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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092611/prevalence-of-bovine-herpesvirus-type-4-in-aborting-dairy-cows
#1
Đ Cvetojević, B Savić, V Milićević, B Kureljušić, N Jezdimirović, D Jakić-Dimić, M Pavlović, Lj Spalević
Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) is related to many different conditions: infertility, postpartal metritis, vulvovaginitis, mastitis, encephalitis, calf pneumonia, keratoconjunctivitis, cutaneous lesions, digital dermatitis and abortion. In this study a retrospective PCR examination of 100 extracted DNA samples from aborting cows was performed in order to determine: prevalence of BHV-4 in abortive cattle, whether coinfections BHV-4 with other abortifacient pathogens are present in the same sample and to determine the month of gestation when BHV-4 associated abortions were detected...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091385/research-on-laying-trichostrongylid-nematode-eggs-in-cows-in-the-periparturient-period
#2
Gencay Taşkın Taşçı, Aysel İtik Ekinci, Mükremin Özkan Arslan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comparatively determine the prevalence of trichostrongylid nematodes and egg excretions in cows that are in the periparturient period (PPP) and pregnant cows in the non-periparturient period (NPPP). METHODS: Animal materials are constituted by cows in PPP and NPPP in 10 ranches in Kars and surrounding areas. Stool samples were collected from the rectum of 125 pregnant cows, which were in NPPP during November 2010 - January 2011 and from the same cows in PPP during April-May 2011...
December 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088422/effects-of-clay-after-an-aflatoxin-challenge-on-aflatoxin-clearance-milk-production-and-metabolism-of-holstein-cows
#3
S A Sulzberger, S Melnichenko, F C Cardoso
Oral supplementation of clay to dairy cattle has been reported to reduce toxicity of aflatoxin (AF) in contaminated feed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 3 concentrations of dietary clay supplementation in response to an AF challenge. Ten multiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows [body weight (mean ± SD) = 669 ± 20 kg and 146 ± 69 d in milk], were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design balanced to measure carryover effects. Periods (21 d) were divided in an adaptation phase (d 1 to 14) and a measurement phase (d 15 to 21)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088412/short-communication-urea-hydrolysis-in-dairy-cattle-manure-under-different-temperature-urea-and-ph-conditions
#4
L E Moraes, S A Burgos, E J DePeters, R Zhang, J G Fadel
The objective of the study was to quantify the rate of urea hydrolysis in dairy cattle manure under different initial urea concentration, temperature, and pH conditions. In particular, by varying all 3 factors simultaneously, the interactions between them could also be determined. Fresh feces and artificial urine solutions were combined into a slurry to characterize the rate of urea hydrolysis under 2 temperatures (15°C and 35°C), 3 urea concentrations in urine solutions (500, 1,000, and 1,500 mg of urea-N/dL), and 3 pH levels (6, 7, and 8)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088409/genome-wide-association-analysis-and-pathways-enrichment-for-lactation-persistency-in-canadian-holstein-cattle
#5
D N Do, N Bissonnette, P Lacasse, F Miglior, M Sargolzaei, X Zhao, E M Ibeagha-Awemu
Lactation persistency (LP), defined as the rate of declining milk yield after milk peak, is an economically important trait for dairy cattle. Improving LP is considered a good alternative method for increasing overall milk production because it does not cause the negative energy balance and other health issues that cows experience during peak milk production. However, little is known about the biology of LP. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) and pathway enrichment were used to explore the genetic mechanisms underlying LP...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088408/the-effects-of-adding-fat-to-diets-of-lactating-dairy-cows-on-total-tract-neutral-detergent-fiber-digestibility-a-meta-analysis
#6
K A Weld, L E Armentano
The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of supplemental fat on fiber digestibility in lactating dairy cattle. Published papers that evaluated the effects of adding fat to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (ttNDFd) and dry matter intake (DMI) were compiled. The final data set included 108 fat-supplemented treatment means, not including low-fat controls, from 38 publications. The fat-supplemented treatment means exhibited a wide range of ttNDFd (49...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088170/application-of-a-bayesian-dominance-model-improves-power-in-quantitative-trait-genome-wide-association-analysis
#7
Jörn Bennewitz, Christian Edel, Ruedi Fries, Theo H E Meuwissen, Robin Wellmann
BACKGROUND: Multi-marker methods, which fit all markers simultaneously, were originally tailored for genomic selection purposes, but have proven to be useful also in association analyses, especially the so-called BayesC Bayesian methods. In a recent study, BayesD extended BayesC towards accounting for dominance effects and improved prediction accuracy and persistence in genomic selection. The current study investigated the power and precision of BayesC and BayesD in genome-wide association studies by means of stochastic simulations and applied these methods to a dairy cattle dataset...
