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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109586/elevation-of-blood-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-concentration-affects-glucose-metabolism-in-dairy-cows-before-and-after-parturition
#1
M Zarrin, L Grossen-Rösti, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross
Recent studies in mid- and late-lactation dairy cows showed that β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) infusion had a considerable effect on glucose metabolism and immune response during intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge. The objective of the present study was to infuse BHB during the dry period and after parturition to investigate the effects of elevated plasma BHB concentrations on metabolism and endocrine changes in transition dairy cows. The hypothesis tested was that regulation of glucose metabolism would change at different physiological stages and an additional elevation of BHB concentration would alter glucose concentration...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107442/comparison-of-various-indices-of-energy-metabolism-in-recumbent-and-healthy-dairy-cows
#2
Hugues Guyot, Johann Detilleux, Pascal Lebreton, Catherine Garnier, Marie Bonvoisin, Frederic Rollin, Charlotte Sandersen
BACKGROUND: Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089299/the-non-sense-of-routinely-analysing-beta-hydroxybutyric-acid-in-forensic-toxicology-casework
#3
Nele Sadones, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) is a ketone body which is generated from fatty acids as an alternative energy source when glucose is not available. Determination of this compound may be relevant in the forensic laboratory as ketoacidosis - an elevated level of ketone bodies - may contribute to the cause of death. In this study, we aimed at determining the relevance of routinely implementing BHB analysis in the forensic toxicological laboratory, as BHB analysis typically requires an additional workload. We therefore performed an unbiased retrospective analysis of BHB in 599 cases, comprising 553 blood, 232 urine and 62 vitreous humour samples...
January 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012617/growth-performance-feeding-behavior-and-selected-blood-metabolites-of-holstein-dairy-calves-fed-restricted-amounts-of-milk-no-interactions-between-sources-of-finely-ground-grain-and-forage-provision
#4
M Mirzaei, M Khorvash, G R Ghorbani, M Kazemi-Bonchenari, M H Ghaffari
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924985/creating-bhb-imprinted-magnetic-nanoparticles-with-multiple-binding-sites
#5
Yanxia Li, Yiting Chen, Lu Huang, BenYong Lou, Guonan Chen
A kind of protein imprinted over magnetic Fe3O4@Au multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) with multiple binding sites was synthesized and investigated. Magnetic Fe3O4@Au NPs as carrier materials were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (MPBA) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to introduce boronic acids and carboxyl groups. Using Bovine Hemoglobin (BHb) as a template, a polydopamine(PDA)-based molecular imprinted film was fabricated to produce a kind of magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticle (MMIP), possessing multiple binding sites with benzene-diol, amino groups, boronic acids and carboxyl groups...
December 7, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845016/effect-of-combined-acetylmethionine-cyanocobalamin-and-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-on-hepatic-metabolism-in-high-yielding-dairy-cow
#6
Enrico Fiore, Laura Perillo, Giuseppe Piccione, Matteo Gianesella, Silvia Bedin, Leonardo Armato, Elisabetta Giudice, Massimo Morgante
The aim of the study reported in this Research Communication was to investigate the effect of a combined acetylmethionine, cyanocobalamin and α-lipoic acid treatment, on some metabolic parameters of early lactating high-yielding dairy cows. Thirty cows were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (EG, n = 20) and control group (CG, n = 10). EG received 20 ml of treatment and CG received 20 ml of placebo. The treatments were administered for seven times every 2 d. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 3 time points: 10 ± 2, 30 ± 2 and 50 ± 2 d postpartum...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822291/monitoring-for-compliance-with-a-ketogenic-diet-what-is-the-best-time-of-day-to-test-for-urinary-ketosis
#7
Paul Urbain, Hartmut Bertz
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and adequate-protein diet with no calorie limit that induces a metabolic condition called "physiological ketosis". It was first introduced to treat epilepsy in the 1920s and has become quite popular recently as weight-loss and performance-enhancing diet. Its therapeutic use in a range of diseases is under investigation. During KD interventions people are supposed to monitor compliance with the dietary regimen by daily urine testing for ketosis...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807376/the-use-of-serum-beta-hydroxybutyrate-to-determine-whether-nursery-pigs-selected-on-the-basis-of-clinical-signs-are-anorexic
#8
Amanda M Perri, Terri L O'Sullivan, John C S Harding, Robert M Friendship
The process of weaning pigs alters intestinal structures and influences piglet behavior, which can result in anorexia. When housed in large groups, affected pigs can be difficult to identify at an early stage. The clinical signs of anorexia include loss in body condition (thinness) and repetitive oral behavior (chomping). The objective of this study was to determine if pigs identified at 4 to 7 days post-weaning on the basis of clinical signs were anorexic based on elevated serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels (ketosis)...
