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Wen-Xu Hong, Fengwen Huang, Tianwen Huan, Xu Xu, Qingguo Han, Gaofeng Wang, Hong Xu, Shan Duan, Yongheng Duan, Xun Long, Ying Liu, Zhangli Hu
A pair of ruthenium(II) complex enantiomers, Δ- and Λ-[Ru(bpy)2PBIP]2+ {bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, PBIP=2-(4-bromophenyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline} have been synthesized and characterized. The systematic comparative studies between two enantiomers on their DNA binding-behaviors with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) were carried out by viscosity measurements, spectrophotometric methods and molecular simulation technology. Additional assays were performed to explore the cytotoxicity of the ruthenium(II) enantiomers against tumor cell lines...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
R L Yang, Y P Zheng, T Y Wang, P P Li, Y D Wang, D D Yao, L X Chen
A series of core/shell nanoparticle organic/inorganic hybrid materials (NOHMs) with different weight ratios of two components, consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as the core were synthesized. The NOHMs display a liquid-like state in the absence of solvent at room temperature. Five NOHMs were categorized into three kinds of structure states based on different weight ratio of two components in the core, named the power strip model, the critical model and the collapse model...
December 15, 2017: Nanotechnology
Miwako Kimura, Roger W Chan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the viscoelastic shear properties of the human ventricular fold (or false vocal fold) mucosa and aryepiglottic fold mucosa at frequencies of phonation. METHODS: Linear viscoelastic shear properties of the mucosa of false vocal fold and aryepiglottic fold specimens from seven cadaveric subjects were determined as functions of frequency (5-250 Hz) and compared to those of the true vocal fold cover. Measurements of elastic shear modulus (G') and dynamic viscosity (η') were made with a controlled-strain simple-shear rheometer...
December 15, 2017: Laryngoscope
Deanna Britton, Amy Roeske, Stephanie K Ennis, Joshua O Benditt, Cassie Quinn, Donna Graville
Pulse oximetry is a commonly used means to measure peripheral capillary oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2). Potential use of pulse oximetry to detect aspiration is attractive to clinicians, as it is readily available, quick, and noninvasive. However, research regarding validity has been mixed. This systematic review examining evidence on the use of pulse oximetry to detect a decrease in SpO2 indicating aspiration during swallowing is undertaken to further inform clinical practice in dysphagia assessment. A multi-engine electronic search was conducted on 8/25/16 and updated on 4/8/17 in accordance with standards published by the Preferred Reporting for Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA)...
December 14, 2017: Dysphagia
Guodong Liu, Sijia Fu, Zhaoqing Lu, Meiyun Zhang, Cathy Ridgway, Patrick Gane
The transport of print fluids into paper is directly dependent on the imbibition characteristic of the paper including both the z-, x- and y-directions. As the measurement of free liquid imbibition into the paper thickness (z-direction) is difficult experimentally, due to the thin nature of paper, in this paper we resort to imbibition along the y-direction of paper to analyse and explore the possibility of understanding the mechanistic differences between wicking into uncoated unfilled paper versus that of controllable pigment-filled paper and paper coating...
December 18, 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Thomas Loewe, Ramesh Mundlamuri, Thomas Loewe, Ashok Mundrigi, Sebastian Handt, Bhuwan Singh
Cytotoxic drugs can be encapsulated in liposomes vesicles, which act as drug delivery vehicles and reduce the risk of exposure of drug to healthy cells(1). The sterility of such liposome solutions is typically ensured using 0.2μm rated sterilizing grade membranes, but due to the high viscosity and low surface tension of these formulations, they can cause pre-mature blocking and increased risk of bacterial penetration through a 0.2μm sterilizing grade membrane(2). The low surface tension of liposome solutions affects the contact angle with membrane and reduces bubble point leading to bacterial penetration through the membrane...
