally occurring mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine whether pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine administered intravenously or intramuscularly administered ceftiofur hydrochloride would be altered when co-administered versus individual administration to healthy dairy cattle...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727057/effects-of-feeding-pregnant-beef-cows-selenium-enriched-alfalfa-hay-on-selenium-status-and-antibody-titers-in-their-newborn-calves
#2
L G Wallace, G Bobe, W R Vorachek, B P Dolan, C T Estill, G J Pirelli, J A Hall
In newborn dairy calves, it has been demonstrated that supranutritional maternal and colostral Se supplementation using Se yeast or sodium selenite, respectively, improves passive transfer of IgG. In beef cattle, agronomic biofortification with Se is a more practical alternative for Se supplementation, whereby the Se concentration of hay is increased through the use of Se-containing fertilizer amendments. It has been previously demonstrated that agronomic Se biofortification is an effective strategy to improve immunity and performance in Se-replete weaned beef calves...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727049/association-of-udder-traits-with-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-crossbred-bos-indicus-bos-taurus-cows
#3
M W Tolleson, C A Gill, A D Herring, P K Riggs, J E Sawyer, J O Sanders, D G Riley
The size, support, and health of udders limit the productive life of beef cows, especially those with background, because, in general, such cows have a reputation for problems with udders. Genomic association studies of bovine udder traits have been conducted in dairy cattle and recently in Continental European beef breeds but not in cows with background. The objective of this study was to determine associations of SNP and udder support scores, teat length, and teat diameter in half (Nellore), half (Angus) cows...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726996/direct-multitrait-selection-realizes-the-highest-genetic-response-for-ratio-traits
#4
L Zetouni, M Henryon, M Kargo, J Lassen
For a number of traits the phenotype considered to be the goal trait is a combination of 2 or more traits, like methane (CH) emission (CH/kg of milk). Direct selection on CH4 emission defined as a ratio is problematic, because it is uncertain whether the improvement comes from an improvement in milk yield, a decrease in CH emission or both. The goal was to test different strategies on selecting for 2 antagonistic traits- improving milk yield while decreasing methane emissions. The hypothesis was that to maximize genetic gain for a ratio trait, the best approach is to select directly for the component traits rather than using a ratio trait or a trait where 1 trait is corrected for the other as the selection criteria...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726994/cell-biology-symposium-practical-application-of-the-basic-aspects-of-glut4-membrane-trafficking-and-insulin-signaling-on-issues-related-to-animal-agriculture
#5
S B Smith
Because of the relatively short lifespans of beef cattle, membrane trafficking in relation to inflammation is not considered important unless it overtly affects productivity. However, glucose uptake and utilization is important for adipose tissue development in beef cattle, and increasing glucose utilization in intramuscular adipose tissue can increase carcass quality. Research from the 1980s demonstrated a lack of insulin sensitivity in isolated bovine adipocytes and adipose tissue explants incubated in vitro...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724763/species-specificity-of-vaccinia-virus-complement-control-protein-towards-bovine-classical-pathway-is-governed-primarily-by-direct-interaction-of-its-acidic-residues-with-factor-i
#6
Jitendra Kumar, Viveka Nand Yadav, Swastik Phulera, Ashish Kamble, Avneesh Kumar Gautam, Hemendra Singh Panwar, Arvind Sahu
Poxviruses display species tropism - variola virus is a human-specific virus, while vaccinia virus causes repeated outbreaks in dairy cattle. Consistent with this, variola virus complement regulator SPICE exhibit selectivity in inhibiting the human alternative complement pathway and vaccinia virus complement regulator VCP display selectivity in inhibiting the bovine alternative complement pathway. In the present study, we examined the species-specificity of VCP and SPICE towards the classical pathway (CP). We observed that VCP is ∼43-fold superior in inhibiting bovine CP than SPICE...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721511/molecular-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-bovine-coronavirus-virus-isolated-from-dairy-cattle-in-central-region-thailand
#7
Kanokwan Singasa, Taweesak Songserm, Preeda Lertwatcharasarakul, Pipat Arunvipas
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is involved mainly in enteric infections in cattle. This study reports the first molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in dairy cows in the Central Region, Thailand. BCoV was molecularly detected from bloody diarrheic cattle feces by using nested PCR. Agarose gel electrophoresis of three diarrheic fecal samples yielded from the 25 samples desired amplicons that were 488 base pairs and sequencing substantiated that have BCoV. The sequence alignment indicated that nucleotide and amino acid sequences, the three TWD isolated in Thailand, were more quite homologous to each other (amino acid at position 39 of TWD1, TWD3 was proline, but TWD2 was serine) and closely related to OK-0514-3strain (virulent respiratory strain; RBCoV)...
