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glycemic response

Wanhee Suk, JiEun Kim, Do-Yeon Kim, Hyunjung Lim, Ryowon Choue
Recent trial results suggest that the consumption of a low glycemic index (GI) diet is beneficial in the prevention of high blood glucose levels. Identifying active hypoglycemic substances in ordinary foods could be a significant benefit to the management of blood glucose. It has been hypothesized that noodles with Bombyx mori powder are a low GI food. We evaluated GI and changes in postprandial glucose levels following consumption of those noodles and compared them with those following consumption of plain wheat flour noodles (control) and glucose (reference) in healthy subjects...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Philip B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
While the words "fit" and "healthy" are often used synonymously in everyday language, the terms have entirely separate meanings. Fitness describes the ability to perform a given exercise task, and health explains a person's state of well-being, where physiological systems work in harmony. Although we typically view athletes as fit and healthy, they often are not. The global term we place on unhealthy athletes is the overtraining syndrome. In this current opinion, we propose that two primary drivers may contribute to the development of the overtraining syndrome, namely high training intensity and the modern-day highly processed, high glycemic diet...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
M Chondronikola, L L S Harris, S Klein
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major worldwide public health concern. Despite a large armamentarium of T2D medications, a large proportion of patients fail to achieve recommended treatment goals for glycemic control. Weight loss has profound beneficial effects on the metabolic abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Accordingly, bariatric surgery, which is the most effective available weight loss therapy, is also the most effective therapy for treating patients with T2D. Surgical procedures that bypass the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract are particularly effective in achieving partial and even complete remission of T2D, suggesting that UGI bypass has weight loss-independent effects on glycemic control...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Hao Liu, Yun Hu, Feng-Fei Li, Bing-Li Liu, Xiao-Fei Su, Jian-Hua Ma
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used as second-option medications when metformin fails. Variance of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) response to DPP-4 inhibitions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been observed, but the characteristics which predict the response to DPP-4 inhibitor therapy are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of α- and β-cell functions which might predict the efficacy of saxagliptin and facilitate personalization of treatment...
October 12, 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Amalia E Yanni, Nikoleta S Stamataki, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Maria Stoupaki, Athanasios Abeliatis, Irene Nikolakea, Despoina Perrea, Vaios T Karathanos, Nikolaos Tentolouris
PURPOSE: Chromium (Cr)-enriched yeast supplementation to whole wheat bread (WWCrB) has been shown to ameliorate postprandial glycemic response in healthy subjects. The present study investigates the long-term benefit of WWCrB consumption for patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Thirty patients with T2DM were randomly assigned to a group receiving WWCrB or the plain whole wheat bread (WWB) group. Plasma glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and insulin resistance were determined, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at the beginning and the end of the dietary intervention, which lasted for 12 weeks...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Sarah A Dainty, Shannon L Klingel, Stephanie E Pilkey, Evan McDonald, Bruce McKeown, Michael J Emes, Alison M Duncan
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence continues to rise. Although increasing dietary fiber intake is an established strategy for improved glycemic control, most adults consume insufficient amounts. Fiber-enhanced functional foods can increase fiber intake, and there is particular interest in resistant starch (RS) as a high-fiber ingredient. Studies show that high-amylose maize resistant starch, type 2 (HAM-RS2) improves acute and chronic glycemic responses, but more studies are needed in individuals at high risk of T2D with RS delivered in commonly consumed foods...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Eva Pedersen, Kylie Lange, Peter Clifton
BACKGROUND: People with type 2 diabetes are advised to consume an even meal distribution of carbohydrate. Whether this distribution is optimal is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to show that omitting carbohydrate in the first meal after a fast would lead to an augmented lunch response. DESIGN: Two diets of 1-d duration that differed only in the breakfast-meal composition (carbohydrate or no carbohydrate) were consumed on sequential days in a randomized crossover study...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ayman S Abutair, Ihab A Naser, Amin T Hamed
BACKGROUND: Water-soluble dietary fibers intake may help control blood glucose and body weight. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether soluble fiber supplementation from psyllium improves glycemic control indicators and body weight in type 2 diabetic patients. METHOD: Forty type 2 diabetes patients, non-smoker, aged >35 years were stratified to different strata according to sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood sugar level (FBS) and randomly assigned into two groups; The intervention group which consists of 20 participants was on soluble fiber (10...
October 12, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Katarzyna Cyganek, Jan Skupien, Barbara Katra, Alicja Hebda-Szydlo, Izabela Janas, Iwona Trznadel-Morawska, Przemysław Witek, Elżbieta Kozek, Maciej T Malecki
Macrosomia risk remains high in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) complicated pregnancies. A linear relationship between macrosomia risk and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was described; however, low range of HbA1c has not been studied. We aimed to identify risk factors and examine the impact of HbA1c on the occurrence of macrosomia in newborns of T1DM women from a cohort with good glycemic control. In this observational retrospective one-center study we analyzed records of 510 consecutive T1DM pregnancies (1998-2012)...
October 11, 2016: Endocrine
R K Hansen, J B Andersen, A S Vinther, U Pielmeier, R G Larsen
A randomized, controlled, cross-over study was used to investigate the effects of breaking up prolonged sitting with low intensity physical activity on postprandial blood glucose concentrations in healthy, young, normal-weight adults. 14 men (n=6) and women (n=8) were assigned to 2.5 h of prolonged sitting (CON) and 2.5 h of prolonged sitting with 2-min bouts of walking every 20 min (LIPA). After ingesting a standardized test drink, capillary blood was sampled every 10 min to establish a postprandial blood glucose profile...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Yoshio Fujitani, Shimpei Fujimoto, Kiyohito Takahashi, Hiroaki Satoh, Takahisa Hirose, Toru Hiyoshi, Masumi Ai, Yosuke Okada, Masahiko Gosho, Tomoya Mita, Hirotaka Watada
AIMS: To compare the efficacy on glycemic parameters between a 12-week administration of once-daily linagliptin and thrice-daily voglibose in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a multi-center, randomized, parallel-group study, 382 patients with diabetes were randomized to the linagliptin group (n=192) or the voglibose group (n=190). A meal tolerance test was performed at weeks 0 and 12. Primary outcomes were the change from baseline to week 12 in serum glucose levels at 2h during the meal tolerance test, HbA1c levels, and serum fasting glucose levels, which were compared between the 2 groups...
