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Yuxiang Song, Na Li, Jingmin Gu, Shoupeng Fu, Zhicheng Peng, Chenxu Zhao, Yuming Zhang, Xiaobing Li, Zhe Wang, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is an important indicator for metabolic disorders in dairy cows, such as ketosis and fatty liver. Dairy cows with ketosis display oxidative stress that may be associated with high levels of BHB. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a correlation between the high levels of BHB and oxidative stress in dairy cows with ketosis, and to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative damage in bovine hepatocytes. The results showed that dairy cows with ketosis exhibited oxidative stress and liver damage, which was significantly correlated with plasma BHB...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
S Ollier, F Beaudoin, N Vanacker, P Lacasse
When cows are unable to consume enough feed to support milk production, they often fall into severe negative energy balance. This leads to a weakened immune system and increases their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Reducing the milk production of cows subjected to acute nutritional stress decreases their energy deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on metabolism and immune function of reducing milk production using quinagolide (a prolactin-release inhibitor) or dexamethasone in feed-restricted cows...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Yuqing Yin, Chen Ling Gao, Qi Xiao, Guo Lin, Zian Lin, Zongwei Cai, Huang-Hao Yang
Artificial enzyme mimetics have received considerable attention because natural enzymes have some significant drawbacks, including enzyme autolysis, low catalytic activity, poor recovery and low stability to environmental changes. Herein, we demonstrated a facile approach for one-pot synthesis of hemeprotein-metal organic framework hybrid composites (H-MOFs) by using bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as a model reaction system. Surprisingly, the new hybrid composites exhibits 423% increase in peroxidase-like catalytic activity compared to free BHb...
October 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ying Wang, Linli Wang, Weili Yu, Dawei Gao, Guoxing You, Penglong Li, Shan Zhang, Jun Zhang, Tao Hu, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
Hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have been used as blood substitutes in surgery medicine and oxygen therapeutics for ischemic stroke. As a potent HBOC, the PEGylated Hb has received much attention for its oxygen delivery and plasma expanding ability. Two PEGylated Hbs, Euro-Hb and MP4 have been developed for clinical trials, using human adult hemoglobin (HbA) as the original substrate. However, HbA was obtained from outdated human blood and its quantity available from this source may not be sufficient for mass production of PEGylated HbA...
October 3, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Katrin Wilhelm, Jürgen Wilhelm, Manfred Fürll
The present study investigated whether changes of energy metabolism post-partum (pp) are associated with claw health. For this purpose, back-fat-thickness (BFT) was measured and blood samples were taken from 146 cows at four examination times. The serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose were measured. Furthermore, in the first week postpartum (pp) and at 8 weeks pp, a claw trimming was done and the presence and extent of sole haemorrhages (SH) was recorded. Animals with high BFT at calving and therefore high fat mobilisation and whose FFA and BHB levels in the first week pp exceeded the reference values had fewer pathological changes of the claws than thinner animals whose FFA and BHB levels stayed within reference ranges...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Vittal Shivva, Ian G Tucker, Stephen B Duffull
Gastrointestinal absorption and disposition of ketones is complex. Recent work describing the pharmacokinetics (PK) of d-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) following oral ingestion of a ketone monoester ((R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate) found multiple input sites, nonlinear disposition and feedback on endogenous production. In the current work, a human systems pharmacology model for gastrointestinal absorption and subsequent disposition of small molecules (monocarboxylic acids with molecular weight < 200 Da) was developed with an application to a ketone monoester...
2016: PloS One
Z Zhou, M Vailati-Riboni, E Trevisi, J K Drackley, D N Luchini, J J Loor
The onset of lactation in dairy cows is characterized by high output of methylated compounds in milk when sources of methyl group are in short supply. Methionine and choline (CHOL) are key methyl donors and their availability during this time may be limiting for milk production, hepatic lipid metabolism, and immune function. Supplementing rumen-protected Met and CHOL may improve overall performance and health of transition cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental rumen-protected Met and CHOL on performance and health of transition cows...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Elise H Tatone, Todd F Duffield, Michael B Capel, Trevor J DeVries, Stephen J LeBlanc, Jessica L Gordon
Treatment of hyperketonemia with oral propylene glycol has proven efficacy but the cure rate remains moderate. Dexamethasone has long been suggested as a treatment for hyperketonemia, even though evidence of its efficacy is contradictory. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of adding a single intramuscular injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone to oral propylene glycol therapy for hyperketonemia [blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1.2 mmol/L]. All cows between 3 and 16 d in milk on 4 dairy farms in New York State were tested once weekly for hyperketonemia using a handheld ketone meter...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
R M do Prado, M F Palin, I N do Prado, G T Dos Santos, C Benchaar, H V Petit
The response of transition dairy cows to dietary supplementation with fat sources of various fatty acid profiles could affect hepatic fat metabolism differently. Twenty-eight Holstein cows were blocked for similar calving date 4 wk before expected parturition to compare the effects of feeding sources of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on milk production and composition, plasma metabolites, and liver parameters. Cows within each block were assigned to 1 of 3 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets: control with a source of calcium salts of palm oil (MEG; 1...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
V Tsiamadis, G Banos, N Panousis, M Kritsepi-Konstantinou, G Arsenos, G E Valergakis
The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic parameters of subclinical disorders associated with subclinical hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, subclinical hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia, as well as major clinical diseases after calving in Holstein cows. The secondary objective was to estimate the associated genetic and phenotypic correlations among these subclinical and clinical conditions after calving in Holstein cows. The study was conducted in 9 dairy herds located in Northern Greece...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
