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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541572/shared-responsibility-for-type-1-diabetes-care-is-associated-with-glycemic-variability-and-risk-of-glycemic-excursions-in-youth
#1
Arwen M Marker, Amy E Noser, Mark A Clements, Susana R Patton
We examined how parent and youth responsibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D) care is related to adherence and glycemic outcomes, namely, glycemic variability and risk of glycemic excursions. One hundred thirty-five parent-youth dyads (10-16 years old; diagnosed with T1D for at least 6 months) participated in this study. Percent responsibility of T1D care attributed to the youth, parent, or shared was measured using the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire. We collected youth's hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glucometer downloads to examine relationships between responsibility and HbA1c, frequency of blood glucose monitoring (self-monitoring blood glucose, SMBG), risk of glycemic excursions, and actual glycemic variability using bivariate correlations and path analysis...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538363/the-effect-of-alpha-linolenic-acid-on-glycemic-control-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#2
Elena Jovanovski, Dandan Li, Hoang Vi Thanh Ho, Vladimir Djedovic, Any de Castro Ruiz Marques, Esra Shishtar, Sonia Blanco Mejia, John L Sievenpiper, Russell J de Souza, Lea Duvnjak, Vladimir Vuksan
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) have been shown to reduce type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk and improve insulin responsiveness in T2DM subjects, but whether the plant sources of omega-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid [ALA]) have an effect on glycemic control requires further investigation. METHODS: The parameters of interest were glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin (FBI), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fructosamine, and glycated albumin...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534683/transfer-from-pediatric-to-adult-endocrinology
#3
Marybeth R Jones, Brett W Robbins, Marilyn Augustine, Jackie Doyle, Jean Mack-Fogg, Heather Jones, Patience H White
OBJECTIVE: Adult and pediatric endocrinologists share responsibility for the transition of youth with type 1 diabetes from pediatric to adult healthcare. This study aimed to increase successful transfers to adult care in subspecialty practices by establishing a systematic healthcare transition (HCT) process. METHODS: Providers from the adult and pediatric endocrinology divisions at the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) met monthly to customize and integrate the 6 Core Elements (6CEs) of HCT into clinical workflows...
May 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532691/bio-synthetic-materials-for-immunomodulation-of-islet-transplants
#4
Greg A Foster, Andrés J García
Clinical islet transplantation is an effective therapy in restoring physiological glycemic control in type 1 diabetics. However, allogeneic islets derived from cadaveric sources elicit immune responses that result in acute and chronic islet destruction. To prevent immune destruction of islets, transplant recipients require lifelong delivery of immunosuppressive drugs, which are associated with debilitating side effects. Biomaterial-based strategies to eliminate the need for immunosuppressive drugs are an emerging therapy for improving islet transplantation...
May 19, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531455/effect-of-serving-size-and-addition-of-sugar-on-the-glycemic-response-elicited-by-oatmeal-a-randomized-cross-over-study
#5
Thomas M S Wolever, B Jan-Willem van Klinken, Susan E Spruill, Alexandra L Jenkins, YiFang Chu, Laura Harkness
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aimed to determine the impact of serving size and addition of sucrose on the glycemic response elicited by oatmeal. METHODS: We studied 38 healthy subjects (mean ± SD age 40 ± 12 yr, BMI 26.4 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)) on 8 separate days using a randomized, cross-over design. Capillary blood-glucose responses over 2hr after consuming 30, 40 and 60 g Classic Quaker Quick Oats (18, 24 and 36 g available-carbohydrate [avCHO], respectively) and 30 g Oats plus 9 g sucrose (27 g avCHO) were compared with those after avCHO-matched servings of Cream of Rice cereal (Control) (22, 29, 44 and 33 g cereal, respectively)...
December 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515312/astrocytic-glycogen-derived-lactate-fuels-the-brain-during-exhaustive-exercise-to-maintain-endurance-capacity
#6
Takashi Matsui, Hideki Omuro, Yu-Fan Liu, Mariko Soya, Takeru Shima, Bruce S McEwen, Hideaki Soya
Brain glycogen stored in astrocytes provides lactate as an energy source to neurons through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to maintain neuronal functions such as hippocampus-regulated memory formation. Although prolonged exhaustive exercise decreases brain glycogen, the role of this decrease and lactate transport in the exercising brain remains less clear. Because muscle glycogen fuels exercising muscles, we hypothesized that astrocytic glycogen plays an energetic role in the prolonged-exercising brain to maintain endurance capacity through lactate transport...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509691/development-of-glucose-responsive-smart-insulin-systems
#7
Nischay K Rege, Nelson F B Phillips, Michael A Weiss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The complexity of modern insulin-based therapy for type I and type II diabetes mellitus and the risks associated with excursions in blood-glucose concentration (hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia) have motivated the development of 'smart insulin' technologies (glucose-responsive insulin, GRI). Such analogs or delivery systems are entities that provide insulin activity proportional to the glycemic state of the patient without external monitoring by the patient or healthcare provider...
