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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139146/effects-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitor-velagliflozin-a-new-drug-with-therapeutic-potential-to-treat-diabetes-in-cats
#1
M Hoenig, M Clark, D J Schaeffer, D Reiche
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are used in the treatment of human diabetics. They increase glucose excretion and correct hyperglycemia. We examined the investigational SGLT2 inhibitor velagliflozin in two groups of six neutered adult obese cats (equal gender distribution). Placebo (Pl) or drug (D; 1 mg/kg) was administered for 35 days. Routine blood examinations, fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucagon, adiponectin, and leptin were measured before and after treatment, also water intake, and urinary electrolytes, glucose, and volume...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110579/effects-of-glyphosate-residues-and-different-concentrate-feed-proportions-on-performance-energy-metabolism-and-health-characteristics-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#2
Karina Schnabel, Rolf Schmitz, Dirk von Soosten, Jana Frahm, Susanne Kersten, Ulrich Meyer, Gerhard Breves, Rudolf Hackenberg, Madeleine Spitzke, Sven Dänicke
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of glyphosate (GL) residues in feedstuffs on performance, energy balance and health-related characteristics of lactating dairy cows fed diets with different concentrate feed proportions. After an adaption period, 64 German Holstein cows (207 ± 49 d in milk; mean ± SD) were assigned to either groups receiving a GL contaminated total mixed ration (TMR) (GL groups) or an uncontaminated TMR (CON groups) during a 16 weeks trial. Contaminated feedstuffs used were legally GL-treated peas and wheat (straw and grain)...
December 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105987/a-ketone-ester-drink-lowers-human-ghrelin-and-appetite
#3
Brianna J Stubbs, Pete J Cox, Rhys D Evans, Malgorzata Cyranka, Kieran Clarke, Heidi de Wet
OBJECTIVE: The ketones d-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate are elevated during prolonged fasting or during a "ketogenic" diet. Although weight loss on a ketogenic diet may be associated with decreased appetite and altered gut hormone levels, it is unknown whether such changes are caused by elevated blood ketones. This study investigated the effects of an exogenous ketone ester (KE) on appetite. METHODS: Following an overnight fast, subjects with normal weight (n = 15) consumed 1...
November 6, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102848/characterization-of-non-covalent-binding-of-6-hydroxyflavone-and-5-7-dihydroxyflavone-with-bovine-hemoglobin-multi-spectroscopic-and-molecular-docking-analyses
#4
Sourav Das, Alka Karn, Rubi Sarmah, Mostofa Ataur Rohman, Sudipta Koley, Pooja Ghosh, Atanu Singha Roy
Flavonoids are biologically imperative compounds used as anti-oxidants, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial agents etc. The current work reports comprehensive binding studies of two important flavonoids, 6-hydroxyflavone and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin) with bovine hemoglobin (BHb) at 298K and 308K, in aqueous medium using UV-vis spectroscopy, steady state fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) measurements, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and molecular docking studies. Both 6-hydroxyflavone and chrysin can quench the intrinsic fluorescence intensity of BHb via static quenching mechanism...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074329/degree-of-ketonaemia-and-its-association-with-insulin-resistance-after-dapagliflozin-treatment-in-type-2-diabetes
#5
S H Min, T J Oh, S-I Baek, D-H Lee, K M Kim, J H Moon, S H Choi, K S Park, H C Jang, S Lim
BACKGROUND: Euglycaemic ketoacidosis has been reported after sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor treatment. However, the degree of ketonaemia and its metabolic effects have not been well investigated. Our study examined the degree of ketonaemia induced by SGLT2 inhibition and its association with metabolic profiles in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Biochemical parameters, including insulin, glucagon, free fatty acid (FFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate (ACA) levels, were measured in 119 T2DM patients after dapagliflozin treatment for>3 months, and compared with a matched control group...
October 23, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068709/altered-patterns-of-early-metabolic-decompensation-in-type-1-diabetes-during-treatment-with-a-sglt2-inhibitor-an-insulin-pump-suspension-study
#6
Neha S Patel, Michelle A Van Name, Eda Cengiz, Lori R Carria, Stuart A Weinzimer, William V Tamborlane, Jennifer L Sherr
BACKGROUND: Enthusiasm for the benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) as an adjunctive treatment in type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been offset by the possible increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Since pump-treated T1D patients are susceptible to DKA due to infusion site problems, this study was undertaken to assess how treatment with SGLT2i affects patterns of early metabolic decompensation following suspension of basal insulin. METHODS: Ten T1D participants (age 19-35 years, duration 10 ± 8 years, A1c 7...
