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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102614/expression-of-cd4-cd28-null-t-lymphocytes-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-relation-to-microvascular-complications-aortic-elastic-properties-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness
#1
Mona H El-Samahy, Azza A G Tantawy, Amira A M Adly, Nevin M Habeeb, Eman A R Ismail, Gehan M Hamed, Rasha Eladawy
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and altered immunity. CD4(+) CD28(null) T-cells are a subset of long-lived cytotoxic CD4(+) T-lymphocytes with proatherogenic and plaque-destabilizing properties. We hypothesized that the frequency of CD4(+) CD28(null) T-cells may be altered in T1DM and related to vascular complications. AIM: To assess the percentage of CD4(+) CD28(null) T-lymphocytes in children and adolescents with T1DM and their relation to vascular structure and glycemic control...
January 19, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092345/acute-effects-of-a-beverage-containing-bitter-melon-extract-carela-on-postprandial-glycemia-among-prediabetic-adults
#2
C H Boone, J R Stout, J A Gordon, M J Redd, D D Church, L P Oliveira, D H Fukuda, J R Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Acute ingestion of bitter melon (BM) has been shown to suppress the postprandial glycemic response in diabetics, but its impact on glucose regulation among individuals with impaired glucose tolerance is unclear. Moreover, one's glucose tolerance level may influence the effectiveness of BM. This study aimed to examine the acute effects of a beverage containing BM extract on blood glucose regulation during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) among prediabetics. METHODS: Ten prediabetic adults completed two OGTTs-glucose only (D2) and glucose+BM (D3)...
January 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092151/issues-in-nutrition-carbohydrates
#3
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088172/ecotilling-by-sequencing-reveals-polymorphisms-in-genes-encoding-starch-synthases-that-are-associated-with-low-glycemic-response-in-rice
#4
Ramadoss Bharathi Raja, Somanath Agasimani, Sarita Jaiswal, Venkatesan Thiruvengadam, Robin Sabariappan, Ravindra N Chibbar, Sundaram Ganesh Ram
BACKGROUND: Glycemic response, a trait that is tedious to be assayed in cereal staples, has been identified as a factor correlated with alarmingly increasing prevalence of Type II diabetes. Reverse genetics based discovery of allelic variants associated with this nutritional trait gains significance as they can provide scope for genetic improvement of this factor which is otherwise difficult to target through routine screening methods. RESULTS: Through EcoTILLING by sequencing in 512 rice accessions, we report the discovery of six deleterious variants in the genes with potential to increase Resistant Starch (RS) and reduce Hydrolysis Index (HI) of starch...
January 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077380/metabolomic-profiles-as-reliable-biomarkers-of-dietary-composition
#5
Tõnu Esko, Joel N Hirschhorn, Henry A Feldman, Yu-Han H Hsu, Amy A Deik, Clary B Clish, Cara B Ebbeling, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: Clinical nutrition research often lacks robust markers of compliance, complicating the interpretation of clinical trials and observational studies of free-living subjects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine metabolomics profiles in response to 3 diets that differed widely in macronutrient composition during a controlled feeding protocol. DESIGN: Twenty-one adults with a high body mass index (in kg/m(2); mean ± SD: 34.4 ± 4.9) were given hypocaloric diets to promote weight loss corresponding to 10-15% of initial body weight...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070324/glycemic-index-of-some-local-staples-in-ghana
#6
Divine Eli-Cophie, Jacob K Agbenorhevi, Reginald A Annan
Glycemic index (GI), a measure of blood glucose level as influenced by foods has become a concern due to the increasing cases of diabetes in Ghana. In spite of this, little is known of the GI of commonly consumed carbohydrate-rich foods of the Ghanaian diet. The GI of five Ghanaian staples: fufu (locally pounded), kenkey (Ga), banku, Tuo Zaafi (TZ), and fufu (Processed powder) were determined in a crossover trial among 10 healthy nondiabetics. Participants were given 50 g portions of pure glucose on two different occasions and subsequently the test foods containing 50 g available carbohydrates...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065853/sitagliptin-inhibit-human-lymphocytes-proliferation-and-th1-th17-differentiation-in-vitro
#7
Marcelo Maia Pinheiro, Caroline Lais Stoppa, Claudete Justina Valduga, Cristina Eunice Okuyama, Renata Gorjão, Regina Mara Silva Pereira, Susana Nogueira Diniz
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetic agents that are widely used in clinical practice to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 is also known as lymphocyte cell surface protein, CD26, and plays an important role in T-cell immunity. Recent studies suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors improve beta-cell function and attenuate autoimmunity in type 1 diabetic mouse models. To investigate the direct effect of DPP4 in immune response, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy volunteers were obtained by Ficoll gradient and cultivated in the absence (control) or presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), or stimulated with PHA and treated with sitagliptin...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062077/breakfast-and-behavior-in-morning-tasks-facts-or-fads
#8
REVIEW
Valeria Edefonti, Francesca Bravi, Monica Ferraroni
