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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651152/methylphenidate-disintegration-from-oral-formulations-for-intravenous-use-by-experienced-substance-users
#1
G D Bjarnadottir, M Johannsson, A Magnusson, B O Rafnar, E Sigurdsson, S Steingrimsson, V Asgrimsson, I Snorradottir, H Bragadottir, H M Haraldsson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Methylphenidate (MPH) is a prescription stimulant used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. MPH is currently the preferred substance among most intravenous (i.v.) substance users in Iceland. Four types of MPH preparations were available in Iceland at the time of study: Immediate-release (IR), sustained-release (SR), osmotic controlled-release oral delivery (OROS) tablet and osmotic-controlled release (OCR). MPH OROS has previously been rated the least desirable by i...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650819/towards-high-quality-visualization-of-superfluid-vortices
#2
Yulong Guo, Xiaopei Liu, Chi Xiong, Xuemiao Xu, Chi-Wing Fu
Superfluidity is a special state of matter exhibiting macroscopic quantum phenomena and acting like a fluid with zero viscosity. In such a state, superfluid vortices exist as phase singularities of the model equation with unique distributions. This paper presents novel techniques to aid the visual understanding of superfluid vortices based on the state-of-the-art non-linear Klein-Gordon equation, which evolves a complex scalar field, giving rise to special vortex lattice/ring structures with dynamic vortex formation, reconnection, and Kelvin waves, etc...
June 26, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650785/clinical-performance-of-heat-cured-high-viscosity-glass-ionomer-class-ii-restorations-in-primary-molars-a-preliminary-study
#3
Eliyahu Tal, Ari Kupietzky, Anna B Fuks, Nili Tickotsky, Moti Moskovitz
OBJECTIVES: The present preliminary study evaluated the clinical and radiographic performances of heat-cured high viscosity glass ionomer (HCHVGI) in class II restorations of primary molars. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study on a cohort of patients who had dental caries restored at a private practice was conducted. Restorations were evaluated radiographically and photographically by two separate examiners. RESULTS: Ninety-three Class II restorations in 44 patients (average age: 108 months ± 25...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650630/waterborne-electrospinning-of-poly-n-isopropyl-acrylamide-by-control-of-environmental-parameters
#4
Ella Schoolaert, Paulien Ryckx, Jozefien Geltmeyer, Samarendra Maji, Paul H M Van Steenberge, Dagmar R D'hooge, Richard Hoogenboom, Karen De Clerck
With increasing toxicity and environmental concerns, electrospinning from water, i.e. waterborne electrospinning, is crucial to further exploit the resulting nanofiber potential. Most water-soluble polymers have the inherent limitation of resulting in water-soluble nanofibers and a tedious chemical cross-linking step is required to reach stable nanofibers. An interesting alternative route is the use of thermoresponsive polymers, such as poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM), as they are water-soluble beneath their lower critical solution temperature (LCST) allowing low temperature electrospinning while the obtained nanofibers are water-stable above the LCST...
June 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650586/a-complete-thermodynamic-analysis-of-enzyme-turnover-links-the-free-energy-landscape-to-enzyme-catalysis
#5
Hannah Bl Jones, Stephen A Wells, Erica J Prentice, Anthony Kwok, Liyin L Liang, Vickery L Arcus, Christopher R Pudney
Our understanding of how enzymes work is colored by static structure depictions where the enzyme scaffold is presented as either immobile, or in equilibrium between well-defined static conformations. Proteins however exhibit a large degree of motion over a broad range of timescales and magnitudes and this is defined thermodynamically by the enzyme free energy landscape (FEL). The role and importance of enzyme motion is extremely contentious. Much of the challenge is in the experimental detection of so called 'conformational sampling' involved in enzyme turnover...
June 26, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650511/effect-of-mixed-anions-on-the-physicochemical-properties-of-a-sodium-containing-alkoxyammonium-ionic-liquid-electrolyte
#6
Matthias Hilder, Matthieu Gras, Cameron R Pope, Mega Kar, Douglas R MacFarlane, Maria Forsyth, Luke A O'Dell
The physicochemical properties of the ionic liquid N-ethyl-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)-N,N-bis(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)ethan-1-ammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (N2(2O2O1)3TFSI) as well as its solutions with sodium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NaTFSI) and sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (NaFSI) are compared in order to study the effects of the anion. The NaFSI solutions show weaker interactions as suggested by lower glass transition temperatures, lower densities, lower viscosities and higher conductivities as compared to their more strongly coordinating NaTFSI analogues...