November 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058362/the-ketone-body-metabolite-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-induces-an-antidepression-associated-ramification-of-microglia-via-hdacs-inhibition-triggered-akt-small-rhogtpase-activation
#7
Chao Huang, Peng Wang, Xing Xu, Yaru Zhang, Yu Gong, Wenfeng Hu, Minhui Gao, Yue Wu, Yong Ling, Xi Zhao, Yibin Qin, Rongrong Yang, Wei Zhang
Direct induction of macrophage ramification has been shown to promote an alternative (M2) polarization, suggesting that the ramified morphology may determine the function of immune cells. The ketone body metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) elevated in conditions including fasting and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) can reduce neuroinflammation. However, how exactly BHB impacts microglia remains unclear. We report that BHB as well as its producing stimuli fasting and KD induced obvious ramifications of murine microglia in basal and inflammatory conditions in a reversible manner, and these ramifications were accompanied with microglial profile toward M2 polarization and phagocytosis...
October 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040389/the-anti-epileptic-ketogenic-diet-alters-hippocampal-transporter-levels-and-reduces-adiposity-in-aged-rats
#8
Abbi R Hernandez, Caesar M Hernandez, Keila T Campos, Leah M Truckenbrod, Yasemin Sakarya, Joseph A McQuail Ph D, Christy S Carter, Jennifer L Bizon, Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke
Nutritional ketosis is induced by high fat/low carbohydrate dietary regimens, which produce high levels of circulating ketone bodies, shifting metabolism away from glucose utilization. While ketogenic diets (KD) were initially introduced to suppress seizures, they are garnering attention for their potential to treat a myriad of neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders that are associated with advanced age. The feasibility and physiological impact of implementing a long-term KD in old animals, however, has not been systematically examined...
October 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993582/a-study-of-electrochemical-sensor-based-on-bhb-imprinted-magnetic-nanoparticles
#9
Yanxia Li, Lu Huang, Xiuping Wang, Yiting Chen
A study of an electrochemical sensor based on bovine hemoglobin (BHb) imprinted magnetic nanoparticles (MIPs) was investigated. First, BHb MIPs were successfully synthesized with magnetic Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles as carrier by surface modification of mercapto propionic acid for introducing carboxyl groups, combined with dopamine as the functional monomer and BHb as the template protein. Then, the MIPs were modified to the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for electrochemical analysis by using cyclic voltammetry in the potassium ferricyanide solution...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983975/hyperglycaemia-in-transition-dairy-cows-effects-of-lactational-stage-and-conjugated-linoleic-acid-supplementation-on-glucose-metabolism-and-turnover
#10
L Grossen-Rösti, E C Kessler, A Tröscher, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross
Supplementing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is supposed to spare glucose due to the milk fat-depressing effect of the trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer, and allows repartitioning nutrients despite an energy deficiency in early lactation. However, there is still a lack of knowledge in terms of the dynamic pattern of the glucose turnover in transition dairy cows. We hypothesized that dairy cows supplemented with CLA have an altered rate of glucose turnover and insulin sensitivity during early lactation. We conducted three consecutive hyperglycaemic clamps (HGC) in weeks -2, +2 and +4 relative to parturition in Holstein cows supplemented daily either with 70 g of lipid-encapsulated CLA (6...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929991/effects-of-different-dosages-of-propylene-glycol-in-dry-cows-and-cows-in-early-lactation
#11
Michaela Maurer, Walter Peinhopf, Jutta Gottschalk, Almut Einspanier, Gabor Koeller, Thomas Wittek
In this Research Paper we hypothesised that the temporary insulin resistance seen during the transition period in dairy cows may cause significant differences in the efficacy of PG at different sampling periods and that in some cases this effect will be dose dependent. Eighty four sampling sets were generated by studying 7 multiparous Holstein cows repeatedly at 4 sampling periods of 3 d length (dry cows: days 40, 39 and 38 antepartum; close up cows: days 10, 9 and 8 antepartum; fresh cows: days 3, 4 and 5 post-partum; lactating cows: days 38, 39 and 40 post-partum)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917756/facile-synthesis-of-copper-ii-decorated-functional-mesoporous-material-for-specific-adsorption-of-histidine-rich-proteins
#12
Jiaojiao Wang, Rui Zhang, Xiaxia Yang, Xiaoyan Liu, Haixia Zhang
The Cu(2+)-decorated functional mesoporous material was fabricated by thermally initiated free-radical polymerization of octavinyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane. It was used as adsorbent for highly specific separation of histidine (His)-rich proteins in blood and cell lysate based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The functional mesoporous material (named as PPOSS-IDA-Cu(2+)) was characterized in detail and its selectivity and binding capacity were evaluated using a His-rich protein (bovine hemoglobin, BHb) and other proteins (bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, lysozyme and horseradish peroxidase) containing fewer surface-exposed His residues as model proteins...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888594/plasma-concentrations-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-2-in-calves-fed-calf-starters-containing-lactose
#13
Y Inabu, A Saegusa, K Inouchi, S Koike, M Oba, T Sugino
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactose inclusion in calf starters on plasma glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2 concentrations and gastrointestinal tract development in calves. Holstein bull calves (n = 45) were raised on an intensified nursing program using milk replacer containing 28.0% CP and 15.0% fat, and were fed a texturized calf starter containing 0 (control), 5.0 (LAC5), or 10.0% (LAC10; n = 15 for each treatment) lactose on a DM basis. Lactose was included in the starter by partially replacing dry ground corn in pelleted portion of the starter...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884612/conjugation-with-20%C3%A2-kda-dextran-decreases-the-autoxidation-rate-of-bovine-hemoglobin
#14
Jun Zhang, Ying Wang, Guo-Xing You, Quan Wang, Shan Zhang, Wei-Li Yu, Tao Hu, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
Haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC) is highly susceptible to autoxidation that renders a series of tissue and cellular toxicities. HBOC is prepared by chemical modification of haemoglobin (Hb), which typically increases the autoxidation rate of Hb. Thus, it is necessary to decrease the autoxidation of HBOC. In the present study, two dextran-bHb conjugates (dex20-bHb and dex40-bHb) were prepared by conjugation with 20 kDa or 40 kDa dextrans, where the thiol group of Cys-93(β) was reversibly protected...
