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glycemic response

Caslin A Gilroy, Stefan Roberts, Ashutosh Chilkoti
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is under investigation as a type 2 diabetes protein drug, but its efficacy is impeded by rapid in vivo clearance and by costly production methods. To improve the protein's therapeutic utility, we recombinantly expressed FGF21 as a fusion with an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), a peptide polymer that exhibits reversible thermal phase behavior. Below a critical temperature, ELPs exist as miscible unimers, while above, they associate into a coacervate. The thermal responsiveness of ELPs is retained upon fusion to proteins, which has notable consequences for the production and in vivo delivery of FGF21...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Karen Nørgaard Nielsen, Julia Peics, Tao Ma, Iuliia Karavaeva, Morten Dall, Sabina Chubanava, Astrid L Basse, Oksana Dmytriyeva, Jonas T Treebak, Zachary Gerhart-Hines
OBJECTIVE: The ability of adipose tissue to expand and contract in response to fluctuations in nutrient availability is essential for the maintenance of whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Given the nutrient scarcity that mammals faced for millions of years, programs involved in this adipose plasticity were likely evolved to be highly efficient in promoting lipid storage. Ironically, this previously advantageous feature may now represent a metabolic liability given the caloric excess of modern society...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Tina Tian, Joshua Coons, Hong Chang, Walter J Chwals
BACKGROUND: Injury severity induces a proportionate acute metabolic stress response, associated with increased risk of hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that excess caloric delivery (overfeeding) during high stress states would increase hyperglycemia and disrupt response homeostasis. METHODS: Gestational age, daily weight, total daily caloric intake, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), prealbumin, and blood glucose concentrations in all acutely-injured premature NICU infants requiring TPN over the past 3years were reviewed...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Sudha S Shankar, R Ravi Shankar, Lori A Mixson, Deborah L Miller, Barnali Pramanik, Amy K O'Dowd, Donna M Williams, Clay B Frederick, Chan R Beals, S Aubrey Stoch, Helmut O Steinberg, David E Kelley
Oxyntomodulin (OXM), an enteroendocrine hormone, causes appetite suppression, increased energy expenditure, and weight loss in obese humans via activation of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. However, the effects of OXM on glucose homeostasis remain ill-defined. To address this gap, we evaluated the effects of an intravenous (IV) infusion of native OXM on insulin secretory rates (ISR) and glycemic excursion in a graded glucose infusion (GGI) procedure in two separate randomized, placebo-controlled, single dose crossover trials in 12 overweight and obese subjects without diabetes, and in 12 obese subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) respectively, using the GLP-1 analog, liraglutide as a comparator in the T2DM...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes
Mary Courtney Moore, David E Kelley, Raul C Camacho, Peter Zafian, Tian Ye, Songnian Lin, Niels C Kaarsholm, Ravi Nargund, Terri M Kelly, Margaret Van Heek, Stephen F Previs, Christopher Moyes, Marta S Smith, Ben Farmer, Phil Williams, Alan D Cherrington
We evaluated the hepatic and nonhepatic responses to glucose-responsive insulin (GRI). Eight dogs received GRI or regular human insulin (HI) in random order. A primed, continuous intravenous infusion of [3-3 H]glucose began at -120 min. Basal sampling (-30 to 0 min) was followed by 2 study periods (150 min each), P1 and P2. At 0 min, somatostatin and GRI (36±3 pmol/kg/min) or HI (1.8 pmol/kg/min) were infused IV; basal glucagon was replaced intraportally. Glucose was infused intravenously to clamp plasma glucose at 80 mg/dL (P1) and 240 mg/dL (P2)...
March 14, 2018: Diabetes
Christine M Embury, Alex I Wiesman, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Timothy J McDermott, Grace H Lord, Kaitlin L Brau, Andjela T Drincic, Cyrus V Desouza, Tony W Wilson
It is now generally accepted that diabetes increases the risk for cognitive impairment, but the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. A critical problem in linking diabetes to cognitive impairment is that patients often have multiple comorbidities (e.g., obesity, hypertension) that have been independently linked to cognitive deficits. Herein, we focus on young adults with and without type 1 diabetes who were virtually free of such comorbidities. The two groups were matched on major health and demographic factors, and all participants completed a verbal working memory task during magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain imaging...
March 12, 2018: Diabetes
Aldo Bonaventura, Fabrizio Montecucco
Corticosteroids are widely diffused drugs. An important side effect is the impairment of glycemic control both in patients with known diabetes and in normoglycemic ones potentially leading to steroid-induced diabetes mellitus (SIDM). In this review based on papers released on PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from January 2015 to October 2017, we summarized and discussed main updates about the definition, the diagnosis, and the pathophysiology of steroid-induced hyperglycemia (SIH), with a look to new therapies. Main alterations responsible for the diabetogenic effect of corticosteroids are a negative impact on insulin sensitivity along with a derangement on insulin secretion, explaining the typical post-prandial hyperglycemia linked to the promotion of gluconeogenesis...
