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Pamela Oetting-Neumann, Karl Rohn, Martina Hoedemaker
OBJECTIVE: Determination of the frequency of subclinical hypocalcaemia, increased lipomobilisation and subclinical ketosis as problems in dairy herds and identification of possible risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information was obtained from 51 dairy farms on husbandry, feeding, management of the cows and heifers, animal health and prophylactic treatments using a questionnaire. Blood samples from 20% of the cows and 30% of the heifers of each farm (= herd sample) were collected in the week ante partum (a...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Gretel Ruprechter, Maria de Lourdes Adrien, Alejandro Larriestra, Otavio Meotti, Chester Batista, Ana Meikle, Mirela Noro
The predictive values of plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, albumin and calcium to predict risk of peripartum diseases in primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was investigated. Besides it was assessed if the health status interacted with parity on body condition score and metabolic profiles during the transition period. Dairy cows (126 PP and 182 MP) from a commercial dairy free stall herd (loose-housing system) were weekly body condition scored and tail bled for metabolites determination from -3 to +4 weeks relative to calving...
February 19, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Eleonora Malerba, Michela Mazzarino, Francesca Del Baldo, Sara Corradini, Gaia Carotenuto, Massimo Giunti, Federico Fracassi
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lispro insulin for the treatment of feline diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Times to resolution of hyperglycaemia, ketosis and acidosis were compared between cats treated with continuous rate infusion (CRI) of lispro insulin and cats treated with CRI of regular insulin. Methods Client-owned cats with naturally occurring DKA, newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) or already receiving treatment for DM, were included. Diagnosis of DKA involved the presence of at least two clinical signs consistent with DKA (eg, polyuria/polydipsia, anorexia, severe lethargy, vomiting and dehydration), blood glucose (BG) concentration >13...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Xiaoxiao Wei, Yuzhi Wang, Jing Chen, Panli Xu, Yigang Zhou
A novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method based on 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquid (IL) modified magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles, hydroxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-OH) and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) nanocomposites (Fe3 O4 -MWCNTs-OH@ZIF-67@IL) were proposed and applied to extract α-chymotrypsin. The magnetic materials were synthesized successfully and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and zeta potentials...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
P-A Morin, C Krug, Y Chorfi, J Dubuc, P Lacasse, J-P Roy, D E Santschi, S Dufour
Limiting milk production for a short period of time in early lactation could be a relevant strategy to prevent hyperketonemia (HYK). From December 2013 to March 2015, 838 multiparous Holstein cows from 13 herds were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of incomplete milking in early lactation on ketonemia and its effect on body condition score (BCS) loss. Cows were randomly assigned 4 wk before expected calving date to 1 of 2 treatment groups, (1) a conventional milking protocol (CON) for which cows were completely milked or (2) an incomplete milking protocol (INC) for which a maximum of 10 to 14 kg of milk/d were withdrawn during the first 5 d in milk (DIM)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
R S Pralle, K W Weigel, H M White
Prediction of postpartum hyperketonemia (HYK) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry analysis could be a practical diagnostic option for farms because these data are now available from routine milk analysis during Dairy Herd Improvement testing. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop and evaluate blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) prediction models using multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares regression (PLS), and artificial neural network (ANN) methods and (2) evaluate whether milk FTIR spectrum (mFTIR)-based models are improved with the inclusion of test-day variables (mTest; milk composition and producer-reported data)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jéssica Tatiana Morales Piñeyrúa, Santiago Rafael Fariña, Alejandro Mendoza
The objective of this study was to determine the effects that parity may have on production, reproduction and the metabolic status of Holstein cows managed in a production system based on total mixed ration and pasture. Primiparous (n = 22) and multiparous (n = 24) cows from a dairy farm research station in Uruguay were used in a completely randomized design. Body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS) and backfat thickness (BFT) were recorded weekly from -30 to 70 days postpartum. Milk production was measured daily, and milk composition was determined weekly...
