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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640061/intermittent-standing-but-not-a-moderate-exercise-bout-reduces-postprandial-glycaemia
#1
Fabiana B Benatti, Sidsel A Larsen, Katja Kofoed, Signe T Nielsen, Nina M Harder-Lauridsen, Mark P Lyngbæk, Dorte Eriksen, Kristian Karstoft, Rikke Krogh-Madsen, Bente K Pedersen, Mathias Ried-Larsen
PURPOSE: To determine if minimum recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 30-min bout of continuous moderate-intensity walking) is sufficient to counteract the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting on postprandial metabolism and if there are any effects of breaking up sitting with intermittent standing when achieving minimum recommended MVPA. METHODS: Fourteen (n=14) physically inactive healthy adult males underwent four intra-hospital 27-h interventions: 9-h continuous sitting (SIT); 15-min standing bouts every 30 min during the 9-h sitting (STAND); 30-min moderate-intensity walking bout followed by 8...
June 21, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632394/changes-in-eating-behaviors-of-children-with-obesity-in-response-to-carbohydrate-modified-and-portion-controlled-diets
#2
Shelley Kirk, Jessica G Woo, Bonnie Brehm, Stephen R Daniels, Brian E Saelens
OBJECTIVE: This study's objective was to determine whether two distinct carbohydrate (CHO)-modified diets and a standard portion-controlled (PC) diet differentially impacted children's eating behaviors and whether eating behavior scores predicted lower BMI among children with obesity. METHODS: Children (n = 102) aged 7-12 years with obesity were randomly assigned to a 12-month intervention of a low-carbohydrate (LC), reduced glycemic load (RGL), or standard PC diet...
June 20, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629959/glycemic-control-and-muscle-damage-in-3-athletes-with-type-1-diabetes-during-a-successful-performance-in-a-relay-ultramarathon-a-case-report
#3
Taisa Belli, Denise V de Macedo, Pedro P M Scariot, Gustavo G de Araújo, Ivan G M Dos Reis, Fernanda L Lazarim, Lázaro A S Nunes, René Brenzikofer, Claudio A Gobatto
Ultramarathon races are fairly demanding and impose substantial physiological stress on healthy athletes. These competitions may thus be considerably more challenging for individuals with diabetes. This case study aims to describe glycemic control, muscle damage, inflammation, and renal function in 3 athletes with type 1 diabetes during a successful performance in a relay ultramarathon. The team completed the race in 29 hours and 28 minutes, earning third place. The total distance covered by each athlete was 68...
June 16, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629513/erythropoietin-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis
#4
Soumyadeep Dey, Constance T Noguchi
Erythropoietin (EPO), known primarily for its erythropoietic activity, is commonly used clinically to treat anemia of chronic kidney disease. However, the expression of EPO receptor (EpoR) beyond erythroid tissue provides for potential extrahematopoietic effects of EPO, including EPO regulation of metabolic homeostasis (Zhang et al., 2014). Small clinical studies have shown that EPO treatment in patients with end-stage renal disease improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Studies in animal models have shown that EPO regulation of metabolism is mainly attributed to its response in fat, and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (Dey et al...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627064/effects-of-isoenergetic-quantities-of-a-low-starch-muesli-feed-high-in-fat-and-fibre-vs-oat-grains-on-the-glycemic-and-insulinemic-responses-and-feed-intake-patterns-in-sport-ponies
#5
M Bochnia, C Schürer, J Gottschalk, A Einspanier, D Hillegeist, M Wensch-Dorendorf, J M Greef, M Glatter, A Zeyner
Aim of this study was to compare glycemic and insulinemic responses and feed intake patterns in sport ponies after feeding isoenergetic quantities of low-starch muesli feed high in fat and fibre (FF) or oat grains (OG). Six sport ponies were randomly assigned to one of these two treatment groups for 2 × 3 weeks according to a crossover-design. Ponies received two equal meals/day of either semi-crushed OG (1 g starch/kg bwt*meal(-1) ) or an isoenergetic quantity of FF. Hay was also given in two equal meals/day and provided the remaining metabolisable energy up to 1...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624122/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-insulin-synergistically-activate-vagal-afferent-neurons
#6
Yusaku Iwasaki, Chayon Goswami, Toshihiko Yada
Intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic insulin, released postprandially, commonly regulate glucose metabolism. Recent clinical experience indicates that the GLP-1R agonist and insulin in combination, compared to insulin alone, results in better glycemic and weight controls in type 2 diabetic patients. These observations suggest possible interactive effect of these hormones. These hormones, in addition to peripherally controlling glycemia, exert central regulation of food intake and glucose metabolism, the effect at least partly mediated by signaling to the brain via the vagal afferents...