March 9, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Sara J White, Emma L Carran, Andrew N Reynolds, Jillian J Haszard, Bernard J Venn
Background: The consumption of large amounts of fructose from added sugars results in the hepatic production and export of uric acid into the circulation. Objective: Our aim was to test whether fructose present in fruit is of sufficient quantity or in a form that will increase uric acid concentration. Design: Seventy-three participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups to ingest small (205 g) and large (410 g) servings of apple segments, small (170 mL) and large (340 mL) servings of apple juice, or a glucose and a fructose control beverage...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sydney Moser, Ingrid Aragon, Amber Furrer, Jan-Willem Van Klinken, Melissa Kaczmarczyk, Byung-Hoo Lee, Judy George, Bruce R Hamaker, Richard Mattes, Mario G Ferruzzi
Beneficial effects of some phenolic compounds in modulation of carbohydrate digestion and glycemic response have been reported, however effects of phenolics from processed potato products on these endpoints are not well known. The aims of this study were to characterize phenolic profiles of fresh potatoes (purple, red, or white fleshed; 2 varieties each) and chips, and to examine the potential for potato phenolic extracts (PPE) to modulate starch digestion and intestinal glucose transport in model systems. Following in vitro assessment, a pilot clinical study (n=11) assessed differences in glycemic response and gastric emptying between chips from pigmented and white potatoes...
February 12, 2018: Nutrition Research
Tianwei Gu, Ting Hong, Pengzi Zhang, Sunyinyan Tang, Yan Bi, Hai Lu, Lichuang Men, Dongwei Ma, Dalong Zhu
INTRODUCTION: In Asia, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often have suboptimal glycemic control for many years prior to initiating basal insulin. Active titration of basal insulin is also required to improve glycemic outcomes. This pooled analysis was conducted to determine the impact of patient baseline covariates on the required dose of basal insulin and treatment response, for the improved management of Asian patients with T2DM. METHODS: Data on insulin-naïve Asian patients with T2DM who initiated and fully titrated insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100) for ≥ 20 weeks were pooled from seven randomized, controlled, treat-to-target trials...
March 9, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Daniel Coelho, Eudes Paiva de Godoy, Igor Marreiros, Vinicius Fernando da Luz, Antônio Manuel Gouveia de Oliveira, Josemberg Marins Campos, Silvio da Silva Caldas-Neto, Mirella Patrícia Cruz de Freitas
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus has a high long-term remission rate after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), but few studies have analyzed patients with BMI<35 kg/m2. AIM: To compare glycemic control after LRYGB between BMI 30-35 kg/m2 (intervention group or IG) and >35 kg/m2 patients (control group or CG) and to evaluate weight loss, comorbidities and surgical morbidity. METHODS: Sixty-six diabetic patients (30 in IG group and 36 in CG group) were submitted to LRYGB...
March 1, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Vishnupriya Gourineni, Maria L Stewart, Didem Icoz, J Paul Zimmer
Ingredients delivering functional and nutritional benefits are of interest to food manufacturers. Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) which serve as alternate sweeteners fit into this category. IMOs are a mixture of α-(1 → 6) and α-(1 → 4)-linked glucose oligomers, synthesized by an enzymatic reaction from starch (corn, tapioca). The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentability and glycemic response of IMO in a healthy population. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over human studies were conducted...
March 3, 2018: Nutrients
Shilpa Vijayakumar, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Javed Butler
Diabetes mellitus independently increases the risk of and mortality from heart failure in a manner that is well established but inadequately understood. Glycemic optimization does not eliminate this risk, and measures of glycemic control are insufficient markers of cardiovascular risk. In response to a regulatory guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration, glucose-lowering agents are now routinely evaluated in large cardiovascular outcome trials. These recent trial experiences of novel and established glucose-lowering therapies have shown variable risks and benefits with respect to heart failure...