July 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720293/effect-of-claw-horn-lesion-type-and-severity-at-the-time-of-treatment-on-outcome-of-lameness-in-dairy-cows
#8
Giuliana G Miguel-Pacheco, Heather J Thomas, Jonathan N Huxley, Reuben F Newsome, Jasmeet Kaler
Prompt diagnosis and treatment of claw horn lesions in cattle affects the likelihood of recovery; however, it is unknown if the type of lesion influences the likelihood of recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the type, severity and frequency of claw horn lesions in newly lame cows (lame for no more than 2 weeks) at the time of corrective foot trimming affects the probability of recovery from lameness after treatment. The images of 112 feet (224 claws) from newly lame cows (n=112; lame in only one hind foot), which were treated with a standardised therapeutic hoof trim only, were used to score claw horn lesions (sole ulcer, sole haemorrhage, white line haemorrhage or white line separation)...
July 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717306/prevalence-of-paratuberculosis-in-organized-and-unorganized-dairy-cattle-herds-in-west-bengal-india
#9
Jitendrakumar M Bhutediya, Premanshu Dandapat, Arijit Chakrabarty, Ratan Das, Pramod Kumar Nanda, Samiran Bandyopadhyay, Tapas Kumar Biswas
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence pattern of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, in unorganized as well as organized cattle herds in West Bengal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four organized cattle farms with identical management practice in Nadia (n=3) and South 24 Parganas (n=1) districts and three unorganized cattle herds, one each from three districts, namely, Burdwan, North 24 Parganas, and Purba Midnapur, were selected randomly and screened for paratuberculosis by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713782/characterization-and-differentiation-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-from-other-mycobacteria-using-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#10
Subbarao V Ravva, Leslie A Harden, Chester Z Sarreal
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle, is responsible for significant economic losses to the US dairy industry. The pathogen has also been associated with chronic human diseases like Crohn's disease, type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Determining causation requires rapid characterization and source tracking the pathogen. Here, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to characterize and differentiate strains of MAP from 14 other species of Mycobacterium from bovine, human, and environmental sources...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712368/inferring-genetic-parameters-on-latent-variables-underlying-milk-yield-and-quality-protein-composition-curd-firmness-and-cheese-making-traits-in-dairy-cattle
#11
C Dadousis, C Cipolat-Gotet, G Bittante, A Cecchinato
We studied the genetics of cheese-related latent variables (factors; Fs) for application in dairy cattle breeding. In total, 26 traits, recorded in 1264 Brown Swiss cows, were analyzed through multivariate factor analysis (MFA). Traits analyzed were descriptors of milk quality and yield (including protein fractions) and measures of coagulation, curd firmness (CF), cheese yields (%CY) and nutrient recoveries in the curd (REC). A total of 10 Fs (mutual orthogonal with a varimax rotation) were obtained. To assess the practical use of the Fs into breeding, we inferred their genetic parameters using single and bivariate animal models under a Bayesian framework...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712316/disturbed-bovine-mitochondrial-lipid-metabolism-a-review
#12
J H van der Kolk, J J Gross, V Gerber, R M Bruckmaier
In mammals, excess energy is stored primarily as triglycerides, which are mobilized when energy demands arise and cannot be covered by feed intake. This review mainly focuses on the role of long chain fatty acids in disturbed energy metabolism of the bovine species. Long chain fatty acids regulate energy metabolism as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. β-Oxidation is the process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the mitochondria or peroxisomes to generate acetyl-CoA. Carnitine acts as a carrier of fatty acyl groups as long-chain acyl-CoA derivatives do not penetrate the mitochondrial inner membrane...
