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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346669/evaluation-of-a-point-of-care-electrochemical-meter-to-detect-subclinical-ketosis-and-hypoglycaemia-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#1
A Zakian, M Tehrani-Sharif, M R Mokhber-Dezfouli, M Nouri, P D Constable
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and validate a hand-held electrochemical meter (Precision Xtra®) as a screening test for subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cattle. DESIGN: Method comparison study using a convenience sample. PROCEDURE: Blood samples were collected into plain tubes from the coccygeal vessels of 181 Holstein cows at 2-4 weeks of lactation during summer in Iran. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHB) and glucose concentration were immediately measured by the electrochemical meter after applying 20 μL of blood to the reagent strip...
April 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335557/ros-production-and-erk-activity-are-involved-in-the-effects-of-d-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-metformin-in-a-glucose-deficient-condition
#2
Santosh Lamichhane, Tonking Bastola, Ramesh Pariyar, Eun-Sol Lee, Ho-Sub Lee, Dae Ho Lee, Jungwon Seo
Hypoglycemia, a complication of insulin or sulfonylurea therapy in diabetic patients, leads to brain damage. Furthermore, glucose replenishment following hypoglycemic coma induces neuronal cell death. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effect of d-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB) using SH-SY5Y cells. The cytotoxic mechanism of metformin under glucose deficiency was also examined. Cell viability under 1 mM glucose (glucose deficiency) was significantly decreased which was accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase 3 (GSK3β)...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324159/hibernation-based-blood-loss-therapy-increases-survivability-of-lethal-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#3
Cecilia E Perez de Lara Rodriguez, Lester R Drewes, Matthew T Andrews
A small-volume (1 ml/kg) resuscitation fluid based on metabolic adaptations in hibernating mammals was optimized using a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. A previous study of this therapy tested only one concentration of three specific components: 4 M D-stereoisomer of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), 43 mM melatonin, and 20% DMSO. In this study, we considered the range of concentrations of BHB and melatonin seen during the physiological extremes of rapid arousal from hypothermic torpor in natural hibernators and applied these to the non-hibernating Sprague-Dawley rat model...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318578/relationships-between-body-condition-score-change-prior-mid-lactation-phenotypic-residual-feed-intake-and-hyperketonemia-onset-in-transition-dairy-cows
#4
Francesca M Rathbun, Ryan S Pralle, Sandra J Bertics, Louis E Armentano, K Cho, C Do, Kent A Weigel, Heather M White
Extensive efforts have been made to identify more feed-efficient dairy cows, yet it is unclear how selection for feed efficiency will influence metabolic health. The objectives of this research were to determine the relationships between residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, body condition score (BCS) change, and hyperketonemia (HYK) incidence. Blood and milk samples were collected twice weekly from cows 5 to 18 d postcalving for a total of 4 samples. Hyperketonemia was diagnosed at a blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259407/randomized-clinical-field-trial-on-the-effects-of-butaphosphan-cyanocobalamin-and-propylene-glycol-on-ketosis-resolution-and-milk-production
#5
J L Gordon, S J LeBlanc, D F Kelton, T H Herdt, L Neuder, T F Duffield
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a butaphosphan-cyanocobalamin combination product (B+C) and 2 durations of propylene glycol treatment (PG; 3 versus 5 d) on ketosis resolution and early lactation milk yield. Cows from 9 freestall herds (8 in Ontario and 1 in Michigan) were tested at weekly intervals between 3 and 16 d in milk. Ketosis was defined as blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1.2 mmol/L. Ketotic cows were randomly assigned to treatment with 25 mL of B+C or 25 mL of saline placebo for 3 d and 3 or 5 d of 300 g of PG orally in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257874/elevated-non-esterified-fatty-acid-and-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-in-transition-dairy-cows-and-their-association-with-reproductive-performance-and-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#6
Amine Abdelli, Didier Raboisson, Rachid Kaidi, Belabdi Ibrahim, Amer Kalem, Mokrane Iguer-Ouada
A meta-analysis including 36 different results of statistic models from 14 papers was conducted. It evaluated the association between elevated non-esterified fatty acids and/or β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on the reproduction outcomes that were pregnancy at first insemination, estrous cyclicity, time to pregnancy, metritis and placental retention. Each association between BHB or NEFA and an outcome reported in literature was a model considered as raw-data for the meta-regression. For each outcome, the meta-regression adjusted the odds ratio, relative risk or hazard ratio with various moderators to reduce the heterogeneity among the studies...
April 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249154/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-deactivates-neutrophil-nlrp3-inflammasome-to-relieve-gout-flares
#7
Emily L Goldberg, Jennifer L Asher, Ryan D Molony, Albert C Shaw, Caroline J Zeiss, Chao Wang, Ludmilla A Morozova-Roche, Raimund I Herzog, Akiko Iwasaki, Vishwa Deep Dixit
Aging and lipotoxicity are two major risk factors for gout that are linked by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Neutrophil-mediated production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) drives gouty flares that cause joint destruction, intense pain, and fever. However, metabolites that impact neutrophil inflammasome remain unknown. Here, we identified that ketogenic diet (KD) increases β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and alleviates urate crystal-induced gout without impairing immune defense against bacterial infection. BHB inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome in S100A9 fibril-primed and urate crystal-activated macrophages, which serve to recruit inflammatory neutrophils in joints...