March 6, 2018: Circulation
Massa Oi, Daniel Donner, Jason Peart, Belinda Beck, Lauren Wendt, John P Headrick, Eugene F du Toit
Statins are effective in management of dyslipidaemia, and a cornerstone of CVD prevention strategies. However, the impacts of their pleiotropic effects on other cardiovascular risk factors and myocardial responses to infarction are not well characterised. We hypothesised that pravastatin treatment in obesity improves lipid profiles, insulin-resistance and myocardial resistance to ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Wistar rats were fed a control (C) chow or high carbohydrate and fat diet (HCFD) for 16 weeks with vehicle or pravastatin (prava 7...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ariclecio Cunha de Oliveira, Sandra Andreotti, Rogério António Laurato Sertie, Amanda Baron Campana, André Ricardo Gomes de Proença, Renata Prado Vasconcelos, Keciany Alves de Oliveira, Andrelina Noronha Coelho-de-Souza, José Donato Junior, Fábio Bessa Lima
AIMS: Melatonin treatment has been reported to be capable of ameliorating metabolic diabetes-related abnormalities but also to cause hypogonadism in rats. We investigated whether the combined treatment with melatonin and insulin can improve insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes during neonatal period and the repercussion of this treatment on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. MAIN METHODS: At the fourth week of age, diabetic animals started an 8-wk treatment with only melatonin (0...
February 28, 2018: Life Sciences
Kotb Abbass Metwalley, Sherifa Ahmed Hamed, Hekma Saad Farghaly
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a major complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D). This study aimed to evaluate cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in children with T1D and its relation to different demographic, clinical and laboratory variable. This cross-sectional study included 60 children with T1D (mean age = 15.1 ± 3.3 years; duration of diabetes = 7.95 ± 3.83 years). The following 8 non-invasive autonomic testing were used for evaluation: heart rate at rest and in response to active standing (30:15 ratio), deep breathing and Valsalva maneuver (indicating parasympathetic function); blood pressure response to standing (orthostatic hypotension or OH), sustained handgrip and cold; and heart rate response to standing or positional orthostatic tachycardia syndrome or POTs (indicating sympathetic function)...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Hongrui Jiang, Navam S Hettiararchchy, Ronny Horax
Sorghum is a gluten-free grain and more attention has been given to the nutritional properties and recently its usage as a wheat replacement in food products. In the present work, protein-enriched sorghum based snack chips, prepared from sorghum meal with soy protein isolates and soy flour to meet the final protein content of 35.7%, were produced. The effect of varying baking powder (1.5-2.5%), dough sheet thickness (0.7-1.7 mm), and baking time (6-12 min) on the physical properties of the snack chips was investigated using a central composite design of response surface methodology...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Jie Xu, Tommy Jönsson, Merichel Plaza, Åsa Håkansson, Martin Antonsson, Irini Lazou Ahrén, Charlotta Turner, Peter Spégel, Yvonne Granfeldt
BACKGROUND: Consumption of polyphenol-rich fruits and vegetables may improve postprandial glucose and insulin levels and hence promote well-being. Previously it has been observed that consumption of bilberry decreases the postprandial insulin demand. The intention with the present study was to compare the impact of different supplements with various polyphenol profiles, on the postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy young adults. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled, crossover study the postprandial glycemic and insulin responses were observed in eleven healthy adults after intake of five different beverages containing bilberry (European blueberry), blackcurrant, beetroot, mango and rose hip, respectively; all drinks were enriched with the same composition of fermented oatmeal and probiotics...
February 27, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Robert Benamouzig, Mourad Benallaoua, Jean-Christophe Saurin, Marouane Boubaya, Christophe Cellier, René Laugier, Magalie Vincent, Christian Boustière, Rodica Gincul, Elia Samaha, Philippe Grandval, Thomas Aparicio, Gheorghe Airinei, Bakhtiar Bejou, Cyriaque Bon, Jean-Jacques Raynaud, Vincent Levy, Denis Sautereau
Background: Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias (GIADs) could be responsible for recurrent bleeding and severe anemia. Somatostatin analogs could reduce transfusion requirements in these patients but no randomized controlled study is available. The main objective of the ANGIOPAS phase II double-blinded randomized, noncomparative study was to assess the effectiveness of pasireotide-LAR in reducing transfusion requirements in patients with refractory GIADs bleeding. Methods: A total of 22 patients with transfusion requirements ⩾6 units of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) during the 6 months prior to inclusion were randomized to receive pasireotide-LAR 60 mg ( n = 10) or placebo ( n = 12) every 28 days for 6 months...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Samir Abu Gazala, Elad Horwitz, Rachel Ben-Haroush Schyr, Aya Bardugo, Hadar Israeli, Ayat Hija, Jonathan Schug, Soona Shin, Yuval Dor, Klaus H Kaestner, Danny Ben-Zvi
Bariatric surgery dramatically improves glycemic control, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain controversial due to confounding weight loss. We performed sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on obese and diabetic leptin receptor-deficient mice ( db / db ). One week post-surgery, mice weighed 5% less and displayed improved glycemia compared to sham-operated controls and islets from SG mice displayed reduced expression of diabetes markers. One month post-surgery SG mice weighed more than pre-operatively, but remained near-euglycemic and displayed reduced hepatic lipid droplets...
February 23, 2018: Diabetes
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