September 22, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Marcus Lindenberger
BACKGROUND: Young patients with diabetes present with reduced compensatory responses to hypovolemic stress. Less compliant veins could be a contributing factor, since roughly two-thirds of the blood volume resides in the venous system as a blood reservoir, adjusting proper venous inflow to the heart. The aim of this study was to measure venous compliance and lower limb blood pooling during hypovolemic stress, and to correlate them to indices of diabetes severity and glucose control. METHODS: Fifteen young women with type 1 diabetes (DW) and 18 healthy age-matched women (C) were subjected to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) (11-44 mmHg), creating hypovolemic stress...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Catherine Hajmrle, Nancy Smith, Aliya F Spigelman, Xiaoqing Dai, Laura Senior, Austin Bautista, Mourad Ferdaoussi, Patrick E MacDonald
IL-1β is a well-established inducer of both insulin resistance and impaired pancreatic islet function. Despite this, findings examining IL-1 receptor deficiency or antagonism in in vivo animal models, as well as in clinical studies of type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, have led to conflicting results, suggesting that the actions of IL-1β on glycemic control may be pleiotropic in nature. In the present work, we find that the ability of IL-1β to amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from human islets correlates with donor BMI...
April 7, 2016: JCI Insight
Ewa Żurawska-Płaksej, Maria Knapik-Kordecka, Anna Rorbach-Dolata, Agnieszka Piwowar
INTRODUCTION: Chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a chitinolytic enzyme involved mainly in the immune and inflammatory response. It shows increased activity in many pathologies, including in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to investigate this enzyme's activity in plasma of patients with ongoing T2D and indicate factors related to the increased activity of this enzyme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-one patients and 46 control subjects without abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism and inflammatory states were enrolled in the study...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Rim Hassouna, Alexandra Labarthe, Virginie Tolle
Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate food intake and energy homeostasis, ghrelin plays a unique role as the first one identified to increases appetite and stimulate GH secretion. This review highlights the latest mechanism by which ghrelin modulates body growth, appetite and energy metabolism by exploring pharmacological actions of the hormone and consequences of genetic or pharmacological blockade of the ghrelin/GHS-R (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor) system on physiological responses in specific nutritional situations...
September 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Mark F McCarty
In type 1 diabetics, hepatic exposure to insulin is chronically subnormal even in the context of insulin therapy; as a result, expression of glycolytic enzymes is decreased, and that of gluconeogenic enzymes is enhanced, resulting in a physiologically inappropriate elevation of hepatic glucose output. Subnormal expression of glucokinase (GK) is of particular importance in this regard. Possible strategies for correcting this perturbation of hepatic enzyme expression include administration of small molecule allosteric activators of GK, as well as a procedure known as chronic intermittent intravenous insulin therapy (CIIIT); however, side effects accompany the use of GK activators, and CIIIT is time and labor intensive...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Brian J Martin, Martin J MacInnis, Jenna B Gillen, Lauren E Skelly, Martin J Gibala
Green tea extract (GTE) ingestion improves glucose homeostasis in healthy and diabetic humans, but the interactive effect of GTE and exercise is unknown. The present study examined the effect of short-term GTE supplementation on the glycemic response to an oral glucose load at rest and following an acute bout of exercise, as well as substrate oxidation during exercise. Eleven sedentary, overweight men with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥5.6 mmol·L(-1) (age, 34 ± 13 years; body mass index = 32 ± 5 kg·m(-2); FPG = 6...
June 15, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Tracey J Smith, Marques A Wilson, James P Karl, Krista Austin, Asma Bukhari, Stefan M Pasiakos, Kristie L O'Connor, Harris R Lieberman
: Military personnel and some athlete populations endure short-term energy deficits from reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure (EE) that may degrade physical and cognitive performance due to severe hypoglycemia (<3.1 mmol/L). The extent to which energy deficits alter normoglycemia (3.9-7.8 mmol/L) in healthy individuals is not known since prior studies measured glucose infrequently, not continuously. PURPOSE: To characterize the glycemic response to acute, severe energy deficit compared to fully fed control condition, using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Catriona A Burdon, Inge Spronk, Hoi Lun Cheng, Helen T O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on endurance performance using meta-analyses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, AUSPORT, AusportMed, Web of Science, and Scopus...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
Alex Zhong, Pratik Choudhary, Chantal McMahon, Pratik Agrawal, John B Welsh, Toni L Cordero, Francine R Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Automated insulin management features of the MiniMed(®) 640G sensor-augmented pump system include suspension in response to predicted low sensor glucose (SG) values ("suspend before low"), suspension in response to existing low SG values ("suspend on low"), and automatic restarting of basal insulin delivery upon SG recovery. The effectiveness of these features was evaluated using CareLink(®) software data. METHODS: Anonymized data from MiniMed 640G system users (n = 4818), MiniMed 530G system users (n = 39,219), and MiniMed Paradigm(®) Veo™ system users (n = 43,193) who voluntarily uploaded pump and sensor data were retrospectively analyzed...
October 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
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