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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508489/prediction-of-whole-genome-risk-for-selection-and-management-of-hyperketonemia-in-holstein-dairy-cattle
#1
K A Weigel, R S Pralle, H Adams, K Cho, C Do, H M White
Hyperketonemia (HYK), a common early postpartum health disorder characterized by elevated blood concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), affects millions of dairy cows worldwide and leads to significant economic losses and animal welfare concerns. In this study, blood concentrations of BHB were assessed for 1,453 Holstein cows using electronic handheld meters at four time points between 5 and 18 days postpartum. Incidence rates of subclinical (1.2 ≤ maximum BHB ≤ 2.9 mmol/L) and clinical ketosis (maximum BHB ≥ 3...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504317/adrenal-cortex-reactivity-in-dairy-cows-differs-between-lactational-stages-and-between-different-feeding-levels
#2
J J Gross, R S Zbinden, F Dohme-Meier, R M Bruckmaier
Changes in ACTH challenge test characteristics in dairy cows changing their physiological status at different lactational stages and different feeding levels were not investigated in terms of repeatability yet. In 23 multiparous Holstein cows (10 cows fed a sole fresh herbage diet without concentrate, 13 cows fed with concentrate), three ACTH challenge tests were performed: once during pregnancy shortly prior to drying off (T1), and in week 3 (T2) and 8 (T3) after parturition. Test characteristics were correlated to performance and metabolic parameters: DMI, BW, energy balance (EB), plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501411/short-communication-associations-between-blood-glucose-concentration-onset-of-hyperketonemia-and-milk-production-in-early-lactation-dairy-cows
#3
J Ruoff, S Borchardt, W Heuwieser
The objectives of this study were to describe the associations between hypoglycemia and the onset of hyperketonemia (HYK) within the first 6 wk of lactation, to evaluate the effects of body condition score at calving on glucose concentration, and to study the effects of hypoglycemia on milk production. A total of 621 dairy cows from 6 commercial dairy farms in Germany were enrolled between 1 and 4 d in milk (DIM). Cows were tested twice weekly using an electronic handheld meter for glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), respectively, for a period of 42 d...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489728/novel-adjunct-drugs-reverse-endothelial-glycocalyx-damage-after-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#4
Ivo P Torres Filho, Luciana N Torres, Christi Salgado, Michael A Dubick
INTRODUCTION: There is interest in the small-volume therapeutic use of adjunct drugs for treating hemorrhagic shock (HS). However, critical information is only partially available on mechanisms of action of promising compounds such as adenosine-lidocaine-Magnesium (ALM), beta-hydroxybutyrate plus melatonin (BHB/M), and poloxamer 188 (P-188). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that these adjuncts would reverse HS-induced damage to microvascular endothelial glycocalyx and hemodynamics...
May 9, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485837/characterization-of-the-analytic-performance-of-an-electrochemical-point-of-care-meter-for-measuring-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-concentration-in-blood-and-plasma-from-periparturient-dairy-cattle
#5
Ameer A Megahed, Mark W H Hiew, Jonathan R Townsend, Peter D Constable
BACKGROUND: The Precision Xtra electrochemical meter is widely used to measure blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHBb) in dairy cattle. The meter uses an algorithm optimized for human blood that assumes the HCT in cattle is the same as in people, and that intra-erythrocyte β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBe) and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBp) concentration are equivalent. OBJECTIVES: The first objective was to characterize the analytic performance of the meter for measuring BHBb and BHBp in dairy cattle...
May 9, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464111/circulating-beta-hydroxybutyrate-concentration-may-be-a-predictive-measurement-for-young-cows-that-have-a-greater-probability-to-conceive-at-a-fixed-time-artificial-insemination
#6
J D Hobbs, S R Edwards, E R Cope, Z D McFarlane, K G Pohler, J T Mulliniks
Timing of conception, which has been indicated to be negatively influenced by metabolic dysfunctions, can influence lifetime productivity within the cow herd. Therefore, our objective was to analyze the association of milk production, serum metabolites as an indicator of nutrient status, cow BW and BW change, and calf BW with timing of pregnancy in 183 spring-calving beef cows. Cows were retrospectively classified by timing of pregnancy as cows that were diagnosed pregnant by timed AI (TAI; = 118) or natural breeding (NAT; = 65)...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457547/the-effect-of-dry-period-length-and-postpartum-level-of-concentrate-on-milk-production-energy-balance-and-plasma-metabolites-of-dairy-cows-across-the-dry-period-and-in-early-lactation
#7
R J van Hoeij, J Dijkstra, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross, T J G M Lam, G J Remmelink, B Kemp, A T M van Knegsel
Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) improves energy balance (EB) in early lactation because of a reduction in milk yield. Lower milk yield results in lower energy demands and requires less energy intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DP length and concentrate level postpartum on milk yield, feed intake, EB, and plasma metabolites between wk -4 and 7 relative to calving of cows of second parity or higher. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 123) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 DP lengths: 0-d DP (n = 81) or 30-d DP (n = 42)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419943/interconnectivity-of-macroporous-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-fabricated-by-hydroxyapatite-stabilized-pickering-high-internal-phase-emulsions-hydrogels-for-the-selective-recognition-of-protein
#8
Yanhua Sun, Yuqing Li, Jiangfeng Xu, Ling Huang, Tianyun Qiu, Shian Zhong
Hydroxyapatite hybridized molecularly imprinted polydopamine polymers with selective recognition of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) were successfully prepared via Pickering oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions-hydrogels and molecularly imprinting technique. The emulsions were stabilized by hydroxyapatite of which the wettability was modified by 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The materials were characterized by SEM, IR and TGA. The results showed that the BHb imprinted polymers based on Pickering hydrogels (Hydro-MIPs) possess macropores ranging from 20μm to 50μm, and their large numbers of amino groups and hydroxyl groups result in a favorable adsorption capacity for BHb...