January 14, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070308/the-seroprevalence-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-in-dairy-cattle-in-xinjiang-northwest-china
#8
Xianxia Liu, Jianjun Li, Xueyun Yang, Dengfeng Wang, Jianmei Wang, Jianyong Wu
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic, wasting, and progressive enteritis in cattle, bringing significant economic losses in livestock industries. MAP has spread worldwide mainly due to movement of animals. The objective of this study was to determine the MAP seroprevalence in cattle in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China, and evaluate the difference between intensive farming herds (cattle number in a herd is more than 200, and the cattle cannot have access to pasture) and free-range herds (the cattle are bred by individual households, a herd is defined as the cattle are bred in a village or town in this study)...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069659/mrsa-strains-carrying-the-novel-mecc-gene-full-genome-sequencing-identifies-in-the-genetic-background-several-determinants-that-modulate-the-resistant-phenotype
#9
Catarina Milheiriço, Hermínia de Lencastre, Alexander Tomasz
Most MRSA strains are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics due to the presence of the mecA gene encoding an extra penicillin-binding protein (PBP2A) that has low affinity to virtually all beta-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a new resistance determinant - the mecC gene - was identified in S. aureus isolates recovered from humans and dairy cattle. Although having typically low MICs to beta-lactam antibiotics, MRSA strains with the mecC determinant are also capable of expressing high levels of oxacillin resistance when in an optimal genetic background...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069102/the-effect-of-cp-concentration-in-the-diet-on-urea-kinetics-and-microbial-usage-of-recycled-urea-in-cattle-a-meta-analysis
#10
E D Batista, E Detmann, S C Valadares Filho, E C Titgemeyer, R F D Valadares
In ruminants, urea recycling is considered an evolutionary advantage. The amount of urea recycled mainly depends of the nitrogen (N) intake and the amount of organic matter (OM) digested in the rumen. Because recycled N contributes to meeting microbial N requirements, accurate estimates of urea recycling can improve the understanding of efficiency of N utilization and N losses to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea N in ruminants using a meta-analytical approach...
January 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068185/prevalence-of-antibodies-against-coxiella-burnetii-in-korean-native-cattle-dairy-cattle-and-dogs-in-south-korea
#11
Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Doo Kim, Hyung Gwan Jang, Seung-Joon Lee, Mi Yeoun Park, Tae-Wook Hahn
Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic agent and causes coxiellosis, which is a cause of reproductive failure in a range of animal species, including abortion and stillbirth and Q fever, which is most often characterized by an acute flu-like illness, mild pneumonia, and/or hepatitis in humans. While livestock are well recognized worldwide as a source of infection, the zoonotic risk of C. burnetii infection in companion animals such as dogs may be overlooked. For serological diagnosis, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are generally considered good methods for prevalence surveys of coxiellosis...
January 9, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061817/the-rumen-microbial-metaproteome-as-revealed-by-sds-page
#12
Timothy J Snelling, R John Wallace
BACKGROUND: Ruminal digestion is carried out by large numbers of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. Understanding the microbiota is important because ruminal fermentation dictates the efficiency of feed utilisation by the animal and is also responsible for major emissions of the greenhouse gas, methane. Recent metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies have helped to elucidate many features of the composition and activity of the microbiota. The metaproteome provides complementary information to these other -omics technologies...
January 7, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057418/improving-the-product-stability-and-fertilizer-value-of-cattle-slurry-solid-fraction-through-co-composting-or-co-ensiling
#13
Jarinda Viaene, Victoria Nelissen, Bert Reubens, Koen Willekens, Frank Driehuis, Stefaan De Neve, Bart Vandecasteele
Separating dairy cattle slurry in a liquid and solid fraction (SF) is gaining more interest, since it enables a more targeted use of both fractions. However, the valorization of the SF is limited on P-rich soils, due to its high P content, and the export or use as bedding material requires sanitation. Therefore, we investigated the influence of composting or ensiling the SF, whether or not mixed with bulking agents, on the product quality in terms of fertilizer value, sanitation and stability. Ensiling can be considered as a controlled storage method for conserving C and nutrients...