May 25, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617838/safety-and-metabolic-effects-of-tesamorelin-a-growth-hormone-releasing-factor-analogue-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
David R Clemmons, Sam Miller, Jean-Claude Mamputu
OBJECTIVE: Use of growth hormone is associated with side effects, including insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine whether tesamorelin, a stabilized growth hormone-releasing hormone analogue, would alter insulin sensitivity or control of diabetes. DESIGN: A 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled study of 53 patients with type 2 diabetes. Three treatment groups: placebo, 1 and 2 mg tesamorelin. MEASUREMENTS: Fasting glucose, glucose and insulin from oral glucose tolerance test, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), home blood glucose, insulin-like growth factor-1, and lipids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615381/yogurt-is-a-low-glycemic-index-food
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Ms Wolever
High yogurt intake is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although several mechanisms could explain this association, this paper addresses the glycemic and insulinemic impact of yogurt. There is evidence that low-glycemic index (GI) and low-glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with a reduced risk of T2DM. The 93 GI values for yogurt in the University of Sydney's GI database have a mean ± SD of 34 ± 13, and 92% of the yogurts are low-GI (≤55). The 43 plain yogurts in the database have a lower GI than the 50 sweetened yogurts, 27 ± 11 compared with 41 ± 11 (P < 0...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611856/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-vildagliptin-versus-alogliptin-effective-switch-from-sitagliptin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Erina Shigematsu, Tadashi Yamakawa, Mari S Oba, Jun Suzuki, Jo Nagakura, Kazuaki Kadonosono, Yasuo Terauchi
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of vildagliptin or alogliptin on blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by sitagliptin. METHODS: In a single-center open-label trial, 35 patients with inadequate glycemic control on sitagliptin therapy (50 mg once daily) were randomly switched to treatment with vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or alogliptin (25 mg once daily). After 12 weeks, patients who failed to achieve the target HbA1c level of < 7...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607454/insulin-sparing-and-fungible-effects-of-e4orf1-combined-with-an-adipocyte-targeting-sequence-in-mouse-models-of-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#10
I-S Yoon, S Park, R-H Kim, H L Ko, J-H Nam
Obesity impairs glycemic control and causes insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adenovirus 36 (Ad36) infection can increase the uptake of excess glucose from blood into adipocytes by increasing GLUT4 translocation through the Ras-Akt signaling pathway, which bypasses PI3K-Akt-mediated insulin receptor signaling. E4orf1, a viral gene expressed early during Ad36 infection, is responsible for this insulin-sparing effect and may be an alternative target for improving insulin resistance. To deliver the gene to adipocytes only, we connected the adipocyte-targeting sequence (ATS) to the 5' end of E4orf1 (ATS-E4orf1)...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606564/no-influence-of-carbonation-on-glycemic-response-gastric-emptying-and-satiety-of-sweetened-drinks
#11
Evelyn Rou Lin Lau, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of carbonation of sweetened beverages on glycemic response, gastric emptying, and satiety. METHODS: After an overnight fast, 15 healthy individuals (6 women, 9 men) consumed a 500 mL beverage containing 50 g glucose that was noncarbonated (NC), low carbonated (LC), or high carbonated (HC) at a standardized rate of consumption (100 mL/min). Blood glucose was measured at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after beverage consumption...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596012/effects-of-positive-airway-pressure-therapy-on-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-markers-in-males-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#12
A Feliciano, M J Oliveira, A Cysneiros, C Martinho, R P Reis, D Penque, P Pinto, C Bárbara
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with cardiovascular/metabolic complications. Some analytical parameters (homocysteine, glycemic and lipidic profiles) are recognized markers of these consequences. Limited data is available on the association of these markers and OSAS's severity/response to positive airway pressure therapy (PAP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study we analyzed polysomnographic and analytical data of male patients admitted to sleep laboratory...
June 5, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594657/fitness-moderates-glycemic-responses-to-sitting-and-light-activity-breaks
#13
Matthew McCarthy, Charlotte L Edwardson, Melanie J Davies, Joseph Henson, Danielle H Bodicoat, Kamlesh Khunti, David W Dunstan, James A King, Thomas Yates
PURPOSE: This study aimed to experimentally determine whether cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) modifies postprandial glycemia during prolonged sitting and investigated the potentially blunting influence this may have upon the benefits of interrupting postprandial sitting time with light activity breaks. METHODS: Thirty-four adults (18female; 16male; mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9years, BMI: 24.5 ± 3kg/m) undertook two 7·5hour experimental conditions in a randomized order: 1) Prolonged sitting; 2) Sitting interspersed with 5min light walking bouts every 30min...
