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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453074/use-of-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-as-ovulatory-stimulus-for-synchronizing-dairy-cattle
#1
N A Castro, P M A Neves, J P Cestaro, V T O Melo, A Schneider, L F M Pfeifer
The aim of this study was to evaluate if prostaglandin F2α (PGF) can be used to induce ovulation in a GnRH-progesterone based protocol. In Experiment 1 crossbred dairy cows (n=32) were synchronized with a progesterone-GnRH based protocol for seven days, where the luteolytic dose of 150μg PGF was given 24h prior progesterone device removal (CIDR). On Day 8 cows were separated into two groups to receive: 1) 2mL of Saline (Control Group, n=15) or 2) 150μg of PGF (PGF Group, n=17). Ovulation rate was higher in the PGF than Control group (100% vs 53...
January 31, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450980/prediction-of-enteric-methane-production-yield-and-intensity-in-dairy-cattle-using-an-intercontinental-database
#2
Mutian Niu, Ermias Kebreab, Alexander N Hristov, Joonpyo Oh, Claudia Arndt, André Bannink, Ali R Bayat, André F Brito, Tommy Boland, David Casper, Les A Crompton, Jan Dijkstra, Maguy A Eugène, Phil C Garnsworthy, Md Najmul Haque, Anne L F Hellwing, Pekka Huhtanen, Michael Kreuzer, Bjoern Kuhla, Peter Lund, Jørgen Madsen, Cécile Martin, Shelby C McClelland, Mark McGee, Peter J Moate, Stefan Muetzel, Camila Muñoz, Padraig O'Kiely, Nico Peiren, Christopher K Reynolds, Angela Schwarm, Kevin J Shingfield, Tonje M Storlien, Martin R Weisbjerg, David R Yáñez-Ruiz, Zhongtang Yu
Enteric methane (CH 4 ) production from cattle contributes to global greenhouse gas emissions. Measurement of enteric CH 4 is complex, expensive and impractical at large scales; therefore, models are commonly used to predict CH 4 production. However, building robust prediction models requires extensive data from animals under different management systems worldwide. The objectives of this study were to (1) collate a global database of enteric CH 4 production from individual lactating dairy cattle; (2) determine the availability of key variables for predicting enteric CH 4 production (g/d per cow), yield [g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)], and intensity (g/kg energy corrected milk) and their respective relationships; (3) develop intercontinental and regional models and cross-validate their performance; and (4) assess the trade-off between availability of on-farm inputs and CH 4 prediction accuracy...
February 16, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447209/haplotype-based-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-loci-and-candidate-genes-for-milk-yield-in-holsteins
#3
Zhenliang Chen, Yunqiu Yao, Peipei Ma, Qishan Wang, Yuchun Pan
Since milk yield is a highly important economic trait in dairy cattle, the genome-wide association study (GWAS) is vital to explain the genetic architecture underlying milk yield and to perform marker-assisted selection (MAS). In this study, we adopted a haplotype-based empirical Bayesian GWAS to identify the loci and candidate genes for milk yield. A total of 1 092 Holstein cows were sequenced by using the genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing (GGRS) method. After filtering, 164 312 high-confidence SNPs and 13 476 haplotype blocks were identified to use for GWAS...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445929/prevalence-of-leptospira-serogroup-specific-antibodies-in-cattle-associated-with-reproductive-problems-in-endemic-states-of-india
#4
Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan, Anusha Alamuri, K Bharathkumar, Sharanagouda Siddanagouda Patil, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Mohandoss Nagalingam, Paramanandham Krishnamoorthy, Habibur Rahman, Bibek Ranjan Shome
In this study, the seroprevalence and distribution of Leptospira in dairy cattle in endemic states of India were investigated in association with reproductive problems of the cattle. A total of 373 cattle serum samples from 45 farms in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Sikkim and Uttarakhand states were collected from animals with a history of reproductive disorders like abortion, repeat breeding, anoestrus and endometritis, and also from apparently healthy animals...
