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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325899/do-ketone-bodies-mediate-the-anti-seizure-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet
#1
REVIEW
Timothy A Simeone, Kristina A Simeone, Carl E Stafstrom, Jong M Rho
Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-seizure effects of the high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) remain unclear, a long-standing question has been whether ketone bodies (i.e., beta-hydroxybutyrate [BHB], acetoacetate [ACA] and acetone), either alone or in combination, contribute mechanistically. The traditional belief has been that while ketone bodies reflect enhanced fatty acid oxidation and a general shift toward intermediary metabolism, they are not likely to be the key mediators of the KD's clinical effects, as blood levels of BHB do not correlate consistently with improved seizure control...
January 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290445/predicting-hyperketonemia-by-logistic-and-linear-regression-using-test-day-milk-and-performance-variables-in-early-lactation-holstein-and-jersey-cows
#2
T L Chandler, R S Pralle, J R R Dórea, S E Poock, G R Oetzel, R H Fourdraine, H M White
Although cowside testing strategies for diagnosing hyperketonemia (HYK) are available, many are labor intensive and costly, and some lack sufficient accuracy. Predicting milk ketone bodies by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry during routine milk sampling may offer a more practical monitoring strategy. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop linear and logistic regression models using all available test-day milk and performance variables for predicting HYK and (2) compare prediction methods (Fourier transform infrared milk ketone bodies, linear regression models, and logistic regression models) to determine which is the most predictive of HYK...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283978/review-hibernation-based-approaches-in-the-treatment-of-hemorrhagic-shock
#3
Andrea Wolf, Elizabeth R Lusczek, Gregory J Beilman
Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of preventable death after trauma. Hibernation-based treatment approaches have been of increasing interest for various biomedical applications. Due to apparent similarities in tissue perfusion and metabolic activity between severe blood loss and the hibernating state, hibernation-based approaches have also emerged for the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Research has shown that hibernators are protected from shock-induced injury and inflammation. Utilizing the adaptive mechanisms that prevent injury in these animals may help alleviate the detrimental effects of hemorrhagic shock in non-hibernating species...
December 27, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274369/development-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-novel-lyophilized-formulation-for-the-treatment-of-hemorrhagic-shock
#4
Seema Thakral, Andrea Wolf, Gregory J Beilman, Raj Suryanarayanan
Hemorrhagic shock, caused by trauma, is a leading cause of preventable death. A combination treatment of D-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and melatonin (MLT), in dimethyl sulfoxide - water, increased survival. A freeze-dried BHB -MLT formulation, with a short reconstitution time, has been developed. This intravenous formulation, prepared with an aqueous vehicle, completely eliminated dimethyl sulfoxide, thereby avoiding the potential problems associated with this solvent. The poor aqueous solubility of MLT necessitated the use of polyvinylpyrrolidine (PVP) as a complexing agent...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260852/targeting-the-prion-like-aggregation-of-mutant-p53-to-combat-cancer
#5
Jerson L Silva, Elio A Cino, Iaci N Soares, Vitor F Ferreira, Guilherme A P de Oliveira
Prion-like behavior of several amyloidogenic proteins has been demonstrated in recent years. Despite having functional roles in some cases, irregular aggregation can have devastating consequences. The most commonly known amyloid diseases are Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). The pathophysiology of prion-like diseases involves the structural transformation of wild-type (wt) proteins to transmissible forms that can convert healthy proteins, generating aggregates. The mutant form of tumor suppressor protein, p53, has recently been shown to exhibit prion-like properties...