February 2, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Byong Sop Lee, Dong-Cheol Woo, Chul-Woong Woo, Ki-Soo Kim
β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is a representative ketone body that may play a role in the mitigation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy by altering energy metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of exogenous BHB administration in a suckling rat model after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups were subjected to 120 min of hypoxia according to the Rice-Vannucci model. BHB (5.0 mmol/kg, HI-BHB) or vehicle (0.9% saline, HI-Veh) was administered 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after HI induction...
February 21, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Jianping Wang, Min Zhang, Jingli Xu, Jing Zheng, Tasawar Hayat, Njud S Alharbi
In the recent years, the fabrication of functional nanostructures with multicomponent has received considerable attention due to their exceptional properties. Herein, we report a facile approach for the preparation of Fe3O4@C/Ni microtubes, which could be used as both a catalyst and the adsorbents. During the synthetic process, a layer of nickel ion-doped polydopamine (PDA-Ni2+) was polymerized in situ on the surface of the MoO3@FeOOH by an extended stöber method using MoO3 microrods as the sacrificing templates...
February 8, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
K J Herrick, A R Hippen, K F Kalscheur, D J Schingoethe, S D Ranathunga, J L Anderson, S C Moreland, J E van Eys
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects on plasma metabolites and rumen traits when butyrate was infused into the rumen or abomasum of lactating cows. Jugular catheters were inserted into 5 ruminally fistulated Holstein cows [94.2 ± 26.3 DIM; 717 ± 45 kg of body weight (BW); mean ± SD] in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 3-d periods. Cows were infused for 24 h with 1 of 5 treatments: water (CON), 1 g/kg of BW of butyrate infused into either the abomasum (A1) or rumen (R1), or 2 g/kg of BW of butyrate infused into either the abomasum or rumen...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Xiliang Du, Yiwei Zhu, Zhicheng Peng, Yuanxu Cui, Qiang Zhang, Zhen Shi, Yuan Guan, Xueying Sha, Taiyu Shen, Yuchen Yang, Xiaobing Li, Zhe Wang, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
The hepatic growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axis is essential for regulating intrahepatic lipid metabolism. Ketotic cows are characterized by high blood concentrations of fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which display lipotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the hepatic GH-IGF-I axis in ketotic cows and to determine the effects of fatty acids and BHB on the GH-IGF-I axis in calf hepatocytes. Liver and blood samples were collected from healthy (n = 15) and clinically ketotic (n = 15) cows...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
S L Hill, K C Olson, J R Jaeger, J S Stevenson
Two experiments were conducted to determine relationships of blood metabolite concentrations, BW, BCS, and rump fat depth with postpartum ovulation and pregnancy risks, as well as their utility in predicting those outcomes in suckled beef cows. In Exp. 1, plasma glucose collected 10 and 3 d before AI of suckled beef cows at 7 locations did not differ between cows that had resumed estrous cycles (ovulated) before AI compared with anovulatory cows, whereas plasma glucose 3 d before AI was greater (P < 0.01) in cows that became pregnant compared with nonpregnant cows...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Ayano Kaneta, Kosuke Fujishima, Wataru Morikazu, Hiroyuki Hori, Akira Hirata
Four different types (α4, α'2, (αβ)2 and ε2) of RNA-splicing endonucleases (EndAs) for RNA processing are known to exist in the Archaea. Only the (αβ)2 and ε2 types can cleave non-canonical introns in precursor (pre)-tRNA. Both enzyme types possess an insert associated with a specific loop, allowing broad substrate specificity in the catalytic α units. Here, the hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon Methanopyrus kandleri (MKA) was predicted to harbor an (αβ)2-type EndA lacking the specific loop. To characterize MKA EndA enzymatic activity, we constructed a fusion protein derived from MKA α and β subunits (fMKA EndA)...
January 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Xiaoyan Wang, Shuangmei Yu, Wen Liu, Longwen Fu, Yunqing Wang, Jinhua Li, Lingxin Chen
We describe a simple and effective strategy to construct molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor (MIR sensor) for the visual detection of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) used as a model protein. The sensor was prepared by simply mixing the solution of green and red CdTe quantum dots (QDs), which were embedded in core-shell structured molecularly imprinted polymers and silica nanoparticles, respectively. The resultant hybrid MIR sensor can selectively bind with BHb and thus quench the fluorescence of the green QDs, while the red QDs wrapped with silica is insensitive to BHb with the fluorescence intensity unchanged...