May 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507608/roles-of-fasting-and-postprandial-blood-glucose-in-the-effect-of-type-2-diabetes-on-central-arterial-stiffness-a-5-year-prospective-community-based-analysis
#8
Shihui Fu, Wenji Chen, Leiming Luo, Ping Ye
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease constitutes a major challenge for the health of community-dwelling population, it is essential to delay the development of atherosclerosis. However, long-term prospective studies analyzing the effect of type 2 diabetes (T2D) on central arterial stiffness are lacking, and roles of fasting and postprandial blood glucose (FBG and PBG) in this effect are controversial. Purpose of the current analysis was to investigate the effect of T2D on central arterial stiffness during the 5 years of follow-up, and explore whether both FBG and PBG were determinants of this effect in Chinese community-dwelling population...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504654/sugar-makes-neutrophils-rage-linking-diabetes-associated-hyperglycemia-to-thrombocytosis-and-platelet-reactivity
#9
Robert H Lee, Wolfgang Bergmeier
Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the link between hyperglycemia and atherothrombotic disease is not completely understood. Patients with diabetes often show hyporesponsiveness to antiplatelet therapies, and it has been suggested that hyperreactive reticulated platelets underlie this altered therapeutic response. In this issue of the JCI, Kraakman et al. uncover a previously unknown link between hyperglycemia and enhanced platelet production and reactivity...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503791/blood-glucose-and-insulin-concentrations-after-octreotide-administration-in-horses-with-insulin-dysregulation
#10
N Frank, P Hermida, A Sanchez-Londoño, R Singh, C M Gradil, C K Uricchio
BACKGROUND: Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. ANIMALS: Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. METHODS: Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490674/physical-form-of-dietary-fat-alters-postprandial-substrate-utilization-and-glycemic-response-in-healthy-chinese-men
#11
Sze-Yen Tan, Elaine Peh, Evelyn Lau, Alejandro G Marangoni, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Background: Dietary fats elicit various physiological responses, with the physical form of fat reported to alter fat digestion and absorption.Objectives: The primary aims were to compare the effects of dietary fat in 2 physical forms (liquid and oleogel) and 2 degrees of saturation (saturated and polyunsaturated) on postprandial energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation, glycemia, and appetite.Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled crossover trial. Sixteen normal-weight, healthy Chinese men completed the study [mean ± SD age: 28 ± 6 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488272/pathophysiological-characteristics-of-preproinsulin-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-subjects-with-juvenile-onset-and-adult-onset-type-1-diabetes-a-1-year-follow-up-study
#12
Mahinder Paul, Darshan Badal, Neenu Jacob, Devi Dayal, Rakesh Kumar, Anil Bhansali, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Naresh Sachdeva
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Among the beta-cell associated antigens, preproinsulin (PPI) has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). PPI-specific autoreactive CD8+ T cells emerge early during beta-cell destruction and persist in peripheral circulation during diabetes progression. However, the influence of insulin therapy on phenotype of autoreactive CD8+ T cells in T1D including, juvenile-onset T1D (JOT1D), and adult-onset T1D (AOT1D) is not yet known. METHODS: We followed the time course of PPI-specific CD8+ T cells in JOT1D and AOT1D subjects that achieved glycemic control after 1 year of insulin therapy, using major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I) dextramers by flow cytometry...
May 10, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485897/three-dimensional-structures-and-functional-studies-of-two-gh43-arabinofuranosidases-from-weissella-sp-strain-142-and-lactobacillus-brevis
#13
Javier A Linares-Pastén, Peter Falck, Khalil Albasri, Sven Kjellström, Patrick Adlercreutz, Derek T Logan, Eva Nordberg Karlsson
Arabinofuranosidases degrade arabinose-containing oligo and polysaccharides, releasing L-arabinose, which is a potentially useful sugar, shown to reduce glycemic response under certain conditions. Arabinofuranosidases (Arafs) are frequently found in GH43, one of the most common GH-families encoded in genomes in gut microbiota, and hence it is of interest to increase understanding of the function of these enzymes in species occurring in the gut. Here we have produced, characterized and solved the three-dimensional structures, at 1...
May 9, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483509/nitric-oxide-in-the-nucleus-of-the-tractus-solitarius-is-involved-in-hypoglycemic-conditioned-response
#14
Beatriz A Alvarado, Mónica Lemus, Sergio Montero, Valery Melnikov, Sonia Luquín, Joaquín García-Estrada, Elena Roces de Álvarez-Buylla
The repeated injection of insulin (unconditioned stimulus, UCS) immediately followed by exposure to sensory stimulation (e.g. sound or odor; conditioned stimulus, CS) results in a learned conditioned reflex in which the exposure to the CS alone lowers blood glucose. The brain regions participating in this hypoglycemic Pavlovian response remain unknown. Here we investigate if nitric oxide (NO) in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), a nucleus known to be involved in glucose homeostasis, participates in this hypoglycemic reflex...