R Daetz, F Cunha, J H Bittar, C A Risco, F Magalhaes, Y Maeda, J E P Santos, K C Jeong, R F Cooke, K N Galvão
The objectives were to evaluate the clinical response to intrauterine administration of chitosan microparticles (CM) and to assess efficacy for preventing metritis in dairy cows. Holstein cows (n = 104; 40 primiparous and 64 multiparous) at increased risk for metritis (cows that had abortion, dystocia, twins, stillbirth, or retained placenta) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments at 1 d in milk (DIM; 24 h postpartum): CM group (n = 52), daily intrauterine infusion of 8 g of CM dissolved in 40 mL of sterile water for 5 d; control (CON) group (n = 52), daily intrauterine infusion of 40 mL of sterile water for 5 d...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Qian Wen, Yuzhi Wang, Kaijia Xu, Na Li, Hongmei Zhang, Qin Yang, Yigang Zhou
Amino functional dicationic ionic liquid (AFDCIL) was prepared and then coated on the surface of magnetic graphene oxide (GO) as a new magnetic adsorbent (Fe@GO@AFDCIL) for the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of protein. The Fe@GO@AFDCIL composite was characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and zeta-potential nanoparticles. The bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was used as the analyte, and the extraction performance of Fe@GO@AFDCIL was investigated in the MSPE procedure...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
S Bühler, J Frahm, R Tienken, S Kersten, U Meyer, K Huber, S Dänicke
The periparturient period of dairy cows is accompanied by an immunosuppression that leaves the animal more susceptible to infections and metabolic disorders. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) which peak shortly after parturition due to lipolysis are known to impair immune cell functions. Niacin with its well-known anti-lipolytic effect may have the ability to ameliorate this situation. Additionally, niacin shows also anti-inflammatory effects that may be beneficial to the immune status of the cow...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Jia Li, Hua Zhang
To reveal the kinetics and mechanisms of antibiotic adsorption/desorption processes, batch and stirred flow chamber (SFC) experiments were carried out with oxytetracycline (OTC) on two marine sediments. The OTC adsorption capacities of the marine sediments were relatively weak and related to their organic carbon (OC) and contents of fine particles. Sorption isotherms of OTC on marine sediment can be well described by both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Langmuir adsorption maxima (qmax) and Freundlich distribution coefficients (Kf) increased with the decrease of salinity and pH, which indicated the importance of variable charged sites on sediment surfaces...
December 2016: Chemosphere
K D Bach, W Heuwieser, J A A McArt
The objective of this study was to evaluate 4 handheld ketone meters for use in on-farm β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) monitoring of hyperketonemia in transition dairy cows. Blood samples taken from 250 Holstein cows between 262 d pregnant and 15 d in milk were evaluated on 4 different handheld ketone meters: Precision Xtra (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL), TaiDoc (Pharmadoc, Lüdersdorf, Germany), Nova Max (Nova Biomedical, Billerica, MA), and Nova Vet (Nova Biomedical). Samples were screened using the Precision Xtra and tested on the remaining 3 m if the sample BHB concentration fell into predetermined ranges...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
H Amanlou, A P Akbari, N E Farsuni, N Silva-Del-Río
The objective of this study was to determine effects of subcutaneous (s.c.) infusions of Ca at calving day on serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, body condition score (BCS), milk yield, and health in fresh cows receiving a dietary cation-anion difference diet during the dry period. Three hundred seventy-five fresh Holstein cows were blocked based on parity (143 cows in first parity, 108 cows in second parity, and 124 cows in third or greater parity) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments immediately after calving...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Yanjin Liu, Yuzhi Wang, Qingzhou Dai, Yigang Zhou
A novel and facile magnetic deep eutectic solvents (DES) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective recognition and separation of Bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was prepared. The new-type DES was adopted as the functional monomer which would bring molecular imprinted technology to a new direction. The amounts of DES were optimized. The obtained magnetic DES-MIPs were characterized with fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), elemental analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)...
September 14, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
D E Santschi, R Lacroix, J Durocher, M Duplessis, R K Moore, D M Lefebvre
The purpose was to describe the prevalence and effect of elevated milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as detected by routine Fourier-transform infrared analysis in Dairy Herd Improvement milk samples. Data collected over 4 yr included cow information as well as milk yield and composition from 498,310 samples from postparturient Holstein cows (5-35 d in milk) from 4,242 herds. The following thresholds were used to classify cows based on their early lactation milk BHB concentration: <0.15 mmol/L = negative; 0.15 to 0...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Yanwei Zhang, Min Zhang, Jinbo Yang, Lei Ding, Jing Zheng, Jingli Xu, Shenglin Xiong
In this paper, we have developed an extended Stöber method to construct a Ni(2+)-polydopamine (PDA) complex thin coating on Fe3O4@SiO2 spheres, which can be carbonized to produce hybrid composites with metallic nickel nanoparticles embedded in a PDA-derived thin graphitic carbon layer (named Fe3O4@SiO2@C/Ni). Interestingly, by introducing a thin SiO2 spacer layer between PDA-Ni(2+) and Fe3O4, the reverse electron transfer from PDA to Fe3O4 is probably able to be suppressed in the calcination process, which leads to the in situ reduction of only Ni(2+) by PDA instead of Fe3O4 and Ni(2+)...
September 21, 2016: Nanoscale
A Pilotto, G Savoini, A Baldi, G Invernizzi, C De Vecchi, G Theodorou, P Koutsouli, I Politis
The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between blood concentrations of fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and α-tocopherol during the periparturient period in dairy cows. Blood samples were collected from 131 cows belonging to 4 different commercial dairy farms in southeastern Europe (Greece and Italy). We determined blood concentrations of fatty acids, BHB, and α-tocopherol at dry-off, at calving, and 30d postpartum. Results indicated that fatty acid concentrations were low at dry-off, reached maximum value at calving, and then declined at 30d postpartum...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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