February 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445861/bovine-neutrophils-in-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Laura L Bassel, Jeff L Caswell
Bovine neutrophils have similarities to those of other species with respect to mechanisms of their activation and migration into tissue, modulation of immune responses and the balance between microbial killing and host tissue damage. However, bovine neutrophils have biochemical and functional differences from those of other species, which may yield insights about the comparative biology of neutrophils. Neutrophils play protective and harmful roles in the infectious diseases of cattle that occur at times of transition: respiratory disease in beef calves recently arrived to feedlots and mastitis and other diseases of postparturient dairy cows...
February 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444092/the-impact-of-early-life-nutrition-and-housing-on-growth-and-reproduction-in-dairy-cattle
#6
G Curtis, C McGregor Argo, D Jones, D Grove-White
Contentious issues in calf rearing include milk feeding practices and single versus group housing. The current study was performed on a high producing 170 Holstein cow dairy farm, to investigate the impact of nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction. Heifer calves (n = 100) were allocated in birth order to one of two commonly used management strategies. All calves received 3-4 litres of dam specific colostrum within 6 hours of birth. Group A calves were group housed from birth and fed milk replacer (MR) ad libitum via a computerised machine utilising a single teat, with weaning commencing at 63 days of age...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442254/heat-stress-and-effect-of-shade-materials-on-hormonal-and-behavior-response-of-dairy-cattle-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Reena Kamal, Triveni Dutt, Manjunath Patel, Amitava Dey, Panch Kishore Bharti, Poolangulam Chinnakkan Chandran
In tropical countries, at high temperatures, several physiological rearrangements occur in cows as they attempt to facilitate heat dissipation and/or reduce metabolic heat production. Following exposure to heat, cattle appear to acclimatize within 2-7 weeks. The failure of homeostasis at high temperatures may lead to reduced productivity or even death. The situation is even worse when humidity adds to high temperature. Livestock with elevated body temperature exhibit lower DMI and growth with less efficiency, reducing profitability for dairy farms in hot and humid climates...
February 13, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439661/genome-wide-scan-for-commons-snps-affecting-bovine-leukemia-virus-infection-level-in-dairy-cattle
#8
Hugo A Carignano, Dana L Roldan, María J Beribe, María A Raschia, Ariel Amadio, Juan P Nani, Gerónimo Gutierrez, Irene Alvarez, Karina Trono, Mario A Poli, Marcos M Miretti
BACKGROUND: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is omnipresent in dairy herds causing direct economic losses due to trade restrictions and lymphosarcoma-related deaths. Milk production drops and increase in the culling rate are also relevant and usually neglected. The BLV provirus persists throughout a lifetime and an inter-individual variation is observed in the level of infection (LI) in vivo. High LI is strongly correlated with disease progression and BLV transmission among herd mates...
February 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438415/longitudinal-changes-in-telomere-length-and-associated-genetic-parameters-in-dairy-cattle-analysed-using-random-regression-models
#9
Luise A Seeker, Joanna J Ilska, Androniki Psifidi, Rachael V Wilbourn, Sarah L Underwood, Jennifer Fairlie, Rebecca Holland, Hannah Froy, Ainsley Bagnall, Bruce Whitelaw, Mike Coffey, Daniel H Nussey, Georgios Banos
Telomeres cap the ends of linear chromosomes and shorten with age in many organisms. In humans short telomeres have been linked to morbidity and mortality. With the accumulation of longitudinal datasets the focus shifts from investigating telomere length (TL) to exploring TL change within individuals over time. Some studies indicate that the speed of telomere attrition is predictive of future disease. The objectives of the present study were to 1) characterize the change in bovine relative leukocyte TL (RLTL) across the lifetime in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle, 2) estimate genetic parameters of RLTL over time and 3) investigate the association of differences in individual RLTL profiles with productive lifespan...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435704/risk-factors-and-indicators-of-reduced-welfare-of-grazing-dairy-cows-from-selected-smallholder-dairy-farms-in-midlands-province-zimbabwe
#10
Z Matore, P Woods, S Kagler
Zimbabwe's smallholder dairying faces many challenges that affect the welfare of dairy cows; however, the status of this welfare has not yet been determined. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Midlands Province on 41 active smallholder dairy farms with 86 cows in winter and summer to determine the risk factors and indicators to impaired cow welfare. These objectives were achieved using farmer questionnaires and direct observations. Eleven percent of the observed cows were severely lame in summer while only 5% were severely lame in winter...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433483/control-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-dairy-herds-in-a-region-with-raw-milk-cheese-production-farmers-attitudes-knowledge-behaviour-and-belief-in-self-efficacy
#11
Marie-Eve Cousin, Maria Christina Härdi-Landerer, Verena Völk, Michèle Bodmer
BACKGROUND: Contagious mastitis is an important disease in dairy cattle, and the causative agent S. aureus can also impair raw milk cheese quality. In a confined region in eastern Switzerland attitude, knowledge and behaviour towards S. aureus und S. aureus control was assessed in 90 dairy farmers with communal alpine pasturing including raw milk cheese production with the aid of a questionnaire. RESULTS: Forty-three out of 90 questionnaires were returned (48% return rate)...