January 2, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052122/pair-housing-of-dairy-calves-and-age-at-pairing-effects-on-weaning-stress-health-production-and-social-networks
#14
Sarah L Bolt, Natasha K Boyland, David T Mlynski, Richard James, Darren P Croft
The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046179/bill-e-kunkle-interdisciplinary-beef-symposium-impact-of-mineral-and-vitamin-status-on-beef-cattle-immune-function-and-health
#15
E B Kegley, J J Ball, P A Beck
The importance of optimal mineral and vitamin nutrition on improving immune function and health has been recognized in the preceding decades. In the southeast, beef cattle are raised predominantly on forages that may be limiting in nutrients for optimal health, especially trace minerals such as Cu, Zn, and Se. Clinical deficiencies of these nutrients produce classic symptoms that are common to several nutrient deficiencies (e.g., slow growth and unthrifty appearance); however, subclinical deficiencies are more widespread and more difficult to detect, yet may result in broader economic losses...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046157/invited-review-farm-size-and-animal-welfare
#16
J A Robbins, M A G von Keyserlingk, D Fraser, D M Weary
Critics of agricultural intensification have argued that the transition from smaller to larger farms has compromised animal welfare. To critically examine evidence relevant to this claim, we reviewed more than 150 publications that examined the relationship between farm size and at least one animal welfare indicator. Although much of this literature focuses on dairy cattle, we also reference other farmed species where appropriate. We found little evidence of any simple relationship, negative or positive, between farm size and animal welfare...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043568/isolation-and-molecular-identification-of-mycobacterium-from-commercially-available-pasteurized-milk-and-raw-milk-samples-collected-from-two-infected-cattle-farms-in-alborz-province-iran
#17
Mohsen Eftekhari, Nader Mosavari
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an etiological agent of Johne's disease in ruminant including cattle, sheep and goats. This disease is considered an economically important disease in cattle. Animals with paratuberculosis shed viable MAP, particularly in their milk and feces. MAP may be involved in the development of Crohn's disease in humans through the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Common methods of pasteurization are not enough to kill all MAP present in the milk and the bacterium has been isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and cheese samples...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043566/interferon-%C3%AE-assay-a-high-sensitivity-specific-and-appropriate-method-for-detection-of-bovine-tuberculosis-in-cattle
#18
R Keshavarz, N Mosavari, M M Geravand, Keyvan Tadayon, R A Pajoohi, K Solemani, M Ameri, G V Gilani
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is an important zoonotic disease that is caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Eradication efforts in developed countries have reduced the prevalence of this disease significantly. TB can be difficult to diagnose based only on the clinical signs; therefore, it is usually diagnosed in the field with the tuberculin skin test and diagnostic blood tests, including the lymphocyte proliferation assay, the interferon (IFN)-γ assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The aim of this study was to compare the tuberculin and IFN-γ tests...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043544/development-of-an-indirect-elisa-system-to-diagnosis-paratuberculosis-using-surface-antigens-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-cattle
#19
Mona Hatamifar, Nader Mosavari, Javad Kazemi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis (PTB), also called as Johne's disease, and is considered as the cause of irreparable economic losses in livestock industry. This bacterium is excreted in large amounts through the milk and feces of infected animal. For the detection of the PTB, indirect ELISA has been highly considered as a simple method with high sensitivity and specificity. Accordingly, this study aims at designing a system of indirect ELISA for the detection of PTB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043369/impact-of-acute-metabolic-acidosis-on-the-acid-base-balance-in-follicular-fluid-and-blood-in-dairy-cattle
#20
E Indrova, R Dolezel, J Novakova-Mala, A Pechova, M Zavadilova, S Cech
Acid-base balance is one of the most vigorously regulated variables of the body, including genital organs. Subacute ruminal acidosis is a common disturbance in dairy cows that disturbs several biochemical indices in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine. The possible negative effects of metabolic acidosis on the follicular fluid (FF) composition and, subsequently, on oocyte quality, are not fully elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in acid-base balance (ABB) in FF and blood during acute metabolic acidosis in dairy heifers...
February 2017: Theriogenology
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