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Zuhair A AlYousef, Mohammed A Almobarky, David S Schechter
The combination of nanoparticles (NPs) and surfactant may offer a novel technique of generating stronger foams for gas mobility control. This study evaluates the potential of silica NPs to enhance the foam stability of three nonionic surfactants. Results showed that the concentration of surfactant and NPs is a crucial parameter for foam stability and that there is certain concentrations for strong foam generation. A balance in concentration between the nonionic surfactants and the NPs can enhance the foam stability as a result of forming flocs in solutions...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Regina Siber-Hoogeboom, Martin Schicht, Sebastian Hoogeboom, Friedrich Paulsen, Maximilian Traxdorf
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides belong to the family of mucin-associated peptides and are expressed in most mucosal surfaces. TFF peptides carry out functions such as proliferation and migration enhancement, anti-apoptosis, and wound healing. Moreover, TFFs are associated with mucins and interact with them as "linker peptides", thereby influencing mucus viscosity. To test the hypothesis that in rhonchopathy and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) changes occur in the expression of TFF3 and -2 that could contribute to changes in mucus viscosity, leading to an increase in upper airway resistance during breathing...
2017: PloS One
Konstantinos Kotzakoulakis, Simon C George
The majority of the evaporation models currently available in the literature for the prediction of oil spill weathering do not take into account diffusion-limited mass transport and the formation of a concentration gradient in the oil phase. The altered surface concentration of the spill caused by diffusion-limited transport leads to a slower evaporation rate compared to the predictions of diffusion-agnostic evaporation models. The model presented in this study incorporates a diffusive layer in the oil phase and predicts the diffusion-limited evaporation rate...
September 29, 2017: Chemosphere
Christelle Abou Nader, Hadi Loutfi, Fabrice Pellen, Bernard Le Jeune, Guy Le Brun, Roger Lteif, Marie Abboud
In this paper, we report measurements of wine viscosity, correlated to polarized laser speckle results. Experiments were performed on white wine samples produced with a single grape variety. Effects of the wine making cellar, the grape variety, and the vintage on wine Brix degree, alcohol content, viscosity, and speckle parameters are considered. We show that speckle parameters, namely, spatial contrast and speckle decorrelation time, as well as the inertia moment extracted from the temporal history speckle pattern, are mainly affected by the alcohol and sugar content and hence the wine viscosity...
October 13, 2017: Sensors
Howard Kipen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
Anne M Benneker, Hans David Wendt, Rob G H Lammertink, Jeffery A Wood
Charge selective asymmetric nanochannels are used for a variety of applications, such as nanofluidic sensing devices and energy conversion applications. In this paper, we numerically investigate the influence of an applied temperature difference over tapered nanochannels on the resulting charge transport and flow behavior. Using a temperature-dependent formulation of the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations, various nanochannel geometries are investigated. Temperature has a large influence on the total ion transport, as the diffusivity of ions and viscosity of the solution are strongly affected by temperature...
October 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xiang-Long Cui, Bing Xu, Jun-Wen Liu, Guo-Lin Shi, Xin-Yuan Shi, Yan-Jiang Qiao
Raw materials' quality variation could affect the quality consistency of product and the clinical efficacy. In this paper, the high shear wet granulation (HSWG) process of the ginkgo leaf tablet was taken as the research object. Ginkgo biloba extracts and excipients microcrystalline cellulose collected from various sources and batches were used to simulate raw materials' quality variation. Real-time torque was recorded to analyze the viscosity of the wetting mass, and then by combining with physical fingerprint, the impact of physical quality variation of powders on granule properties could be investigated...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Qian Li, Jiaojiao Cao, Zhengguang Li, Xiaoqin Chu
In situ gels containing sinomenine hydrochloride (SMH) for intra-articular (IA) administration to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were designed and investigated in this study. Glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used due to the potential to generate viscous crystalline phase structures upon water absorption. The gels were evaluated using different parameters: syringeability, gelation, viscosity, and drug release. And, polarized light microscopy (PLM), small-angle X-ray scattering investigation (SAXS), and rheological studies were used to analyze their internal structures...
October 12, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
Rafal Bartoszewski, Sadis Matalon, James F Collawn
Maintenance of normal epithelial ion and water transport in the lungs includes providing a thin layer of surface liquid that coats the conducting airways. This airway surface liquid is critical for normal lung function in a number of ways, but perhaps most importantly, is required for normal mucociliary clearance and bacterial removal. Preservation of the appropriate level of hydration, pH and viscosity for the airway surface liquid requires the proper regulation and function of a battery of different types of ion channels and transporters...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Monice M Fiume, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of diethanolamine and its salts as used in cosmetics. Diethanolamine functions as a pH adjuster; the 16 salts included in this rereview reportedly function as surfactants, emulsifying agents, viscosity increasing agents, hair or skin conditioning agents, foam boosters, or antistatic agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports. Since data were not available for each individual ingredient, and since the salts dissociate freely in water, the Panel extrapolated from previous reports to support safety...
September 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
Monice M Fiume, Bart Heldreth, Ivan Boyer, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of cross-linked alkyl acrylates as used in cosmetics. The 23 cross-linked alkyl acrylates included in this safety assessment are reported to function as absorbents, film formers, emulsion stabilizers, viscosity increasing agents, suspending agents, binders, and/or skin-conditioning agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports on monomer components. Because data were not available for the individual ingredients, and because residual monomer may be present, the Panel extrapolated from previous reports to support safety...