February 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431048/bayesian-estimation-of-elisa-and-gamma-interferon-test-accuracy-for-the-detection-of-bovine-tuberculosis-in-caudal-fold-test-negative-dairy-cattle-in-kuwait
#12
Salwa Al-Mouqatea, Mohammad Alkhamis, Batool Akbar, Abdulmohsen Ali, Hameed Al-Aqeel, Ahmed Bin-Heji, Mohammed Razzaque, Julio Alvarez, Andres Perez
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Kuwait; cattle identified as TB-positive using the caudal fold test (CFT) are culled. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the IFNγ assay and ELISA, which are not routinely used in Kuwait in CFT-negative dairy cattle. Blood samples from CFT-negative cattle ( n = 384) collected from 38 dairy farms were tested by IFNγ assay and ELISA. The Se and Sp (95% CI) of the IFNγ were 85.0% (67.6-95.3%) and 90.4% (86.7-95.3%), respectively, whereas estimates for the ELISA were 61...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430648/effect-of-castration-and-carcass-suspension-method-on-the-quality-and-fatty-acid-profile-of-beef-from-male-dairy-cattle
#13
Yingqun Nian, Paul Allen, Sabine M Harrison, Joseph P Kerry
BACKGROUND: The use of bulls rather than steers for beef production offers some considerable advantages, however, the eating quality of bull beef is an issue of marketing concern. This study assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of young Holstein-Friesian (HF) bull and steer beef. Steer carcasses were suspended by the Achilles tendon (AS) and by Pelvic suspension (PS). RESULTS: HF Steer beef had higher redness, yellowness, and chroma values, while bulls had higher ultimate pH and darker muscle...
February 12, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428760/use-of-meta-analyses-and-joint-analyses-to-select-variants-in-whole-genome-sequences-for-genomic-evaluation-an-application-in-milk-production-of-french-dairy-cattle-breeds
#14
M Teissier, M P Sanchez, M Boussaha, A Barbat, C Hoze, C Robert-Granie, P Croiseau
As a result of the 1000 Bull Genome Project, it has become possible to impute millions of variants, with many of these potentially causative for traits of interest, for thousands of animals that have been genotyped with medium-density chips. This enormous source of data opens up very interesting possibilities for the inclusion of these variants in genomic evaluations. However, for computational reasons, it is not possible to include all variants in genomic evaluation procedures. One potential approach could be to select the most relevant variants based on the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS); however, the identification of causative mutations is still difficult with this method, partly because of weak imputation accuracy for rare variants...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428758/the-unfolded-protein-response-is-involved-in-both-differentiation-and-apoptosis-of-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#15
Shinichi Yonekura, Megumi Tsuchiya, Yukako Tokutake, Moeko Mizusawa, Miwa Nakano, Makoto Miyaji, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Satoshi Haga
The unfolded protein response (UPR) describes a process involved in the homeostasis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the differentiation of secretory cells. At present, the roles of UPR in the mammary gland tissue of dairy cattle are unknown. In the current study, we investigated the expression of UPR-related genes in Holstein cows during the developmental and lactating stages of the mammary gland tissue. To investigate the roles of UPR during the differentiation of mammary epithelial cells (MEC), we used MAC-T cells, a line of MEC...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428744/short-communication-cow-and-herd-level-prevalence-of-hypoglycemia-in-hyperketonemic-postpartum-dairy-cows
#16
J Dubuc, S Buczinski