June 8, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592611/fructose-replacement-of-glucose-or-sucrose-in-food-or-beverages-lowers-postprandial-glucose-and-insulin-without-raising-triglycerides-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Rebecca A Evans, Michael Frese, Julio Romero, Judy H Cunningham, Kerry E Mills
Background: Conflicting evidence exists on the effects of fructose consumption in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. No systematic review has addressed the effect of isoenergetic fructose replacement of glucose or sucrose on peak postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations.Objective: The objective of this study was to review the evidence for postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses after isoenergetic replacement of either glucose or sucrose in foods or beverages with fructose...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592515/intragastric-lysine-lowers-the-circulating-glucose-and-insulin-responses-to-a-mixed-nutrient-drink-without-slowing-gastric-emptying-in-healthy-adults
#15
Sina S Ullrich, Penelope Ce Fitzgerald, Iris Nkamba, Robert E Steinert, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset
Background: Lysine is reported to lower the glycemic response to oral glucose in humans and, albeit at high loads, to slow gastric emptying of glucose and decrease food intake in rats.Objective: We investigated the effects of intragastrically administered lysine on early (15 min) and later (60 min) blood glucose and insulin responses to and gastric emptying of a mixed-nutrient drink, and effects on subsequent energy intake.Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers (7 men and 5 women; mean ± SEM age: 24 ± 2 y) received intragastric infusions (200 mL) containing 5 or 10 g l-lysine or a control solution within 2 min on 3 different occasions in randomized order...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591651/transplantation-of-human-pancreatic-endoderm-cells-reverses-diabetes-post-transplantation-in-a-prevascularized-subcutaneous-site
#16
Andrew R Pepper, Rena Pawlick, Antonio Bruni, John Wink, Yasmin Rafiei, Doug O'Gorman, Richard Yan-Do, Boris Gala-Lopez, Tatsuya Kin, Patrick E MacDonald, A M James Shapiro
Beta-cell replacement therapy is an effective means to restore glucose homeostasis in select humans with autoimmune diabetes. The scarcity of "healthy" human donor pancreata restricts the broader application of this effective curative therapy. "β-Like" cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC), with the capacity to secrete insulin in a glucose-regulated manner, have been developed in vitro, with limitless capacity for expansion. Here we report long-term diabetes correction in mice transplanted with hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm cells (PECs) in a prevascularized subcutaneous site...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591632/bread-affects-clinical-parameters-and-induces-gut-microbiome-associated-personal-glycemic-responses
#17
Tal Korem, David Zeevi, Niv Zmora, Omer Weissbrod, Noam Bar, Maya Lotan-Pompan, Tali Avnit-Sagi, Noa Kosower, Gal Malka, Michal Rein, Jotham Suez, Ben Z Goldberg, Adina Weinberger, Avraham A Levy, Eran Elinav, Eran Segal
Bread is consumed daily by billions of people, yet evidence regarding its clinical effects is contradicting. Here, we performed a randomized crossover trial of two 1-week-long dietary interventions comprising consumption of either traditionally made sourdough-leavened whole-grain bread or industrially made white bread. We found no significant differential effects of bread type on multiple clinical parameters. The gut microbiota composition remained person specific throughout this trial and was generally resilient to the intervention...
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587789/once-weekly-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-albiglutide-vs-prandial-insulin-added-to-basal-insulin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-results-over-52-weeks
#18
Lawrence A Leiter, Jorge Luiz Gross, Francis Chow, Diane Miller, Susan Johnson, Bo Ahrén
We have previously reported that once-weekly albiglutide was noninferior to thrice-daily lispro for glycemic lowering, with decreased weight and risk of hypoglycemia, in patients inadequately controlled on basal insulin over 26 weeks. Findings after 52 weeks reveal similar responses to albiglutide as an add-on to insulin glargine.
May 25, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581555/investigation-of-mechanisms-involved-in-postprandial-glycemia-and-insulinemia-attenuation-with-dietary-fibre-consumption
#19
Nikolay Repin, Brittney A Kay, Steve W Cui, Amanda J Wright, Alison M Duncan, H Douglas Goff
This work examines the mechanisms involved in the attenuation of postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses associated with soluble dietary fibre (SDF) consumption. The effect of SDF, including yellow mustard mucilage, soluble flaxseed gum and fenugreek gum on in vitro amylolysis and maltose transport was studied. Furthermore, a human clinical trial was conducted to investigate the effect of SDF consumption on postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses and gastric emptying, as estimated based on the absorption of paracetamol...
June 5, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580278/fgf21-does-not-require-adipocyte-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-or-the-phosphorylation-of-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-acc-to-mediate-improvements-in-whole-body-glucose-homeostasis
#20
Emilio P Mottillo, Eric M Desjardins, Andreas M Fritzen, Vito Z Zou, Justin D Crane, Julian M Yabut, Bente Kiens, Derek M Erion, Adhiraj Lanba, James G Granneman, Saswata Talukdar, Gregory R Steinberg
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) shows great potential for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes, as its long-acting analogue reduces body weight and improves lipid profiles of participants in clinical studies; however, the intracellular mechanisms mediating these effects are poorly understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy sensor of the cell and a molecular target for anti-diabetic medications. This work examined the role of AMPK in mediating the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of FGF21...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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