January 16, 2018: ACS Sensors
Timothy A Simeone, Kristina A Simeone, Carl E Stafstrom, Jong M Rho
Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-seizure effects of the high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) remain unclear, a long-standing question has been whether ketone bodies (i.e., beta-hydroxybutyrate [BHB], acetoacetate [ACA] and acetone), either alone or in combination, contribute mechanistically. The traditional belief has been that while ketone bodies reflect enhanced fatty acid oxidation and a general shift toward intermediary metabolism, they are not likely to be the key mediators of the KD's clinical effects, as blood levels of BHB do not correlate consistently with improved seizure control...
January 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
T L Chandler, R S Pralle, J R R Dórea, S E Poock, G R Oetzel, R H Fourdraine, H M White
Although cowside testing strategies for diagnosing hyperketonemia (HYK) are available, many are labor intensive and costly, and some lack sufficient accuracy. Predicting milk ketone bodies by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry during routine milk sampling may offer a more practical monitoring strategy. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop linear and logistic regression models using all available test-day milk and performance variables for predicting HYK and (2) compare prediction methods (Fourier transform infrared milk ketone bodies, linear regression models, and logistic regression models) to determine which is the most predictive of HYK...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Andrea Wolf, Elizabeth R Lusczek, Gregory J Beilman
Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of preventable death after trauma. Hibernation-based treatment approaches have been of increasing interest for various biomedical applications. Due to apparent similarities in tissue perfusion and metabolic activity between severe blood loss and the hibernating state, hibernation-based approaches have also emerged for the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Research has shown that hibernators are protected from shock-induced injury and inflammation. Utilizing the adaptive mechanisms that prevent injury in these animals may help alleviate the detrimental effects of hemorrhagic shock in non-hibernating species...
December 27, 2017: Shock
Seema Thakral, Andrea Wolf, Gregory J Beilman, Raj Suryanarayanan
Hemorrhagic shock, caused by trauma, is a leading cause of preventable death. A combination treatment of D-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and melatonin (MLT), in dimethyl sulfoxide - water, increased survival. A freeze-dried BHB -MLT formulation, with a short reconstitution time, has been developed. This intravenous formulation, prepared with an aqueous vehicle, completely eliminated dimethyl sulfoxide, thereby avoiding the potential problems associated with this solvent. The poor aqueous solubility of MLT necessitated the use of polyvinylpyrrolidine (PVP) as a complexing agent...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Jerson L Silva, Elio A Cino, Iaci N Soares, Vitor F Ferreira, Guilherme A P de Oliveira
Prion-like behavior of several amyloidogenic proteins has been demonstrated in recent years. Despite having functional roles in some cases, irregular aggregation can have devastating consequences. The most commonly known amyloid diseases are Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). The pathophysiology of prion-like diseases involves the structural transformation of wild-type (wt) proteins to transmissible forms that can convert healthy proteins, generating aggregates. The mutant form of tumor suppressor protein, p53, has recently been shown to exhibit prion-like properties...
December 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
M M Fry, B Yao, C Ríos, C Wong, S Mann, J A A McArt, D V Nydam, F A Leal Yepes, L Viesselmann, A Geick, K Goldin, A Jordan, E Behling-Kelly
The objective of our study was to characterize the diagnostic performance of cytology for assessing hepatic lipid content (HLC) in dairy cows by comparing microscopic evaluation of lipid vacuolation in touch imprint slide preparations of liver biopsies with quantitative measurement of triglyceride concentration ([TG]; mg/mg of wet weight) in paired biopsy samples. Our study also sought to compare the diagnostic performance of liver cytology, plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration ([NEFA]), and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration ([BHB]) derived from a measurement performed on whole blood, for assessing HLC...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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