February 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215889/effects-of-a-combination-butaphosphan-and-cyanocobalamin-product-and-insulin-on-ketosis-resolution-and-milk-production
#8
J L Gordon, T F Duffield, T H Herdt, D F Kelton, L Neuder, S J LeBlanc
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of butaphosphan-cyanocobalamin (B+C), glargine insulin, and propylene glycol on resolution of ketosis and average daily milk yield after treatment. Cows from 16 herds in Ontario, Canada, and 1 herd in Michigan were tested at weekly intervals between 3 and 16 DIM. Ketosis was defined as blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1.2 mmol/L. All ketotic cows were given a baseline treatment of 3 d of 300 g of propylene glycol orally. Animals were then randomly assigned to treatment with 3 doses of either 25 mL of B+C or 25 mL of saline placebo and 1 dose of either 2 mL (200 IU) of glargine insulin or 2 mL of saline placebo in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215216/effect-of-milk-replacer-and-concentrate-intake-on-growth-rate-feeding-behaviour-and-systemic-metabolite-concentrations-of-pre-weaned-bull-calves-of-two-dairy-breeds
#9
C J Byrne, S Fair, A M English, D Johnston, P Lonergan, D A Kenny
Early-life nutrition affects calf development and thus subsequent performance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect plane of nutrition on growth, feeding behaviour and systemic metabolite concentrations of artificially reared dairy bull calves. Holstein-Friesian (F; n=42) and Jersey (J; n=25) bull calves with a mean±SD age (14±4.7 v. 27±7.2 days) and BW (47±5.5 v. 33±4.7 kg) were offered a high, medium or low plane of nutrition for 8 weeks using an electronic feeding system which recorded a range of feed-related events...
February 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161163/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-bhb-and-glucose-concentrations-in-the-blood-of-dairy-calves-as-influenced-by-age-vaccination-stress-weaning-and-starter-intake-including-evaluation-of-bhb-and-glucose-markers-of-starter-intake
#10
F X Suarez-Mena, W Hu, T S Dennis, T M Hill, R L Schlotterbeck
The objective of this research was to determine how blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose are affected by age, time of day, stress, weaning, forced intake restriction, and voluntary starter intake in calves between 1 and 9 wk of age, and to evaluate if either is an acceptable proxy for starter intake. Holstein calves were fed a 27% crude protein, 17% fat milk replacer at 660 g of dry matter daily along with free-choice starter and water. Calves were weaned on d 42. Jugular blood was sampled at 0800, 1200, and 1600 h, and within 5 min of sampling BHB, and glucose concentrations were estimated using test strips (Nova Max Plus meter, Nova Biomedical Corporation, Waltham, MA)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153286/functional-monomer-template-qds-sandwich-structure-for-mesoporous-structured-bovine-hemoglobin-imprinted-ratiometric-fluorescence-sensor
#11
Lu Hongzhi, Xu Shoufang
In this work, mesoporous structured molecularly imprinted ratiometric fluorescence sensor (M-R-MIPs) for highly sensitive and selective determination of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was developed based on core-shell structure. First, red CdTe QDs were embedded into silica nanoparticles by reverse microemulsion method, then BHb imprinted silica shell were coated on the core silica. In order to improve the sensitivity of the as-prepared MIPs sensor, during the process of imprinted silica shell formation, functional monomer-template-QDs sandwich structure was first employed to improve the recognition sites accessibility, mesoporous silica was applied to reduce mass transfer resistance, and ratiometric fluorescence technique was adopted to achieve visual signal output by doping green CdTe QDs into silica shell...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131568/short-communication-free-fatty-acid-receptors-ffar1-and-ffar2-during-the-peripartal-period-in-liver-of-dairy-cows-grouped-by-their-postpartum-plasma-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-concentrations
#12
M A Aguinaga Casañas, C T Schäff, E Albrecht, H M Hammon, B Kuhla, M Röntgen, G Nürnberg, M Mielenz
Free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) play significant roles in various physiological processes, including energy metabolism, through interaction with their ligands, fatty acids. To determine whether the receptors FFAR1 and FFAR2 are involved in the regulation of liver metabolism during the peripartal period, we selected 13 German Holstein multiparous dairy cows and grouped them as high β-hydroxybutyrate (H-BHB; n = 8) or low β-hydroxybutyrate (L-BHB; n = 5) according to their individual maximum plasma BHB concentration observed within wk 2 or 3 postpartum (H-BHB: >1 mmol/L and L-BHB: <0...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119966/immobilization-of-lysozyme-proteins-on-a-hierarchical-zeolitic-imidazolate-framework-zif-8
#13
Gen Liu, Yan Xu, Yide Han, Junbiao Wu, Junli Xu, Hao Meng, Xia Zhang
A hierarchical zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (micro/meso-ZIF-8) was fabricated by using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a structure-controlling agent and l-histidine as co-templates. Compared to the conventional microporous ZIF-8 (micro-ZIF-8), the hierarchical porous structure of micro/meso-ZIF-8 contains micropores and maximum mesopores of around 35.6 nm. The as-prepared hierarchical micro/meso-ZIF-8 featured a large surface area and superior spontaneous adsorption activity than micro-ZIF-8 towards lysozyme (LZM), bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the adsorption capacity increased with the decreasing of the protein size due to the molecule cutoff effects...