The objective of this study was to quantify the prevalence of hypoglycemia in hyperketonemic dairy cows during the early postpartum period. A prospective observational study was conducted in 100 dairy herds selected by convenience. Within all participating herds, 40 cows (or the entire herd if smaller than 40 cows) were enrolled in the study (total of 3,776 enrolled cows). Herds were visited every 2 wk by an animal health technician. Cows were bled from their coccygeal vessels once between 1 and 14 d in milk, and cow-side testing was performed for ketonemia and glycemia using a device validated in cattle (Precision Xtra, Abbott, Mississauga, ON, Canada)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428082/cd14-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-increased-risk-of-bovine-tuberculosis-in-chinese-holstein-cows
#17
Y Xue, W N Gao, F Chen, B B Ma, F Zhou, Z G Hu, T Long, Z Q Zhao
Cluster differentiation antigen 14 (CD14) is an important pattern recognition receptor protein in innate immunity. The aim of this study was to identify and assess the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD14 gene with susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in Chinese Holstein cows. DNA samples from 517 Chinese Holstein cows (257 tuberculosis positive cases and 259 healthy controls) were collected from dairy farms in China. SNPs in the entire CD14 gene, including exonic regions, intronic regions and close to the 5'- and 3'-terminal untranslated regions, were detected by PCR, followed by direct sequencing...
February 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426404/genomic-investigation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-bulk-tank-milk-and-dairy-cows-with-clinical-mastitis
#18
Troels Ronco, Ilka C Klaas, Marc Stegger, Line Svennesen, Lærke B Astrup, Michael Farre, Karl Pedersen
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens that cause mastitis in dairy cows. Various subtypes, virulence genes and mobile genetic elements have been associated with isolates from bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis. So far, no Danish cattle associated S. aureus isolates have been whole-genome sequenced and further analyzed. Thus, the main objective was to investigate the population structure and genomic content of isolates from bulk tank milk and clinical mastitis, using whole-genome sequencing...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425845/health-risk-assessment-and-soil-and-plant-heavy-metal-and-bromine-contents-in-field-plots-after-ten-years-of-organic-and-mineral-fertilization
#19
Rafael da Rosa Couto, Jéssica Faversani, Carlos Alberto Ceretta, Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira, Carina Marchezan, Daniela Basso Facco, Luana Paula Garlet, Jussiane Souza Silva, Jucinei José Comin, Cezar Augusto Bizzi, Erico Marlon Moraes Flores, Gustavo Brunetto
Heavy metals and bromine (Br) derived from organic and industrialized fertilizers can be absorbed, transported and accumulated into parts of plants ingested by humans. This study aimed to evaluate in an experiment conducted under no-tillage for 10 years, totaling 14 applications of pig slurry manure (PS), pig deep-litter (PL), dairy slurry (DS) and mineral fertilizer (MF), the heavy metal and Br contents in soil and in whether the grains produced by corn (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under these conditions could result in risk to human health...
February 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424465/clinical-utility-of-plasma-fructosamine-concentration-as-a-hypoglycemic-biomarker-during-early-lactation-in-dairy-cattle
#20
A A Megahed, M W H Hiew, P D Constable
BACKGROUND: Plasma fructosamine concentration ([FRA]) is a widely used long term hyperglycemic biomarker in humans and dogs, but its clinical usefulness as a hypoglycemic biomarker in dairy cattle is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between plasma [FRA] and glucose concentration ([gluc]) as well as indices of energy balance during early lactation in dairy cattle, and to characterize the influence of plasma total protein concentration ([TP]) and albumin concentration ([albumin]) on [FRA]...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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