December 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248218/diagnostic-performance-of-cytology-for-assessment-of-hepatic-lipid-content-in-dairy-cattle
#6
M M Fry, B Yao, C Ríos, C Wong, S Mann, J A A McArt, D V Nydam, F A Leal Yepes, L Viesselmann, A Geick, K Goldin, A Jordan, E Behling-Kelly
The objective of our study was to characterize the diagnostic performance of cytology for assessing hepatic lipid content (HLC) in dairy cows by comparing microscopic evaluation of lipid vacuolation in touch imprint slide preparations of liver biopsies with quantitative measurement of triglyceride concentration ([TG]; mg/mg of wet weight) in paired biopsy samples. Our study also sought to compare the diagnostic performance of liver cytology, plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration ([NEFA]), and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration ([BHB]) derived from a measurement performed on whole blood, for assessing HLC...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224877/effects-of-early-postpartum-sodium-salicylate-treatment-on-long-term-milk-intake-and-blood-parameters-of-dairy-cows
#7
A J Carpenter, C M Ylioja, L K Mamedova, K E Olagaray, B J Bradford
Previous research has shown that cows who receive treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after calving may have increased milk yield beginning near peak lactation, resulting in greater 305-d milk production. It has not been demonstrated whether this response is associated with greater feed intake following the first 3 wk of lactation. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield were measured daily for 56 cows over the first 120 d in milk. Cows in their second parity and greater were blocked by parity and alternately enrolled 12 to 36 h after calving into 1 of 2 treatments: either 3 daily drenches of water or 3 daily drenches of a similar volume of water containing 125 g of sodium salicylate (SAL) beginning 12 to 36 h after calving...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224868/technical-note-validation-of-the-bhbcheck-blood-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-meter-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-hyperketonemia-in-dairy-cows
#8
K J Sailer, R S Pralle, R C Oliveira, S J Erb, G R Oetzel, H M White
Accurate cow-side blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) detection meters are valuable tools for rapid diagnosis of hyperketonemia. The main objective of this study was to compare the blood BHB measured in whole blood by the BHBCheck meter (PortaCheck, Moorestown, NJ) to a previously validated meter, Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) and a colorimetric laboratory assay. Samples (n = 426) were collected from postpartum primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows (n = 79 cows) enrolled in 1 of 2 experiments (Exp) with different sampling schedules (Exp 1: n = 39 cows, 58 samples; Exp 2: n = 40 cows, 368 samples)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187245/d-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-melatonin-for-treatment-of-porcine-hemorrhagic-shock-and-injury-a-melatonin-dose-ranging-study
#9
Andrea Wolf, Kristine E Mulier, Sydne L Muratore, Gregory J Beilman
OBJECTIVE: Treatment with a combination of D-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and melatonin (M) improves survival in hemorrhagic shock models. Our objective was to find the most effective melatonin concentration in combination with 4 molar BHB (4 M BHB). Survival and markers of organ injury were analyzed in pigs exposed to pulmonary contusion, liver crush injury, and hemorrhagic shock and treated with lactated Ringer's solution; 4 M BHB/43 mM M; 4 M BHB/20 mM M; 4 M BHB/10 mM M; 4 M BHB/4...
November 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178459/inflammatory-and-metabolic-responses-to-an-intramammary-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-early-lactating-cows-supplemented-with-conjugated-linoleic-acid
#10
J J Gross, L Grossen-Rösti, R Héritier, A Tröscher, R M Bruckmaier
Supplementation of dairy cows with trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) allows nutrient repartitioning despite an energy deficiency in early lactation, which might be a benefit for the immune system, too. In this study, we investigated potential nutrient sparing effects of CLA in early lactating cows with low plasma glucose concentrations exposed to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows were exposed to an intramammary LPS challenge in week 4 p.p. Eight cows (CLA) were supplemented daily with 70 g of lipid-encapsulated CLA (6...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166271/beta-hydroxybutyrate-in-milk-as-screening-test-for-subclinical-ketosis-in-dairy-cows
#11
J Ježek, M R Cincović, M Nemec, B Belić, R Djoković, M Klinkon, J Starič
Ketosis is a very frequent metabolic disease in dairy cows, resulting in lower milk production, impaired fertility and increased frequency of other diseases. The course of the disease is often subclinical, so early detection is very important. The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between the concentration of beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood and milk and to determine the cut-off value in milk for detection of subclinical ketosis. The study included 94 cows, which were in the first third of lactation...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139146/effects-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitor-velagliflozin-a-new-drug-with-therapeutic-potential-to-treat-diabetes-in-cats
#12
M Hoenig, M Clark, D J Schaeffer, D Reiche
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are used in the treatment of human diabetics. They increase glucose excretion and correct hyperglycemia. We examined the investigational SGLT2 inhibitor velagliflozin in two groups of six neutered adult obese cats (equal gender distribution). Placebo (Pl) or drug (D; 1 mg/kg) was administered for 35 days. Routine blood examinations, fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucagon, adiponectin, and leptin were measured before and after treatment, also water intake, and urinary electrolytes, glucose, and volume...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110579/effects-of-glyphosate-residues-and-different-concentrate-feed-proportions-on-performance-energy-metabolism-and-health-characteristics-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#13
Karina Schnabel, Rolf Schmitz, Dirk von Soosten, Jana Frahm, Susanne Kersten, Ulrich Meyer, Gerhard Breves, Rudolf Hackenberg, Madeleine Spitzke, Sven Dänicke
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of glyphosate (GL) residues in feedstuffs on performance, energy balance and health-related characteristics of lactating dairy cows fed diets with different concentrate feed proportions. After an adaption period, 64 German Holstein cows (207 ± 49 d in milk; mean ± SD) were assigned to either groups receiving a GL contaminated total mixed ration (TMR) (GL groups) or an uncontaminated TMR (CON groups) during a 16 weeks trial. Contaminated feedstuffs used were legally GL-treated peas and wheat (straw and grain)...
December 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105987/a-ketone-ester-drink-lowers-human-ghrelin-and-appetite
#14
Brianna J Stubbs, Pete J Cox, Rhys D Evans, Malgorzata Cyranka, Kieran Clarke, Heidi de Wet
OBJECTIVE: The ketones d-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate are elevated during prolonged fasting or during a "ketogenic" diet. Although weight loss on a ketogenic diet may be associated with decreased appetite and altered gut hormone levels, it is unknown whether such changes are caused by elevated blood ketones. This study investigated the effects of an exogenous ketone ester (KE) on appetite. METHODS: Following an overnight fast, subjects with normal weight (n = 15) consumed 1...