June 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650328/studies-on-self-nanoemulsifying-drug-delivery-system-of-flurbiprofen-employing-long-medium-and-short-chain-triglycerides
#7
Junaid Daar, Ahmad Khan, Jallat Khan, Amjad Khan, Gul Majid Khan
The aim of the study was to successfully design, formulate and evaluate self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of poorly aqueous soluble drug viz. flurbiprofen using long (LCT), medium (MCT) and short chain triglycerides (SCT). The SNEDDS are thermodynamically stable lipid based drug delivery systems which consist of mixture of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Upon aqueous dilution, this mixture produces nano-emulsion spontaneously on slight agitation. The excipients intended to be used were screened for their potential to dissolve the drug and to form clear dispersion upon aqueous dilution...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650020/difference-in-chemical-bonding-between-lithium-and-sodium-salts-influence-of-covalency-on-their-solubility
#8
Su Chen, Jun Ishii, Shunsuke Horiuchi, Masahiro Yoshizawa-Fujita, Ekaterina I Izgorodina
Recent thermal runaways in lithium-ion batteries have reinforced the focus on the research of safer electrolytes based on ionic liquids. A simple switch from organic solvents to ionic liquids has been proven difficult due to the decreased efficiency of batteries caused by decreased conductivity and increased viscosity of ionic liquids upon addition of lithium salts. The new trend in replacing lithium salts with a cheaper alternative, sodium salts, has resulted in rather poor solubility of sodium salts in commonly used ionic liquids...
June 26, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649736/high-aspect-ratio-sub-micrometer-channels-using-wet-etching-application-to-the-dynamics-of-red-blood-cell-transiting-through-biomimetic-splenic-slits
#9
Priya Gambhire, Scott Atwell, Cécile Iss, Frédéric Bedu, Igor Ozerov, Catherine Badens, Emmanuèle Helfer, Annie Viallat, Anne Charrier
Nanoparticles delivering drugs, disseminating cancer cells, and red blood cells (RBCs) during splenic filtration must deform and pass through the sub-micrometer and high aspect ratio interstices between the endothelial cells lining blood vessels. The dynamics of passage of particles/cells through these slit-like interstices remain poorly understood because the in vitro reproduction of slits with physiological dimensions in devices compatible with optical microscopy observations requires expensive technologies...
June 26, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649731/protein-glycan-quinary-interactions-in-crowding-environment-unveiled-by-nmr-spectroscopy
#10
Ana Diniz, Jorge S Dias, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero, Filipa Marcelo, Eurico J Cabrita
Protein-glycan interactions as modulators for quinary structure in crowding environments were explored. The interaction between human galectin 3 (Gal-3) and distinct macromolecular crowders, such as bovine and human serum albumin (BSA and HSA), Ficoll 70 and PEG3350, was scrutinized. The molecular recognition event of the specific ligand, lactose, by Gal-3 in crowding conditions was evaluated. Gal-3 interactions were monitored by NMR analysing chemical shift perturbation (CSP) and line broadening of 1H15N-HSQC signals...
June 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649006/optimization-of-hydrogel-containing-toluidine-blue-o-for-photodynamic-therapy-by-response-surface-methodology
#11
Hui Liang, Jialin Xu, Yunfeng Liu, Jianxing Zhang, Wei Peng, Jinhua Yan, Zelin Li, Qingyong Li
Photodynamic therapy with toluidine blue O (TBO) hydrogel exhibits antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in this paper. The response surface methodology is employed to optimize formulations for antibacterial activity. The optimal formulations are carbomer concentration of 3% (w/v), TBO concentration of 0.1mg/mL and the quality ratio of NaOH and carbomer of 0.4 (w/w). Under the optimized formulations, the log-transformed of CFUmL(-1) on the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are 0...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648922/oxovanadium-iv-complexes-with-knoevenagel-schiff-base-condensate-as-impending-chemotherapeutic-agents-synthesis-characterization-biological-screening-and-anti-proliferative-assay
#12
Rajakkani Paulpandiyan, Natarajan Raman
Two novel oxovanadium(IV) complexes [VOL1]SO4(1) and [VOL2]SO4(2) containing Knoevenagel condensate Schiff base ligand (L1/L2) have been synthesized and characterized by physical, spectral and analytical methods. These complexes are reported as ionic in nature on the basis of elemental composition and molar conductance, and possess square pyramidal geometry around the central metal ions. The binding interactions of (1) and (2) with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) were explored by absorption spectrophotometric titration, cyclic voltammetry data and viscosity measurements...
June 19, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648918/acoustic-and-elastic-properties-of-glycerol-in-oil-based-gel-phantoms
#13
Luciana C Cabrelli, Felipe W Grillo, Diego R T Sampaio, Antonio A O Carneiro, Theo Z Pavan
Phantoms are important tools for image quality control and medical training. Many phantom materials have been proposed for ultrasound; most of them use water as the solvent, but these materials have disadvantages such as dehydration and low temporal stability if not properly stored. To overcome these difficulties, copolymer-in-oil gel was proposed as an inert and stable material; however, speed of sound for these materials is still lower than what is described for most biological tissues. Here, we propose the glycerol dispersion in oil-based gels to modify the acoustic and elastic properties of copolymer-in-oil phantoms...
