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Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Kriti Sethi, Saravanan Palani, Juan C G Cortés, Mamiko Sato, Mayalagu Sevugan, Mariona Ramos, Shruthi Vijaykumar, Masako Osumi, Naweed I Naqvi, Juan Carlos Ribas, Mohan Balasubramanian
Cytokinesis in many organisms requires a plasma membrane anchored actomyosin ring, whose contraction facilitates cell division. In yeast and fungi, actomyosin ring constriction is also coordinated with division septum assembly. How the actomyosin ring interacts with the plasma membrane and the plasma membrane-localized septum synthesizing machinery remains poorly understood. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an attractive model organism to study cytokinesis, the β-1,3-glucan synthase Cps1p / Bgs1p, an integral membrane protein, localizes to the plasma membrane overlying the actomyosin ring and is required for primary septum synthesis...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
M Esrefoglu, O E Tok, M S Aydin, M Iraz, O F Ozer, S Selek, M Iraz
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the leading causes of acute renal failure which is a common clinical event leading to development of chronic kidney disease and a high mortality; especially in elderly people. β-glucans are glucose polymer groups with free-radical scavenger, macrophage activator, and immune defense inducer functions. We designed this study to determine the possible protective effects of β-glucan against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury comparatively in young and aged rats...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Kim Vigor, John Emerson, Robert Scott, Julia Cheek, Claire Barton, Heather J Bax, Debra H Josephs, Sophia N Karagiannis, James F Spicer, Heike Lentfer
The presence of impurities or contaminants in biological products such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb) could affect efficacy or cause adverse reactions in patients. ICH guidelines (Q6A and Q6B) are in place to regulate the level of impurities within clinical drug products. An impurity less often reported and therefore lacking regulatory guideline is beta-glucan. Beta-glucans are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by (1-3) beta-glycosidic bonds, and are produced by prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, including plants...
September 7, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Miriam Sari, Alexander Prange, Jan I Lelley, Reinhard Hambitzer
Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Mathew Paul Stephany, Stella Chung, Marc Zachary Handler, Nancy Stefanie Handler, Glenn A Handler, Robert A Schwartz
Shiitake mushroom dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms. Symptoms include linear erythematous eruptions with papules, papulovesicles or plaques, and severe pruritus. It is likely caused by lentinan, a heat-inactivated beta-glucan polysaccharide. Cases were initially reported in Japan but have now been documented in other Asian countries, North America, South America, and Europe, as this mushroom is now cultivated and consumed worldwide. Shiitake mushroom dermatitis may result from mushroom ingestion or from handling, which can result in an allergic contact dermatitis...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Anna Goncerzewicz, Anna Misiewicz, Lubomiła Owczarek, Urszula Jasińska, Sylwia Skąpska
The number of people who cannot consume dairy products due to intolerance or allergies to food components is increasing. Consumers are increasingly searching for alternative, nondairy beverages which have an advantageous effect on the body and which stimulate gut microflora. Previous studies have shown that Streptococcus thermophilus TKM3 KKP 2030p can be an efficient starter culture for the fermentation of plant material and can also ensure an acceptable sensory profile and a high number of lactic acid bacteria during 4 week cold storage...
December 2016: Current Microbiology
David A Stevens, Yonglong Zhang, Malcolm A Finkelman, Pappagianis Demosthenes, Karl V Clemons, Martinez Marife
Diagnosing coccidioidal meningitis (CM) can be problematic owing to infrequency and/or delay of positivity of CSF culture or CSF antibody, particularly if primary coccidioidal infection is unrecognized. We tested 37 CSF specimens, 26 from confirmed CM and 11 from patients with suspected microbial meningitis without fungal diagnosis, for (1, 3)-beta glucan (BG). CM CSF specimens BG ranged from 18-3300 pg/ml, controls <3.9-103. Diagnostic performance was determined using 31 pg/ml cutoff (bottom of serum range per directions for commercial kit, though further serial dilutions of the standard indicated linearity to 3...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Claire Barton, Kim Vigor, Robert Scott, Paul Jones, Heike Lentfer, Heather J Bax, Debra H Josephs, Sophia N Karagiannis, James F Spicer
Beta-glucans are large polysaccharides produced by a range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. They have potential immunostimulatory properties and have been used with therapeutic intent as anti-microbial and anti-tumour agents. A range of other potentially beneficial effects have been described, and oral forms of beta-glucans are widely available over-the-counter and online. Parenteral formulations are popular in parts of Asia and are the subject of ongoing trials, worldwide. Beta-glucans are also potential contaminants of pharmaceutical products, and high levels have been described in some blood products...
July 29, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Danna Liang, Minyang Chen, Xiaohua Qi, Qiang Xu, Fucai Zhou, Xuehao Chen
Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphid is one of the most serious cucumber pests and frequently cause severe damage to commercially produced crops. Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying pest resistance is important for aphid-resistant cucumber varieties breeding. In this study, two parental cucumber lines, JY30 (aphid susceptible) and EP6392 (aphid resistant), and pools of resistant and susceptible (n = 50 each) plants from 1000 F2 individuals derived from crossing JY30 with EP6392, were used to detect genomic regions associated with aphid resistance in cucumbers...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Seth M Barribeau, Paul Schmid-Hempel, Ben M Sadd
Invertebrates lack the cellular and physiological machinery of the adaptive immune system, but show specificity in their immune response and immune priming. Functionally, immune priming is comparable to immune memory in vertebrates. Individuals that have survived exposure to a given parasite are better protected against subsequent exposures. Protection may be cross-reactive, but demonstrations of persistent and specific protection in invertebrates are increasing. This immune priming can cross generations ("trans-generational" immune priming), preparing offspring for the prevailing parasite environment...