April 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397627/influence-of-fumaric-acid-on-ruminal-parameters-and-organ-weights-of-growing-bulls-fed-with-grass-or-maize-silage
#9
N Remling, S Riede, U Meyer, A Beineke, G Breves, G Flachowsky, S Dänicke
The influence of the potential methane reducer, fumaric acid (FA), on ruminal parameters, the rumen wall and organ weights was investigated in a long-term study with growing bulls. In all, 20 bulls were fed with maize or grass silage as roughage, and with concentrate with or without 300 g FA per animal and day during the whole fattening period. After slaughtering, the organs were weighed and blood serum was analysed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acid concentration. The ruminal fluid was analysed for short-chain fatty acids, ammonia-N and the microbial community via single strand conformation polymorphism analysis...
April 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397070/ketone-bodies-as-anti-seizure-agents
#10
Timothy A Simeone, Kristina A Simeone, Jong M Rho
There is growing evidence that ketone bodies (KB)-derived from fatty acid oxidation and produced during fasting or consumption of high-fat diets-can exert broad neuroprotective effects. With respect to epilepsy, KB (such as β-hydroxybutyrate or BHB, acetoacetate and acetone) have been shown to block acutely induced and spontaneous recurrent seizures in various animal models. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-seizure effects of KB have not been fully elucidated, recent experimental studies have invoked ketone-mediated effects on both inhibitory (e...
April 10, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355243/ketogenic-diet-improves-the-spatial-memory-impairment-caused-by-exposure-to-hypobaric-hypoxia-through-increased-acetylation-of-histones-in-rats
#11
Ming Zhao, Xin Huang, Xiang Cheng, Xiao Lin, Tong Zhao, Liying Wu, Xiaodan Yu, Kuiwu Wu, Ming Fan, Lingling Zhu
Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes neuron cell damage, resulting in impaired cognitive function. Effective interventions to antagonize hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory impairment are in urgent need. Ketogenic diet (KD) has been successfully used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and improves cognitive behaviors in epilepsy patients and other pathophysiological animal models. In the present study, we aimed to explore the potential beneficial effects of a KD on memory impairment caused by hypobaric hypoxia and the underlying possible mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346669/evaluation-of-a-point-of-care-electrochemical-meter-to-detect-subclinical-ketosis-and-hypoglycaemia-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#12
A Zakian, M Tehrani-Sharif, M R Mokhber-Dezfouli, M Nouri, P D Constable
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and validate a hand-held electrochemical meter (Precision Xtra®) as a screening test for subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cattle. DESIGN: Method comparison study using a convenience sample. PROCEDURE: Blood samples were collected into plain tubes from the coccygeal vessels of 181 Holstein cows at 2-4 weeks of lactation during summer in Iran. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHB) and glucose concentration were immediately measured by the electrochemical meter after applying 20 μL of blood to the reagent strip...