September 8, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836226/the-ketone-body-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-does-not-inhibit-synuclein-mediated-inflammasome-activation-in-microglia
#15
Vandana Deora, Eduardo A Albornoz, Kevin Zhu, Trent M Woodruff, Richard Gordon
Parkinson's disease (PD) is recognized as the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and results in debilitating motor deficits. The accumulation and spread of neurotoxic synuclein aggregates in the form of Lewy bodies is a key pathological feature of PD. Chronic activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by protein aggregates is emerging as a major pathogenic mechanism in progressive neurodegenerative disorders and is considered an important therapeutic target. Recently the ketone body, β-hydroxy butyrate (BHB), was shown to efficiently inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages, and in vivo models of inflammatory disease...
December 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826372/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-a-signaling-metabolite
#16
REVIEW
John C Newman, Eric Verdin
Various mechanisms in the mammalian body provide resilience against food deprivation and dietary stress. The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is synthesized in the liver from fatty acids and represents an essential carrier of energy from the liver to peripheral tissues when the supply of glucose is too low for the body's energetic needs, such as during periods of prolonged exercise, starvation, or absence of dietary carbohydrates. In addition to its activity as an energetic metabolite, BHB is increasingly understood to have cellular signaling functions...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794421/beta-hydroxybutyrate-an-endogenic-nlrp3-inflammasome-inhibitor-attenuates-stress-induced-behavioral-and-inflammatory-responses
#17
Takehiko Yamanashi, Masaaki Iwata, Naho Kamiya, Kyohei Tsunetomi, Naofumi Kajitani, Nodoka Wada, Takahiro Iitsuka, Takahira Yamauchi, Akihiko Miura, Shenghong Pu, Yukihiko Shirayama, Ken Watanabe, Ronald S Duman, Koichi Kaneko
Neuro-inflammation has been shown to play a critical role in the development of depression. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is a ketone body and has recently been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Here, we investigated the potential antidepressant and anti-inflammatory effects of BHB on rats exposed to acute and chronic stress. We examined the influence of repeated BHB administration on depressive and anxiety behaviors in a rodent model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780692/factors-influencing-adsorption-and-desorption-of-trimethoprim-on-marine-sediments-mechanisms-and-kinetics
#18
Jia Li, Hua Zhang
Adsorption-desorption behavior of ionic antibiotics in natural aquatic environment is complex, especially in coastal or estuary area where influencing factors such as pH and salinity usually varied in a wide range. In this study, batch-type and stirred flow chamber (SFC) experiments were carried out to simulate the sorption-desorption behavior of trimethoprim (TMP) in seawater-sediment system. Equilibrium and kinetic modeling were carried out to determine the rate and extent of TMP sorption on two marine sediments with different properties...
September 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780460/nanoscale-trifunctional-bovine-hemoglobin-for-fabricating-molecularly-imprinted-polydopamine-via-pickering-emulsions-hydrogels-polymerization
#19
Yanhua Sun, Shian Zhong
In this work, a novel strategy was developed for the selective recognition of protein based on oil-in-water Pickering emulsions-hydrogels polymerization and interfacial imprinting method. For the first time, nanoscale trifunctional bovine hemoglobin (BHb) played three roles simultaneously during the process, including emulsifier, template protein and sacrificial material for further exposing recognition sites. Prior to acting as stabilizers, bovine hemoglobin colloidal particles (BCPs) were firstly prepared by acidification and heat denaturation...
July 29, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760665/metritis-vaccination-in-holstein-dairy-heifers-using-a-herd-specific-multivalent-vaccine-effects-on-uterine-health-and-fertility-in-first-lactation
#20
M Freick, A Kunze, O Passarge, J Weber, S Geidel
In cattle, acute puerperal metritis (APM) compromises animal welfare and has an economic impact to the farmer because of the detrimental effects on reproductive performance, milk production, and survivability. The aim of this randomized clinical study was to investigate the effects of a prepartum immunization using a herd-specific multivalent vaccine on incidence of APM, prevalence of clinical endometritis (CE), and selected measures of reproductive performance in primiparous Holstein cows. Pregnant nulliparous cows (230±4days of gestation) assigned to the vaccinated group (VG; n=142) received subcutaneously 5...
July 22, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
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