November 6, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102848/characterization-of-non-covalent-binding-of-6-hydroxyflavone-and-5-7-dihydroxyflavone-with-bovine-hemoglobin-multi-spectroscopic-and-molecular-docking-analyses
#15
Sourav Das, Alka Karn, Rubi Sarmah, Mostofa Ataur Rohman, Sudipta Koley, Pooja Ghosh, Atanu Singha Roy
Flavonoids are biologically imperative compounds used as anti-oxidants, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial agents etc. The current work reports comprehensive binding studies of two important flavonoids, 6-hydroxyflavone and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin) with bovine hemoglobin (BHb) at 298K and 308K, in aqueous medium using UV-vis spectroscopy, steady state fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) measurements, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and molecular docking studies. Both 6-hydroxyflavone and chrysin can quench the intrinsic fluorescence intensity of BHb via static quenching mechanism...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074329/degree-of-ketonaemia-and-its-association-with-insulin-resistance-after-dapagliflozin-treatment-in-type-2-diabetes
#16
S H Min, T J Oh, S-I Baek, D-H Lee, K M Kim, J H Moon, S H Choi, K S Park, H C Jang, S Lim
BACKGROUND: Euglycaemic ketoacidosis has been reported after sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor treatment. However, the degree of ketonaemia and its metabolic effects have not been well investigated. Our study examined the degree of ketonaemia induced by SGLT2 inhibition and its association with metabolic profiles in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Biochemical parameters, including insulin, glucagon, free fatty acid (FFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate (ACA) levels, were measured in 119 T2DM patients after dapagliflozin treatment for>3 months, and compared with a matched control group...
October 23, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068709/altered-patterns-of-early-metabolic-decompensation-in-type-1-diabetes-during-treatment-with-a-sglt2-inhibitor-an-insulin-pump-suspension-study
#17
Neha S Patel, Michelle A Van Name, Eda Cengiz, Lori R Carria, Stuart A Weinzimer, William V Tamborlane, Jennifer L Sherr
BACKGROUND: Enthusiasm for the benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) as an adjunctive treatment in type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been offset by the possible increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Since pump-treated T1D patients are susceptible to DKA due to infusion site problems, this study was undertaken to assess how treatment with SGLT2i affects patterns of early metabolic decompensation following suspension of basal insulin. METHODS: Ten T1D participants (age 19-35 years, duration 10 ± 8 years, A1c 7...
November 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058362/the-ketone-body-metabolite-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-induces-an-antidepression-associated-ramification-of-microglia-via-hdacs-inhibition-triggered-akt-small-rhogtpase-activation
#18
Chao Huang, Peng Wang, Xing Xu, Yaru Zhang, Yu Gong, Wenfeng Hu, Minhui Gao, Yue Wu, Yong Ling, Xi Zhao, Yibin Qin, Rongrong Yang, Wei Zhang
Direct induction of macrophage ramification has been shown to promote an alternative (M2) polarization, suggesting that the ramified morphology may determine the function of immune cells. The ketone body metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) elevated in conditions including fasting and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) can reduce neuroinflammation. However, how exactly BHB impacts microglia remains unclear. We report that BHB as well as its producing stimuli fasting and KD induced obvious ramifications of murine microglia in basal and inflammatory conditions in a reversible manner, and these ramifications were accompanied with microglial profile toward M2 polarization and phagocytosis...
October 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040389/the-anti-epileptic-ketogenic-diet-alters-hippocampal-transporter-levels-and-reduces-adiposity-in-aged-rats
#19
Abbi R Hernandez, Caesar M Hernandez, Keila T Campos, Leah M Truckenbrod, Yasemin Sakarya, Joseph A McQuail Ph D, Christy S Carter, Jennifer L Bizon, Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke
Nutritional ketosis is induced by high fat/low carbohydrate dietary regimens, which produce high levels of circulating ketone bodies, shifting metabolism away from glucose utilization. While ketogenic diets (KD) were initially introduced to suppress seizures, they are garnering attention for their potential to treat a myriad of neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders that are associated with advanced age. The feasibility and physiological impact of implementing a long-term KD in old animals, however, has not been systematically examined...
October 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993582/a-study-of-electrochemical-sensor-based-on-bhb-imprinted-magnetic-nanoparticles
#20
Yanxia Li, Lu Huang, Xiuping Wang, Yiting Chen
A study of an electrochemical sensor based on bovine hemoglobin (BHb) imprinted magnetic nanoparticles (MIPs) was investigated. First, BHb MIPs were successfully synthesized with magnetic Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles as carrier by surface modification of mercapto propionic acid for introducing carboxyl groups, combined with dopamine as the functional monomer and BHb as the template protein. Then, the MIPs were modified to the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for electrochemical analysis by using cyclic voltammetry in the potassium ferricyanide solution...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
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