November 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788628/serial-changes-in-plasma-ketone-concentrations-in-patients-with-acute-brain-injury
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
Hayden White, Balasubramanian Venkatesh, Mark Jones, Hesly Fuentes
Objective Acute brain injury (ABI) is a catastrophic event, leading to disruption of the normal cerebral metabolic pathways and a subsequent cerebral energy deficit. Ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate) may represent an alternative metabolic substrate with the potential to improve cerebral energy supply and decrease injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate baseline ketone concentrations in the ABI population. Methods Thirty-eight patients with ABI were enrolled into the study and followed for up to 7 days...
January 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776334/improved-controlled-release-of-protein-from-expanded-pore-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-modified-with-co-functionalized-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-and-poly-ethylene-glycol-pnipam-peg
#10
Erick Yu, Allison Lo, Linda Jiang, Bradley Petkus, Nazar Ileri Ercan, Pieter Stroeve
Novel pore-expanded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with pore sizes of approximately 11nm were synthesized and modified with thermoresponsive, poly(n-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) gating groups on the nanoparticle exterior surface and in addition with poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) within the porous interior to minimize protein adsorption. PEG traditionally has been grafted to the nanoparticle exterior to minimize non-specific binding and interactions with the biological environment, but due to the templating mechanism of MSN synthesis, both the pore interior and nanoparticle surface can be separately modified...
January 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756472/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-induces-bovine-hepatocyte-apoptosis-via-an-ros-p38-signaling-pathway
#11
Yuxiang Song, Na Li, Jingmin Gu, Shoupeng Fu, Zhicheng Peng, Chenxu Zhao, Yuming Zhang, Xiaobing Li, Zhe Wang, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is an important indicator for metabolic disorders in dairy cows, such as ketosis and fatty liver. Dairy cows with ketosis display oxidative stress that may be associated with high levels of BHB. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a correlation between the high levels of BHB and oxidative stress in dairy cows with ketosis, and to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative damage in bovine hepatocytes. The results showed that dairy cows with ketosis exhibited oxidative stress and liver damage, which was significantly correlated with plasma BHB...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743662/effect-of-reducing-milk-production-using-a-prolactin-release-inhibitor-or-a-glucocorticoid-on-metabolism-and-immune-functions-in-cows-subjected-to-acute-nutritional-stress
#12
S Ollier, F Beaudoin, N Vanacker, P Lacasse
When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700042/protein-metal-organic-framework-hybrid-composites-with-intrinsic-peroxidase-like-activity-as-a-colorimetric-biosensing-platform
#13
Yuqing Yin, Chen Ling Gao, Qi Xiao, Guo Lin, Zian Lin, Zongwei Cai, Huang-Hao Yang
Artificial enzyme mimetics have received considerable attention because natural enzymes have some significant drawbacks, including enzyme autolysis, low catalytic activity, poor recovery and low stability to environmental changes. Herein, we demonstrated a facile approach for one-pot synthesis of hemeprotein-metal organic framework hybrid composites (H-MOFs) by using bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as a model reaction system. Surprisingly, the new hybrid composites exhibits 423% increase in peroxidase-like catalytic activity compared to free BHb...
October 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696787/a-pegylated-bovine-hemoglobin-as-a-potent-hemoglobin-based-oxygen-carrier
#14
Ying Wang, Linli Wang, Weili Yu, Dawei Gao, Guoxing You, Penglong Li, Shan Zhang, Jun Zhang, Tao Hu, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
Hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have been used as blood substitutes in surgery medicine and oxygen therapeutics for ischemic stroke. As a potent HBOC, the PEGylated Hb has received much attention for its oxygen delivery and plasma expanding ability. Two PEGylated Hbs, Euro-Hb and MP4 have been developed for clinical trials, using human adult hemoglobin (HbA) as the original substrate. However, HbA was obtained from outdated human blood and its quantity available from this source may not be sufficient for mass production of PEGylated HbA...