BACKGROUND: Most of the studies investigating the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance have compared performance in subjects who have or have not consumed this meal. However, characteristics of breakfast itself may influence mental abilities. Moreover, as far as the positive effects of having breakfast is more evident, research may focus on the specific characteristics of an adequate breakfast. METHODS: To update an existing systematic review, published at the beginning of 2014, on the role of nutrient composition and/or energy intake at breakfast on the accomplishment of school-related tasks and cognition, we carried out a systematic review of the literature through PUBMED database...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055230/improved-postprandial-glycemic-control-with-faster-acting-insulin-aspart-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-using-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion
#9
Bruce W Bode, Joseph A Johnson, Liselotte Hyveled, Søren C Tamer, Marek Demissie
BACKGROUND: Faster aspart is insulin aspart (IAsp) in a new formulation, which in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in subjects with type 1 diabetes has shown a faster onset and offset of glucose-lowering effect than IAsp. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, crossover active-controlled trial compared 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) response, following 2 weeks of CSII with faster aspart or IAsp. Primary endpoint: mean change in PPG 2 h after a standardized meal test (ΔPGav,0-2h)...
January 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054966/postprandial-glycemic-and-insulinemic-responses-to-common-breakfast-beverages-consumed-with-a-standard-meal-in-adults-who-are-overweight-and-obese
#10
Jia Li, Elsa Janle, Wayne W Campbell
Breakfast beverages with different nutrient compositions may affect postprandial glycemic control differently. We assessed the effects of consuming (1) common breakfast beverages (water, sugar-sweetened coffee, reduced-energy orange juice (OJ), and low-fat milk (LFM)); and (2) fat-free, low-fat, and whole milk with breakfast on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses in adults who were overweight/obese. Forty-six subjects (33F/13M, body mass index: 32.5 ± 0.7 kg/m², age: 50 ± 1 years, mean ± SEMs) consumed a standard sandwich with one of the six beverages on separate mornings in randomized order...
January 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050236/hepatitis-c-eradication-with-sofosbuvir-leads-to-significant-metabolic-changes
#11
Amilcar L Morales, Zachary Junga, Manish B Singla, Maria Sjogren, Dawn Torres
AIM: To assess the effect of sofosbuvir (SOF) based regimens on glycemic and lipid control. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients treated and cured with a SOF regimen [SOF/ribavirin/interferon, SOF/simeprevir, or SOF/ledipasvir (LDV) ± ribavirin] from January 2014 to March 2015. Patients with hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) and lipid panels within six months before and six months after therapy were identified and included in our study...
December 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049262/black-tea-consumption-improves-postprandial-glycemic-control-in-normal-and-pre-diabetic-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#12
Arisa Butacnum, Rewadee Chongsuwat, Akkarach Bumrungpert
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postprandial glycemic control is important for prevention of diabetes. Black tea consumption may improve postprandial glycemic control. The major bioactive compounds are polyphenols, black tea polymerized polyphenol (BTPP).This study examined the effect of black tea consumption on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response following sucrose loading in normal and pre-diabetes subjects. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043584/increased-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigen-induced-gene-expression-of-interferon-gamma-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-interleukin-6-in-patients-with-diabetes
#13
Kiran I Masood, Muhammad Irfan, Qamar Masood, Bushra Jamil, Shoaib Rao, Maryam Rahim, Zahra Hasan
INTRODUCTION: Pakistan ranks fifth in high tuberculosis (TB)-burden countries and seventh among countries with high prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is a risk factor for TB and worsens disease outcomes. Furthermore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection can induce glucose intolerance and worsen glycemic control in diabetes. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 and -3 molecules regulate cytokine signaling and are important in maintaining an immune balance. In TB, interleukin (IL)-6 upregulation induces SOCS3, which is also a negative regulator of insulin signaling...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032465/diurnal-glucose-exposure-profiles-of-patients-treated-with-lixisenatide-before-breakfast-or-the-main-meal-of-the-day-an-analysis-using-continuous-glucose-monitoring
#14
Richard M Bergenstal, Ellie Strock, Roger Mazze, Margaret A Powers, Arlene M Monk, Sara Richter, Elisabeth Souhami, Bo Ahren
BACKGROUND: In the parent study of this analysis, patients with type 2 diabetes received lixisenatide before breakfast or the main meal of the day. This sub-study was designed to examine the effect of lixisenatide administered before breakfast or the main meal of the day on continuously assessed 24-hour patient glucose profiles. METHODS: A subset of patients from the parent study underwent two 14-day periods of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) at the start and end of the 24-week study...