April 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335557/ros-production-and-erk-activity-are-involved-in-the-effects-of-d-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-metformin-in-a-glucose-deficient-condition
#13
Santosh Lamichhane, Tonking Bastola, Ramesh Pariyar, Eun-Sol Lee, Ho-Sub Lee, Dae Ho Lee, Jungwon Seo
Hypoglycemia, a complication of insulin or sulfonylurea therapy in diabetic patients, leads to brain damage. Furthermore, glucose replenishment following hypoglycemic coma induces neuronal cell death. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying glucose deficiency-induced cytotoxicity and the protective effect of d-β-hydroxybutyrate (D-BHB) using SH-SY5Y cells. The cytotoxic mechanism of metformin under glucose deficiency was also examined. Cell viability under 1 mM glucose (glucose deficiency) was significantly decreased which was accompanied by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase 3 (GSK3β)...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324159/hibernation-based-blood-loss-therapy-increases-survivability-of-lethal-hemorrhagic-shock-in-rats
#14
Cecilia E Perez de Lara Rodriguez, Lester R Drewes, Matthew T Andrews
A small-volume (1 ml/kg) resuscitation fluid based on metabolic adaptations in hibernating mammals was optimized using a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. A previous study of this therapy tested only one concentration of three specific components: 4 M D-stereoisomer of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), 43 mM melatonin, and 20% DMSO. In this study, we considered the range of concentrations of BHB and melatonin seen during the physiological extremes of rapid arousal from hypothermic torpor in natural hibernators and applied these to the non-hibernating Sprague-Dawley rat model...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318578/relationships-between-body-condition-score-change-prior-mid-lactation-phenotypic-residual-feed-intake-and-hyperketonemia-onset-in-transition-dairy-cows
#15
Francesca M Rathbun, Ryan S Pralle, Sandra J Bertics, Louis E Armentano, K Cho, C Do, Kent A Weigel, Heather M White
Extensive efforts have been made to identify more feed-efficient dairy cows, yet it is unclear how selection for feed efficiency will influence metabolic health. The objectives of this research were to determine the relationships between residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, body condition score (BCS) change, and hyperketonemia (HYK) incidence. Blood and milk samples were collected twice weekly from cows 5 to 18 d postcalving for a total of 4 samples. Hyperketonemia was diagnosed at a blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259407/randomized-clinical-field-trial-on-the-effects-of-butaphosphan-cyanocobalamin-and-propylene-glycol-on-ketosis-resolution-and-milk-production
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
J L Gordon, S J LeBlanc, D F Kelton, T H Herdt, L Neuder, T F Duffield
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a butaphosphan-cyanocobalamin combination product (B+C) and 2 durations of propylene glycol treatment (PG; 3 versus 5 d) on ketosis resolution and early lactation milk yield. Cows from 9 freestall herds (8 in Ontario and 1 in Michigan) were tested at weekly intervals between 3 and 16 d in milk. Ketosis was defined as blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1.2 mmol/L. Ketotic cows were randomly assigned to treatment with 25 mL of B+C or 25 mL of saline placebo for 3 d and 3 or 5 d of 300 g of PG orally in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257874/elevated-non-esterified-fatty-acid-and-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-in-transition-dairy-cows-and-their-association-with-reproductive-performance-and-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#17
Amine Abdelli, Didier Raboisson, Rachid Kaidi, Belabdi Ibrahim, Amer Kalem, Mokrane Iguer-Ouada
A meta-analysis including 36 different results of statistic models from 14 papers was conducted. It evaluated the association between elevated non-esterified fatty acids and/or β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on the reproduction outcomes that were pregnancy at first insemination, estrous cyclicity, time to pregnancy, metritis and placental retention. Each association between BHB or NEFA and an outcome reported in literature was a model considered as raw-data for the meta-regression. For each outcome, the meta-regression adjusted the odds ratio, relative risk or hazard ratio with various moderators to reduce the heterogeneity among the studies...
April 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249154/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-deactivates-neutrophil-nlrp3-inflammasome-to-relieve-gout-flares
#18
Emily L Goldberg, Jennifer L Asher, Ryan D Molony, Albert C Shaw, Caroline J Zeiss, Chao Wang, Ludmilla A Morozova-Roche, Raimund I Herzog, Akiko Iwasaki, Vishwa Deep Dixit
Aging and lipotoxicity are two major risk factors for gout that are linked by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Neutrophil-mediated production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) drives gouty flares that cause joint destruction, intense pain, and fever. However, metabolites that impact neutrophil inflammasome remain unknown. Here, we identified that ketogenic diet (KD) increases β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and alleviates urate crystal-induced gout without impairing immune defense against bacterial infection. BHB inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome in S100A9 fibril-primed and urate crystal-activated macrophages, which serve to recruit inflammatory neutrophils in joints...
February 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215889/effects-of-a-combination-butaphosphan-and-cyanocobalamin-product-and-insulin-on-ketosis-resolution-and-milk-production
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
J L Gordon, T F Duffield, T H Herdt, D F Kelton, L Neuder, S J LeBlanc
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of butaphosphan-cyanocobalamin (B+C), glargine insulin, and propylene glycol on resolution of ketosis and average daily milk yield after treatment. Cows from 16 herds in Ontario, Canada, and 1 herd in Michigan were tested at weekly intervals between 3 and 16 DIM. Ketosis was defined as blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1.2 mmol/L. All ketotic cows were given a baseline treatment of 3 d of 300 g of propylene glycol orally. Animals were then randomly assigned to treatment with 3 doses of either 25 mL of B+C or 25 mL of saline placebo and 1 dose of either 2 mL (200 IU) of glargine insulin or 2 mL of saline placebo in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
April 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215216/effect-of-milk-replacer-and-concentrate-intake-on-growth-rate-feeding-behaviour-and-systemic-metabolite-concentrations-of-pre-weaned-bull-calves-of-two-dairy-breeds
#20
C J Byrne, S Fair, A M English, D Johnston, P Lonergan, D A Kenny
Early-life nutrition affects calf development and thus subsequent performance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect plane of nutrition on growth, feeding behaviour and systemic metabolite concentrations of artificially reared dairy bull calves. Holstein-Friesian (F; n=42) and Jersey (J; n=25) bull calves with a mean±SD age (14±4.7 v. 27±7.2 days) and BW (47±5.5 v. 33±4.7 kg) were offered a high, medium or low plane of nutrition for 8 weeks using an electronic feeding system which recorded a range of feed-related events...
February 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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