June 22, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648787/online-turbulent-flow-extraction-coupled-with-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-high-throughput-screening-of-anabolic-steroids-in-horse-urine
#14
Hyun Du Shin, Joon Hyuk Suh, Junghyun Kim, Hyun-Deok Cho, Su Duk Lee, Kwan Seok Han, Yu Wang, Sang Beom Han
A high throughput method for simultaneous screening of anabolic steroids and their metabolites (4-esterendione, trenbolone, boldenone, oxandrolone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, testosterone, 1-androstendione, ethisterone, normethandrolone, methyltestosterone, 16β-Hydroxystanozolol, epitestosterone, bolasterone, norethandrolone, danazol, stanozolol and androstadienone) in equine urine by online turbulent flow extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The use of turbulent flow chromatography could simplify pretreatment of horse urine, which has complex matrices as well as high viscosity...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648689/gaining-thermodynamic-insight-from-distinct-glass-formation-kinetics-of-structurally-similar-organic-compounds
#15
Arjun Kalra, Paul Luner, Lynne S Taylor, Stephen R Byrn, Tonglei Li
Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of crystallization of 12 structurally similar organic compounds were investigated from the supercooled liquid state by calorimetric and rheological measurements. Based on their crystallization behaviors, these compounds were divided into three categories: stable glass formers, poor glass formers, and good glass formers with poor stability on reheating. Correlation was sought between thermodynamic quantities and glass formation based on nucleation and crystal growth theories...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645493/sprayable-carbopol-hydrogel-with-soluble-beta-1-3-1-6-glucan-as-an-active-ingredient-for-wound-healing-development-and-in-vivo-evaluation
#16
Jostein Grip, Rolf Einar Engstad, Ingrid Skjæveland, Nataša Škalko-Basnet, Ann Mari Holsæter
Chronic wounds represent a significant health problem worldwide. There is a need for advanced- and cost-efficient wound healing products able to increase patient comfort and reduce the healing time. The aim of this study was to develop a sprayable hydrogel dressing with beta-glucan (βG) as the active ingredient, targeting future application in the treatment of both chronic and burn wounds. The βG was chosen as an active ingredient because of its promising wound healing capabilities, whereas Carbopol 971P NF (Carbopol) was chosen as the thickening agent in the formulation due to several attractive characteristics such as its low viscosity, low toxicity, high transparency and good ion tolerance...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645083/graphene-oxide-nanosheets-induce-dna-damage-and-activate-the-base-excision-repair-ber-signaling-pathway-both-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#17
Chun-Jiao Lu, Xue-Feng Jiang, Muhammad Junaid, Yan-Bo Ma, Pan-Pan Jia, Hua-Bin Wang, De-Sheng Pei
Graphene oxide (GO) has widespread concerns in the fields of biological sciences and medical applications. Currently, studies have reported that excessive GO exposure can cause cellular DNA damage through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, DNA damage mediated response of the base excision repair (BER) pathway due to GO exposure is not elucidated yet. Therefore, we exposed HEK293T cells and zebrafish embryos to different concentrations of GO for 24 h, and transcriptional profiles of BER pathway genes, DNA damage, and cell viability were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643227/preparation-and-characterization-of-alginate-microparticles-containing-a-model-protein-for-oral-administration-in-gnotobiotic-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-larvae
#18
Eamy Nursaliza Yaacob, Jens Goethals, Aline Bajek, Kristof Dierckens, Peter Bossier, Bruno G De Geest, Daisy Vanrompay
Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal production sector. However, the production of marine fish is still hampered by the high mortality rate in the first few weeks after hatching. Mortality in larvae is often caused by microbial infections. Today, the incorporation of immunostimulants into microparticles provides us new tools to enhance disease resistance in marine larviculture. In this study, we prepared alginate microparticles loaded with the model antigen fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-bovine serum albumin...
June 22, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642126/molecular-and-hydrodynamic-properties-of-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-her2-extracellular-domain-and-its-homodimer-experiments-and-multi-scale-simulations
#19
J F Vega, J Ramos, V Cruz, E Vicente-Alique, E Sánchez-Sánchez, A Sánchez-Fernández, Y Wang, P Hu, J Cortés, J Martínez-Salazar
BACKGROUND: In a broad range of human carcinomas gene amplification leads to HER2 overexpression, which has been proposed to cause spontaneous dimerization and activation in the absence of ligand. This makes HER2 attractive as a therapeutic target. However, the HER2 homodimerization mechanism remains unexplored. It has been suggested that the "back-to-back" homodimer does not form in solution. Notwithstanding, very recently the crystal structure of the HER2 extracellular domain homodimer formed with a "back-to-head" interaction has been resolved...
June 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640112/cement-leakage-in-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fractures-with-cortical-defect-using-high-viscosity-bone-cement-during-unilateral-percutaneous-kyphoplasty-surgery
#20
Tie Liu, Zhe Li, Qingjun Su, Yong Hai
The purpose of this study was to investigate cement leakage (CL) in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) with cortical defect using high-viscosity bone cement during unilateral percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) surgery.This study included a series of 77 patients (23 males, 54 females) with single level osteoporotic vertebral body fracture (OVCF) who underwent unilateral PKP in our hospital. Preoperative x-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan, and 3-dimensional reconstructions were studied. During the PKP procedure, needle was carefully put to avoid too near to the cortical defect according to CT image...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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