September 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
Dan Guo, Chang Li, Yang Wang, Yanan Li, Yanlin Song
Precise control of particles assembly has tremendous potential for fabricating intricate structures and functional materials. However, it is still a challenge to achieve one-dimensional assembly with precisely controlled morphology. In this work, we report an effective strategy to precisely assemble particles into well-defined patterns by liquid confinement through controlling the viscosity of the assembly system. It is found that high viscosity of the system impedes particles rearrangement, and facilitates the generation of zigzag or twined zigzag assembly structures; while low viscosity of the system allows particles to rearrange into linear or zipper structures driven by lowering the surface deformation of the liquid...
October 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Jack Saltiel, Shipra Gupta, David W Eaker, Andrew M Kropp, V K Ratheesh Kumar
The photochemical and photophysical properties of the extended conformers of trans- and cis-1-(2-naphthyl)-2-phenylethenes (t- and c-NPEB ) are strikingly different than those of their rigid analogues, trans- and cis-3-styrylidenebenz[e]indane (t- and c-BPE). The fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime at 25 °C in methylcyclohexane drop from 0.76 and 22.2 ns in t-NPEB to 0.0051 and 0.25 ns in t-BPE and there are complementary changes in the photoisomerization quantum yields. In both cases photoisomerization occurs in S2 , a stilbenic excited state...
October 10, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Taíse Toniazzo, Helena Galeskas, Gustavo C Dacanal, Samantha C Pinho
Liposomes are colloidal structures capable of encapsulating, protecting, and releasing hydrophobic bioctives, as flavonoids. Quercetin is a flavonoid with high antioxidant activity that provides benefits to health. The wet-agglomeration processes in high-shear equipment are useful to produce granules from binary mixtures, obtaining a powder with homogeneous composition and without segregation or elutriation of fine particles. In this study, the binary mixtures containing microparticles of native cornstarch and nanoparticles of quercetin liposomes were aggregated in high-shear batches, using maltodextrin solution as binder agent...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Matthew Merski, Cátia Moreira, Rui Mv Abreu, Maria João Ramos, Pedro A Fernandes, L Miguel Martins, Pedro José Barbosa Pereira, Sandra Macedo-Ribeiro
HtrA2 (high-temperature requirement 2) is a human mitochondrial protease that has a role in apoptosis and Parkinson's disease. The structure of HtrA2 with an intact catalytic triad was determined, revealing a conformational change in the active site loops, involving mainly the regulatory LD loop, which resulted in burial of the catalytic serine relative to the previously reported structure of the proteolytically inactive mutant. Mutations in the loops surrounding the active site that significantly restricted their mobility, reduced proteolytic activity both in vitro and in cells, suggesting that regulation of HtrA2 activity cannot be explained by a simple transition to an activated conformational state with enhanced active site accessibility...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
Joshua E S J Reid, Carlos E S Bernardes, Filipe Agapito, Filomena Martins, Seishi Shimizu, Manuel E Minas da Piedade, Adam J Walker
The ionic nature of a functionalized protic ionic liquid cannot be rationalized simply through the differences in aqueous proton dissociation constants between the acid precursor and the conjugate acid of the base precursor. The extent of proton transfer, i.e. the equilibrium ionicity, of a tertiary ammonium acetate protic ionic liquid can be significantly increased by introducing an hydroxyl functional group on the cation, compared to the alkyl or amino-functionalized analogues. This increase in apparent ionic nature correlates well with variations in solvent-solute and solvent-solvent interaction parameters, as well as with physicochemical properties such as viscosity...
October 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Bram Schroyen, James W Swan, Peter Van Puyvelde, Jan Vermant
An important parameter for the performance of nanomaterials is the degree by which the nanoparticles are dispersed in a matrix. Optical microscopy or scattering methods are useful to characterise the state of dispersion, but are not generally applicable to all materials. Electron microscopy methods are laborious in preparation and typically offer only quantitative information on a very local scale. In the present work we investigate how high frequency rheological measurements can be used for partially dispersed suspensions at intermediate to higher particle loadings, even for high viscous matrices...
October 12, 2017: Soft Matter
Kazuya U Kobayashi, Rei Kurita
The formation of a transient stagnant domain in the presence of thermal convection was previously reported near the sol-gel transition temperature of a gelatin solution. The transient stagnant domain is observed near a critical Rayleigh number where a "roll" pattern is usually stable. It is important to understand the origin of the transient stagnant domain formation since it induces a large deformation of convection patterns; the nature of the formation of the transient stagnant domain remains unclear. Here, we observe thermal convection using several different fluids and find that stagnant domain formation is ubiquitous in two component mixtures...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hanaa M Soliman, Shaker M Arafat, Amany M Basuny, Y El- Shattory
A new amphiphilic antioxidant (tannyl stearate) derived from reaction of tannic acid with stearic acid was synthesized in order to improve tannic acid solubility in lipid materials. This reaction gives many products having different degree of esterification (tannyl mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta……stearate) which were separated using silica gel column chromatography and tentative identification was carried out using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The intrinsic viscosities (η) were used to differentiate between the different molecular weight of the produced esters(1))...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Megumi Kaji, Yuichiro Takeyama, Atsushi Nioh, Moe Tsuyuki, Hidetaka Akatsuka, Sari Fujiwara, Kenichi Sakai, Hideki Sakai
The surface morphology of a cosmetic film consisting of an amphiphilic random copolymer (methoxy polyethylene glycol-23 methacrylate/glyceryl diisostearate methacrylate copolymer, MPM-GDM) and solvents has been studied. The cosmetic film was prepared through the evaporation of water from a homogeneous aqueous mixture of MPM-GDM, xanthan gum, and solvents. MPM-GDM was soluble in water, monohydric alcohols, and 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-BG), whereas it hardly dissolved in glycerin. The surface morphology was examined by changing the solvent composition of 1,3-BG (good solvent) and glycerin (poor solvent)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
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