December 14, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Wei Zhou, Xiu Zhai, Alireza Ghahari, G Alex Korentis, David Kaputa, John D Enderle
A linear homeomorphic saccade model that produces 3D saccadic eye movements consistent with physiological and anatomical evidence is introduced. Central to the model is the implementation of a time-optimal controller with six linear muscles and pulleys that represent the saccade oculomotor plant. Each muscle is modeled as a parallel combination of viscosity [Formula: see text] and series elasticity [Formula: see text] connected to the parallel combination of active-state tension generator [Formula: see text], viscosity element [Formula: see text], and length tension elastic element [Formula: see text]...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
Lelia Cosimbescu, Nick Demas, Joshua W Robinson, Robert A Erck
Nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds were designed empirically and subsequently synthesized, and their rheology, friction and wear performance as multifunctional base oils (MFBOs) was evaluated. Two of the compounds displayed good viscosity/rheology profile without the addition of polymeric viscosity modifiers, displaying high viscosity indexes (VI) above 200. Furthermore, all three MFBOs had lower coefficients of friction compared to well established and accepted benchmarks. The most significant advancement is their impressive wear improvement, by a factor of 5...
December 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wei Hong, Jing Zhou, Mandakini Kanungo, Nancy Jia, Anthony D Dinsmore
This work describes a novel, rapid method to fabricate high resolution paper-based microfluidic devices using wax-ink based printing. This study demonstrates that both temperature and pressure are important knobs in controlling the device resolution. High resolution lines and patterns were obtained by heating the paper asymmetrically from one side up to 110 ℃ while applying pressure up to 49 kPa. Starting with wax lines with an initial width of 130 µm, we achieve a thorough penetration through 190 µm-thick paper with lateral spreading on the front as narrow as 90 µm...
December 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sepideh Khodaparast, Omer Atasi, Antoine Deblais, Benoit Scheid, Howard A Stone
As an air bubble translates in a microchannel, a thin film of liquid is formed on the bounding walls. In a microchannel with a rectangular cross section, the liquid in the film leaks towards the low-pressure corners of the geometry, which leads to the appearance of local minima in the film thickness in the cross-sectional plane. In such a configuration, theory suggests that the minimum film thickness scales with Ca and Ca(4/3) depending on the distance from the nose of the bubble, where Ca = μUb/γ is the flow capillary number based on the bubble velocity Ub, liquid viscosity μ and surface tension γ...
December 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Morton M Denn, Jeffrey F Morris, Daniel Bonn
Shear thickening is a phenomenon in which the viscosity of a suspension increases with increasing stress or shear rate, sometimes in a discontinuous fashion. While the phenomenon, when observed in suspensions of corn starch in water, or Oobleck, is popular as a science experiment for children, shear thickening is actually of considerable importance for technological applications and exhibited by far simpler systems. Concentrated suspensions of smooth hard spheres will exhibit shear thickening, and understanding this behavior has required a fundamental change in the paradigm of describing low-Reynolds-number solid-fluid flows, in which contact forces have traditionally been absent...
December 14, 2017: Soft Matter
Nikhil Desai, Vaseem A Shaik, Arezoo M Ardekani
In this paper, we investigate the swimming characteristics and dynamics of a model micro-swimmer in the vicinity of a clean drop, and of a surfactant covered drop. We model the swimmer as a force dipole and utilize the image-singularity system to study the dynamical behavior of the swimmer. Motivated by bacterial bio-remediation of insoluble hydrocarbons (HCs) released during oil spills, we report the 'trapping characteristics' - critical trapping radius, basin of attraction and trapping time distribution - of deterministic and stochastic swimmers, as a function of viscosity ratio, and dimensionless surface viscosity...
December 14, 2017: Soft Matter
D Di Genova, S Kolzenburg, S Wiesmaier, E Dallanave, D R Neuville, K U Hess, D B Dingwell
The most viscous volcanic melts and the largest explosive eruptions on our planet consist of calcalkaline rhyolites. These eruptions have the potential to influence global climate. The eruptive products are commonly very crystal-poor and highly degassed, yet the magma is mostly stored as crystal mushes containing small amounts of interstitial melt with elevated water content. It is unclear how magma mushes are mobilized to create large batches of eruptible crystal-free magma. Further, rhyolitic eruptions can switch repeatedly between effusive and explosive eruption styles and this transition is difficult to attribute to the rheological effects of water content or crystallinity...