May 5, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481230/the-effect-of-isomaltulose-together-with-green-tea-on-glycemic-response-and-antioxidant-capacity-a-single-blind-crossover-study-in-healthy-subjects
#15
Passakorn Suraphad, Phim On Suklaew, Sathaporn Ngamukote, Sirichai Adisakwattana, Kittana Mäkynen
Isomaltulose, a naturally-occurring isomer of sucrose, is commonly used as an alternative sweetener in foods and beverages. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of isomaltulose together with green tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentration, as well as antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 15 healthy subjects (eight women and seven men; ages 23.5 ± 0.7 years; with body mass index of 22.6 ± 0.4 kg/m²) consumed five beverages: (1) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL water; (2) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of water; (3) 400 mL of green tea; (4) 50 g sucrose in 400 mL of green tea; and (5) 50 g isomaltulose in 400 mL of green tea...
May 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481181/a-diabetic-pregnancy-alters-the-expression-of-stress-related-receptors-in-gastrulating-rabbit-blastocyst-and-in-the-reproductive-tract
#16
Tom Seeling, Štefan Čikoš, Katarzyna J Grybel, Žofia Janštová, S Mareike Pendzialek, Maria Schindler, Alexandra Špirková, Anne Navarrete Santos
The incidence of diabetes mellitus for young people rises since years. A preconceptional diabetes mellitus leads to subfertility. Most of the causes for a diabetic subfertility are still unknown. Stress can significantly deteriorate glycemic control in diabetes. Several mechanisms by which "stress hormones", like adrenaline and cortisol or corticosterone, can contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis have been identified. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we examined the expression of adrenergic receptors and the glucocorticoid receptor transcripts in the female rabbit reproductive tract and in gastrulating blastocysts developed in normoinsulinemic mothers and in mothers with experimentally induced diabetes mellitus type 1...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475373/efficacy-and-safety-of-lurasidone-in-adolescents-with-schizophrenia-a-6-week-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#17
Robert Goldman, Antony Loebel, Josephine Cucchiaro, Ling Deng, Robert L Findling
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lurasidone in acutely symptomatic adolescent patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Patients aged 13-17 years were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of double-blind, fixed-dose lurasidone (40 or 80 mg/day) or placebo. Primary and key secondary efficacy measures were change from baseline to week 6 in the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) total score and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) score, respectively, using mixed model for repeated measurement (MMRM) analysis...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466661/dose-unit-establishment-for-a-new-basal-insulin-using-joint-modeling-of-insulin-dose-and-glycemic-response
#18
Yongming Qu, Junxiang Luo, Parag Garhyan, Caryl J Antalis, Annette M Chang, Scott J Jacober
BACKGROUND: For new insulin analogs with properties that vary from human insulin, defining activity in units of human insulin based on glycemic lowering efficacy may be challenging. Here we present a new method that can be used to quantify a unit dose of an experimental insulin when the traditional euglycemic clamp method is not adequate. METHODS: Joint modeling of insulin dose and the glycemic outcome variable hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), where both were response variables, was used to evaluate insulin unit potency for basal insulin peglispro (BIL)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465557/one-year-daily-consumption-of-buttermilk-drink-containing-lutein-enriched-egg-yolks-does-not-affect-endothelial-function-in-fasting-and-postprandial-state
#19
Sanne M van der Made, Tos T J M Berendschot, Aize Kijlstra, Jogchum Plat
Previous results have shown that one-year daily consumption of a lutein-enriched egg yolk containing dairy drink did not significantly affect fasting serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of macular degeneration. The current study further substantiates these findings with parameters reflecting endothelial function. Additionally, we extend our observations from the fasting to the postprandial situation. Subjects participated in a 1-y randomized placebo-controlled dietary intervention trial...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461456/elovl6-deficiency-improves-glycemic-control-in-diabetic-db-db-mice-by-expanding-%C3%AE-cell-mass-and-increasing-insulin-secretory-capacity
#20
Hui Zhao, Takashi Matsuzaka, Yuta Nakano, Kaori Motomura, Nie Tang, Tomotaka Yokoo, Yuka Okajima, Song-Iee Han, Yoshinori Takeuchi, Yuichi Aita, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Shigeru Yatoh, Hiroaki Suzuki, Motohiro Sekiya, Naoya Yahagi, Yoshimi Nakagawa, Hirohito Sone, Nobuhiro Yamada, Hitoshi Shimano
Dysfunctional fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of β-cell dysfunction and loss of β-cell mass in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Elovl6 is a microsomal enzyme that is responsible for converting C16 saturated and monounsaturated FAs into C18 species. We previously showed that Elovl6 played a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance by modifying FA composition. To further define its role in T2D development, we assessed the effects of Elovl6 deletion in leptin receptor-deficient C57BL/KsJ db/db mice, a model of T2D...
May 1, 2017: Diabetes
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