October 3, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691987/claw-disorders-in-dairy-cattle-an-unexpected-association-between-energy-metabolism-and-sole-haemorrhages
#15
Katrin Wilhelm, Jürgen Wilhelm, Manfred Fürll
The present study investigated whether changes of energy metabolism post-partum (pp) are associated with claw health. For this purpose, back-fat-thickness (BFT) was measured and blood samples were taken from 146 cows at four examination times. The serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose were measured. Furthermore, in the first week postpartum (pp) and at 8 weeks pp, a claw trimming was done and the presence and extent of sole haemorrhages (SH) was recorded. Animals with high BFT at calving and therefore high fat mobilisation and whose FFA and BHB levels in the first week pp exceeded the reference values had fewer pathological changes of the claws than thinner animals whose FFA and BHB levels stayed within reference ranges...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685985/an-in-silico-knockout-model-for-gastrointestinal-absorption-using-a-systems-pharmacology-approach-development-and-application-for-ketones
#16
Vittal Shivva, Ian G Tucker, Stephen B Duffull
Gastrointestinal absorption and disposition of ketones is complex. Recent work describing the pharmacokinetics (PK) of d-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) following oral ingestion of a ketone monoester ((R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate) found multiple input sites, nonlinear disposition and feedback on endogenous production. In the current work, a human systems pharmacology model for gastrointestinal absorption and subsequent disposition of small molecules (monocarboxylic acids with molecular weight < 200 Da) was developed with an application to a ketone monoester...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638261/better-postpartal-performance-in-dairy-cows-supplemented-with-rumen-protected-methionine-compared-with-choline-during-the-peripartal-period
#17
Z Zhou, M Vailati-Riboni, E Trevisi, J K Drackley, D N Luchini, J J Loor
The onset of lactation in dairy cows is characterized by high output of methylated compounds in milk when sources of methyl group are in short supply. Methionine and choline (CHOL) are key methyl donors and their availability during this time may be limiting for milk production, hepatic lipid metabolism, and immune function. Supplementing rumen-protected Met and CHOL may improve overall performance and health of transition cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental rumen-protected Met and CHOL on performance and health of transition cows...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638258/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-dexamethasone-as-an-adjunctive-therapy-to-propylene-glycol-for-treatment-of-hyperketonemia-in-postpartum-dairy-cattle
#18
Elise H Tatone, Todd F Duffield, Michael B Capel, Trevor J DeVries, Stephen J LeBlanc, Jessica L Gordon
Treatment of hyperketonemia with oral propylene glycol has proven efficacy but the cure rate remains moderate. Dexamethasone has long been suggested as a treatment for hyperketonemia, even though evidence of its efficacy is contradictory. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of adding a single intramuscular injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone to oral propylene glycol therapy for hyperketonemia [blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1.2 mmol/L]. All cows between 3 and 16 d in milk on 4 dairy farms in New York State were tested once weekly for hyperketonemia using a handheld ketone meter...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614839/milk-yield-milk-composition-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-transition-dairy-cows-fed-flaxseed-or-linola
#19
R M do Prado, M F Palin, I N do Prado, G T Dos Santos, C Benchaar, H V Petit
The response of transition dairy cows to dietary supplementation with fat sources of various fatty acid profiles could affect hepatic fat metabolism differently. Twenty-eight Holstein cows were blocked for similar calving date 4 wk before expected parturition to compare the effects of feeding sources of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on milk production and composition, plasma metabolites, and liver parameters. Cows within each block were assigned to 1 of 3 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets: control with a source of calcium salts of palm oil (MEG; 1...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614830/genetic-parameters-of-subclinical-macromineral-disorders-and-major-clinical-diseases-in-postparturient-holstein-cows
#20
V Tsiamadis, G Banos, N Panousis, M Kritsepi-Konstantinou, G Arsenos, G E Valergakis
The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic parameters of subclinical disorders associated with subclinical hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, subclinical hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia, as well as major clinical diseases after calving in Holstein cows. The secondary objective was to estimate the associated genetic and phenotypic correlations among these subclinical and clinical conditions after calving in Holstein cows. The study was conducted in 9 dairy herds located in Northern Greece...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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