July 17, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711268/short-communication-implementation-of-a-breeding-value-for-heat-tolerance-in-australian-dairy-cattle
#13
Thuy T T Nguyen, Phil J Bowman, Mekonnen Haile-Mariam, Gert J Nieuwhof, Benjamin J Hayes, Jennie E Pryce
Excessive ambient temperature and humidity can impair milk production and fertility of dairy cows. Selection for heat-tolerant animals is one possible option to mitigate the effects of heat stress. To enable selection for this trait, we describe the development of a heat tolerance breeding value for Australian dairy cattle. We estimated the direct genomic values of decline in milk, fat, and protein yield per unit increase of temperature-humidity index (THI) using 46,726 single nucleotide polymorphisms and a reference population of 2,236 sires and 11,853 cows for Holsteins and 506 sires and 4,268 cows for Jerseys...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711262/genetic-and-nongenetic-factors-associated-with-milk-color-in-dairy-cows
#14
S Scarso, S McParland, G Visentin, D P Berry, A McDermott, M De Marchi
Milk color is one of the sensory properties that can influence consumer choice of one product over another and it influences the quality of processed dairy products. This study aims to quantify the cow-level genetic and nongenetic factors associated with bovine milk color traits. A total of 136,807 spectra from Irish commercial and research herds (with multiple breeds and crosses) were used. Milk lightness ( Lˆ*) red-green index ( aˆ*) and yellow-blue index ( bˆ*) were predicted for individual milk samples using only the mid-infrared spectrum of the milk sample...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711260/short-communication-effects-of-an-immunomodulatory-feed-additive-on-phagocytic-capacity-of-neutrophils-and-relative-gene-expression-in-circulating-white-blood-cells-of-transition-holstein-cows
#15
Z H Wu, Y Yu, G M Alugongo, J X Xiao, J H Li, Y X Li, Y J Wang, S L Li, Z J Cao
High-producing dairy cows typically experience immunosuppression with dysregulated neutrophil function (e.g., compromised phagocytosis) during the transition period (3 wk before to 3 wk after parturition), which is causally associated with increased risk of infections. Enhanced neutrophil immune competence has significant bearing with the wellbeing of transition dairy cattle. In the current study, we investigated the effect of OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health, Quincy, IL) and its dose in modulation of neutrophil function of transition cows...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711250/genetic-analysis-for-quality-of-frozen-embryos-produced-by-holstein-cattle-donors-in-canada
#16
C Jaton, F S Schenkel, F Malchiodi, M Sargolzaei, C A Price, C Baes, F Miglior
The number of embryos produced by Holstein donors has been shown to be heritable, so it could be possible to genetically select for this trait to improve the efficiency of the assisted reproductive technology (ART) in dairy cattle. Another important parameter to consider for achieving good results from ART is embryo quality because embryos of good quality have more chance of producing live offspring. The possibility of using genetic selection for increasing the quality of embryo produced from ART has yet to be assessed...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701246/the-influence-of-gentle-interactions-with-an-experimenter-during-milking-on-dairy-cows-avoidance-distance-and-milk-yield-flow-and-composition
#17
S Lürzel, K Barth, I Windschnurer, A Futschik, S Waiblinger
Cattle's relationship with humans is a crucial factor regarding their welfare. In dairy cows, interactions with humans occur regularly during milking. We tested the effect of gentle interactions (stroking, talking in a gentle voice) during milking on avoidance distance and milk composition, yield and flow characteristics as well as behaviour during milking. Over the course of 15 days, an experimenter interacted gently with 14 German Holstein cows for 2 min during morning and evening milkings, totalling 60 min; the experimenter stayed at a similar distance to 12 control cows of the same breed for the same amount of time...
July 13, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697610/phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-partial-l1-gene-from-bovine-papillomavirus-type-1-isolated-from-naturally-occurring-papilloma-cases-in-the-northwestern-region-of-turkey
#18
M Ozkan Timurkan, M Eray Alcigir
This study was aimed at the molecular characterisation of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) isolated from papilloma cases in the northwestern region of Turkey. BPV-1 is a widely occurring oncogenic virus in cattle and is associated with benign epithelial neoplasia which causes significant economic losses in dairy and beef cattle because of treatment costs. In this study, 29 suspected papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in northwestern Turkey. These samples underwent molecular characterisation via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis as well as macroscopic and histopathological examination...
June 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693653/a-methodology-framework-for-weighting-genetic-traits-that-impact-greenhouse-gas-emission-intensities-in-selection-indexes
#19
P R Amer, F S Hely, C D Quinton, A R Cromie
A methodological framework was presented for deriving weightings to be applied in selection indexes to account for the impact genetic change in traits will have on greenhouse gas emissions intensities (EIs). Although the emission component of the breeding goal was defined as the ratio of total emissions relative to a weighted combination of farm outputs, the resulting trait-weighting factors can be applied as linear weightings in a way that augments any existing breeding objective before consideration of EI...
July 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690064/genetic-line-comparisons-and-genetic-parameters-for-endoparasite-infections-and-test-day-milk-production-traits
#20
Katharina May, Kerstin Brügemann, Tong Yin, Carsten Scheper, Christina Strube, Sven König
Keeping dairy cows in grassland systems relies on detailed analyses of genetic resistance against endoparasite infections, including between- and within-breed genetic evaluations. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare different Black and White dairy cattle selection lines for endoparasite infections and (2) the estimation of genetic (co)variance components for endoparasite and test-day milk production traits within the Black and White cattle population. A total of 2,006 fecal samples were taken during 2 farm visits in summer and autumn 2015 from 1,166 cows kept in 17 small- and medium-scale organic and conventional German grassland farms...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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