January 25, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109586/elevation-of-blood-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-concentration-affects-glucose-metabolism-in-dairy-cows-before-and-after-parturition
#14
M Zarrin, L Grossen-Rösti, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross
Recent studies in mid- and late-lactation dairy cows showed that β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) infusion had a considerable effect on glucose metabolism and immune response during intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge. The objective of the present study was to infuse BHB during the dry period and after parturition to investigate the effects of elevated plasma BHB concentrations on metabolism and endocrine changes in transition dairy cows. The hypothesis tested was that regulation of glucose metabolism would change at different physiological stages and an additional elevation of BHB concentration would alter glucose concentration...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107442/comparison-of-various-indices-of-energy-metabolism-in-recumbent-and-healthy-dairy-cows
#15
Hugues Guyot, Johann Detilleux, Pascal Lebreton, Catherine Garnier, Marie Bonvoisin, Frederic Rollin, Charlotte Sandersen
BACKGROUND: Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089299/the-non-sense-of-routinely-analysing-beta-hydroxybutyric-acid-in-forensic-toxicology-casework
#16
Nele Sadones, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) is a ketone body which is generated from fatty acids as an alternative energy source when glucose is not available. Determination of this compound may be relevant in the forensic laboratory as ketoacidosis - an elevated level of ketone bodies - may contribute to the cause of death. In this study, we aimed at determining the relevance of routinely implementing BHB analysis in the forensic toxicological laboratory, as BHB analysis typically requires an additional workload. We therefore performed an unbiased retrospective analysis of BHB in 599 cases, comprising 553 blood, 232 urine and 62 vitreous humour samples...
January 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012617/growth-performance-feeding-behavior-and-selected-blood-metabolites-of-holstein-dairy-calves-fed-restricted-amounts-of-milk-no-interactions-between-sources-of-finely-ground-grain-and-forage-provision
#17
M Mirzaei, M Khorvash, G R Ghorbani, M Kazemi-Bonchenari, M H Ghaffari
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation...
February 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924985/creating-bhb-imprinted-magnetic-nanoparticles-with-multiple-binding-sites
#18
Yanxia Li, Yiting Chen, Lu Huang, BenYong Lou, Guonan Chen
A kind of protein imprinted over magnetic Fe3O4@Au multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) with multiple binding sites was synthesized and investigated. Magnetic Fe3O4@Au NPs as carrier materials were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (MPBA) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to introduce boronic acids and carboxyl groups. Using Bovine Hemoglobin (BHb) as a template, a polydopamine(PDA)-based molecular imprinted film was fabricated to produce a kind of magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticle (MMIP), possessing multiple binding sites with benzene-diol, amino groups, boronic acids and carboxyl groups...
December 7, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845016/effect-of-combined-acetylmethionine-cyanocobalamin-and-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-on-hepatic-metabolism-in-high-yielding-dairy-cow
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Enrico Fiore, Laura Perillo, Giuseppe Piccione, Matteo Gianesella, Silvia Bedin, Leonardo Armato, Elisabetta Giudice, Massimo Morgante
The aim of the study reported in this Research Communication was to investigate the effect of a combined acetylmethionine, cyanocobalamin and α-lipoic acid treatment, on some metabolic parameters of early lactating high-yielding dairy cows. Thirty cows were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (EG, n = 20) and control group (CG, n = 10). EG received 20 ml of treatment and CG received 20 ml of placebo. The treatments were administered for seven times every 2 d. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 3 time points: 10 ± 2, 30 ± 2 and 50 ± 2 d postpartum...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822291/monitoring-for-compliance-with-a-ketogenic-diet-what-is-the-best-time-of-day-to-test-for-urinary-ketosis
#20
Paul Urbain, Hartmut Bertz
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and adequate-protein diet with no calorie limit that induces a metabolic condition called "physiological ketosis". It was first introduced to treat epilepsy in the 1920s and has become quite popular recently as weight-loss and performance-enhancing diet. Its therapeutic use in a range of diseases is under investigation. During KD interventions people are supposed to monitor compliance with the dietary regimen by daily urine testing for ketosis...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
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