December 13, 2017: Nature
Timothy S Dunstan, Anupam A K Das, Pierre Starck, Simeon D Stoyanov, Vesselin N Paunov
We demonstrate that capillary suspensions can be formed from hydrophilic calcium carbonate particles suspended in a polar continuous media and connected by capillary bridges formed of minute amounts of an immiscible secondary liquid phase. This was achieved in two different polar continuous phases, water and glycerol, and three different oils, oleic acid, isopropyl myristate, and peppermint oil as a secondary liquid phase. The capillary structuring of the suspension was made possible through local in situ hydrophobization of the calcium carbonate particles dispersed in the polar media by adding very small amounts of oleic acid to the secondary liquid phase...
December 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Umesh Chandra Sharma, Sadhana Sachan, Rakesh Kumar Trivedi
Karanja oil (KO) is widely used for synthesis of bio-fuel karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) due to its competitive price, good energy values and environmentally friendly combustion properties. Bio-lubricant is another value added product that can be synthesized from KO via chemical modification. In this work karanja oil trimethylolpropane ester (KOTMPE) bio-lubricant was synthesized and evaluated for its viscous flow behaviour. A comparison of viscous flow behaviours of natural KO and synthesized bio-fuel KOME and bio-lubricant KOTMPE was also made...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Yasushi Endo
Edible fats and oils are among the basic components of the human diet, along with carbohydrates and proteins, and they are the source of high energy and essential fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acids. Edible fats and oils are used in for pan- and deep-frying, and in salad dressing, mayonnaise and processed foods such as chocolates and cream. The physical and chemical properties of edible fats and oils can affect the quality of oil foods and hence must be evaluated in detail. The physical characteristics of edible fats and oils include color, specific gravity, refractive index, melting point, congeal point, smoke point, flash point, fire point, and viscosity, while the chemical characteristics include acid value, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid composition, trans isomers, triacylglycerol composition, unsaponifiable matters (sterols, tocopherols) and minor components (phospholipids, chlorophyll pigments, glycidyl fatty acid esters)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Taehun Hong, Kazuki Iwashita, Kentaro Shiraki
Viscosity of protein solution is one of the most troublesome issues for the high-concentration formulation of protein drugs. In this review, we summarize the practical methods that suppress the viscosity of protein solution using small molecular additives. The small amount of salts decreases the viscosity that results from electrostatic repulsion and attraction. The chaotrope suppresses the hydrophobic attraction and cluster formation, which can lower the solution viscosity. Arginine hydrochloride (ArgHCl) also suppresses the solution viscosity due to the hydrophobic and aromatic interactions between protein molecules...
December 12, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Thijs C de Goede, Nick Laan, Karla de Bruin, Daniel Bonn
We investigate the impact velocity beyond which the ejection of smaller droplets from the main droplet (splashing) occurs for droplets of different liquids impacting different smooth surfaces. We examine its dependence on the surface wetting properties and droplet surface tension. We show that the splashing velocity is independent of the wetting properties of the surface, but increases roughly linearly with increasing surface tension of the liquid. A preexisting splashing model and simplification are considered that predicts the splashing velocity by incorporating the air viscosity...
December 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yaguang Zhang, Dan Jia, Wanqi Sun, Xue Yang, Chuanbo Zhang, Fanglong Zhao, Wenyu Lu
Sophorolipids (SLs) are biosurfactants with widespread applications. The yield and purity of SLs are two important factors to be considered during their commercial large-scale production. Notably, SL accumulation causes an increase in viscosity, decrease in dissolved oxygen and product inhibition in the fermentation medium. This inhibits the further production and purification of SLs. This describes the development of a novel integrated system for SL production using Candida albicans O-13-1. Semicontinuous fermentation was performed using a novel bioreactor with dual ventilation pipes and dual sieve-plates (DVDSB)...
December 13, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Fan Wang, Shuai Wang, Tao Yi, Ji-Fen Zhang
To investigate the effects of drug and oil properties on the formation and stability of drug nanocrystalline self-stabilizied Pickering emulsions (NSSPE). Three insoluble Chinese medicine components (puerarin, tanshinone ⅡA and ferulic acid) were selected as model drugs, and Capmul C8, Fabrafil M 1944 CS, isopropyl myristate, Pzechwan Lovage Rhizome oil, and olive oil were used as oil phase. NSSPEs were developed by high pressure homogenization method and were evaluated for their appearance, centrifugal stability, droplet size and drug content changes in emulsion layer after storing at room temperature for 14 d...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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