2016: PloS One
Jie Xing, Zhenguang Liu, Yifan Huang, Tao Qin, Ruonan Bo, Sisi Zheng, Li Luo, Yee Huang, Yale Niu, Deyun Wang
Adjuvants enhance immunogenicity and sustain long-term immune responses. As vital components of vaccines, efficient adjuvants are highly desirable. Recent evidence regarding the potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to act as a support material has suggested that certain properties, such as their unique hollow structure, high specific surface area, and chemical stability, make CNTs desirable for a variety of antigen-delivery applications. Lentinan, a β-1,3-glucohexaose with β-1,6-branches that is extracted from the mushroom Lentinus edodes, is an effective immunostimulatory drug that has been clinically used in Japan and China, and recent studies have proved that specific beta-glucans can bind to various immune receptors...
August 3, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mi Wang, Lifang Zhang, Ruile Yang, Chenzhong Fei, Xiaoyang Wang, Keyu Zhang, Chunmei Wang, Wenli Zheng, Feiqun Xue
In this study, the adjuvant activity of sulfated glucan from saccharomyces cerevisiae (SGSC) was investigated. sGSC had molecular weight of 12.9kDa and degrees of sulfation of 0.16.The effects of SGSC on the splenic lymphocyte cells of mice were measured in vitro. The results showed that SGSC could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation singly or synergistically with Con A and LPS, and stimulate the cells to secrete IL-2 and INF-γ. The adjuvant activity of SGSC was researched in BALB/c mice inoculated with inactivated H5N1vaccine in vivo...
June 20, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ryan R Simon, Trung D Vo, Robert Levine
Euglena gracilis is a microalga capable of synthesizing various nutrients of interest in human and animal nutrition. When cultivated aerobically in the dark, Euglena synthesize paramylon, a storage polysaccharide comprised of high molecular weight beta-1,3-D-glucose polymers organized in cytoplasmic granules. Beta-glucans have been shown to have immune modulation effects, including anti-microbial, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant properties, and metabolic effects, such as regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar levels...
October 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
H V T Ho, J L Sievenpiper, A Zurbau, S B Mejia, E Jovanovski, F Au-Yeung, A L Jenkins, V Vuksan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There has been recent interest in barley as a therapeutic food owing to its high content of beta-glucan (β-glucan), a viscous soluble fiber recognized for its cholesterol-lowering properties. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the cholesterol-lowering potential of barley β-glucan on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction...
June 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jae Gil Lee, Young Sam Kim, Young Ju Lee, Hyeon Yeong Ahn, Minjoo Kim, Minkyung Kim, Min Jung Cho, Younsoo Cho, Jong Ho Lee
We investigated whether high-protein enteral nutrition with immune-modulating nutrients (IMHP) enriched with β-glucan stimulates immune function in critically ill patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, 30 patients consumed one of three types of enteral nutrition: a control or IMHP with and without β-glucan. The IMHP with β-glucan group showed increases in natural killer (NK) cell activities relative to the baseline, and greater increases were observed in NK cell activities relative to the control group after adjusting for age and gender...
2016: Nutrients
Ingrid Sander, Anne Lotz, Eva Zahradnik, Monika Raulf
Sampling of endotoxin, beta-glucan, or allergens on electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) is a convenient method for exposure assessment. However, especially for allergens few experiments on validation of this method concerning deployment time or storage and extraction procedure have been performed. The aim of study was to optimize the EDC procedure for sampling of allergens in indoor environments. EDCs were placed in households or day-care centers and after extraction, allergens were quantified by six immunoassays detecting mite antigens (Domestic mites DM, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Dp, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Tp) or the main allergens from cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and mouse (Mus m 1)...
August 2016: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Gabriele Riccardi, Olga Vaccaro, Giuseppina Costabile, Angela A Rivellese
The role for lifestyle modifications to correct dyslipidemia(s) is reviewed. Dietary composition is crucial. Replacing saturated fat with MUFA or n-6 PUFA lowers plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol and ameliorates the LDL/HDL ratio. Replacing saturated fat with carbohydrates has diverging effects due to the heterogeneity of carbohydrate foods. Diets rich in refined carbohydrates increase fasting and postprandial triglycerides, whereas the consumption of fiber-rich, low GI foods lowers LDL cholesterol with no detrimental effects on triglycerides...
July 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Sandra Fernández-Vallinas, Marta Miguel, Amaya Aleixandre
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: This study evaluates the antihypertensive effect of long-term intake of a soluble cocoa fiber product (SCFP). Different doses of SCFP were evaluated (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day) and a dose of 800 mg/kg/day of beta-glucan 0.75 (BETA-G) was used as a standard fiber. Water, a neutral vehicle, was used as negative control, and 50 mg/kg/day captopril was used as positive control. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly by the tail cuff method. Body weight, food, and liquid intake were also registered weekly in the rats from 10 to 24 weeks of life...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Lynette B Sigola, Ana-Lucía Fuentes, Leonard M Millis, Jacqueline Vapenik, Armstrong Murira
In this study we compared the effects of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, the synthetic bacterial triacylated lipopeptide Pam3-Cys-Ser-Lys4 (Pam3CSK4), Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), and macrophage-activating lipopeptide (MALP-2), which are TLR4, TLR5, TLR1/2, TLR3, and TLR2/6 agonists, respectively, on cell morphology and phagocytosis of zymosan particles, derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and rich in fungal PAMPs including beta-glucan, mannose, and chitin...
August 2016: Tissue & Cell
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