December 29, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028392/effect-of-pseudocereal-based-breakfast-meals-on-the-first-and-second-meal-glucose-tolerance-in-healthy-and-diabetic-subjects
#15
Shreef G N Gabrial, Marie-Christine R Shakib, Gamal N Gabrial
BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). AIM: The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat) on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast) and second meal (standardised lunch) in healthy and diabetic subjects...
December 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005949/netosis-before-and-after-hyperglycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#16
Agostina Carestia, Gustavo Frechtel, Gloria Cerrone, María A Linari, Claudio D Gonzalez, Patricia Casais, Mirta Schattner
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is characterized by chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, increased risk of infections and early cardiovascular disease. By releasing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), neutrophils kill bacteria and exert pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic activities. Increased NETosis has been found in cross-sectional studies including treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In this study, we determined whether the ability of neutrophils to form NETs differs in diabetic patients pre- and post-hyperglycemic control versus healthy donors (HD), and the relationship between NETosis with pro-thrombotic, pro-inflammatory biomarkers and thrombotic clinical events...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004484/adolescent-life-with-diabetes-gender-matters-for-level-of-distress-experiences-from-the-national-tods-study
#17
Gun Forsander, Mette Bøgelund, Josephine Haas, Ulf Samuelsson
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between diabetes distress and gender, and the association with glycemic control, social support, health behaviors, and socio-economic status. METHODS: All adolescents, aged 15 to 18 years, in the national, pediatric diabetes registry SWEDIABKIDS with type 1 diabetes were invited to complete an online questionnaire. A total of 2112 teenagers were identified. RESULTS: 453 complete responses were valid for analyses...
December 22, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990382/general-measures-and-quality-of-life-issues-in-psoriasis
#18
Rashmi Sarkar, Shikha Chugh, Shivani Bansal
Psoriasis generally does not affect survival but has significant detrimental effect on quality of life (QOL), which may be comparable to that of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, depression, and cancer. The foremost important thing in the management of psoriasis is counseling of the patient. The clinician needs to be empathetic and spend adequate time with the patient and educating the patient about psoriasis. Clinicians should make it clear to the patient that the primary goal of treatment is control of the disease rather than cure...
November 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987919/number-of-branch-points-in-%C3%AE-limit-dextrins-impact-glucose-generation-rates-by-mammalian-mucosal-%C3%AE-glucosidases
#19
Byung-Hoo Lee, Bruce R Hamaker
α-Amylase first hydrolyzes starch structures to linear maltooligosaccharides and branched α-limit dextrins, then complete hydrolysis to glucose takes place through the mucosal α-glucosidases. In this study, we hydrolyzed waxy corn starch (WCS) by human pancreatic α-amylase to determine the digestion and structural properties of different size fractions of the branched α-limit dextrins. The α-amylolyzed WCS was separated by size exclusion chromatography, and the analyzed chromatograms showed four main hydrolyzate fractions...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987236/evaluation-of-the-counter-regulatory-responses-to-hypoglycemia-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-during-opiate-receptor-blockade-with-naltrexone
#20
Sarita Naik, Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Anne-Sophie Sejling, Barbara Szepietowska, Robert S Sherwin
AIMS: Hypoglycemia is the major limiting factor in achieving optimal glycemic control in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), especially intensively treated patients with impaired glucose counterregulation during hypoglycemia. Naloxone, an opiate receptor blocker, has been reported to enhance the acute counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia when administered intravenously in humans. The current study was undertaken to investigate if the oral formulation of the long acting opiate antagonist, naltrexone, could have a similar effect, and thus might be useful therapeutically in T1DM patients with a high risk for hypoglycemia...
December 17, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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