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Dongchun Liang, Jeong-Im Woo, Hui Shao, Willi K Born, Rebecca L O'Brien, Henry J Kaplan, Deming Sun
Whether γδ T cells inhibit or enhance the Foxp3 T cell response depends upon their activation status. The critical enhancing effector in the supernatant is adenosine. Activated γδ T cells express adenosine receptors at high levels, which enables them to deprive Foxp3+ T cells of adenosine, and to inhibit their expansion. Meanwhile, cell-free supernatants of γδ T cell cultures enhance Foxp3 T cell expansion. Thus, inhibition and enhancement by γδ T cells of Foxp3 T cell response are a reflection of the balance between adenosine production and absorption by γδ T cells...
2018: PloS One
Siqi Hong, Tingsong Li, Yuanyuan Luo, Wenjuan Li, Xiaoju Tang, Yuanzhen Ye, Peng Wu, Qiao Hu, Li Cheng, Hengsheng Chen, Li Jiang
It is of great importance to explore the development of epileptogenesis, and the adenosine and adenosine kinase (ADK) system seems to play a key role in this process. The aim of this study is to explore the dynamic changes of astrocytes and adenosine signaling during epileptogenesis in rat hippocampus in a post-status epileptogenesis (SE) model. Rat SE models were built and killed for experiments at 1 day (acute phase of epileptogenesis), 5 days (latent phase), 4 weeks (chronic phase), and 8 weeks (late chronic phase of epileptogenesis) after SE induction...
May 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Karla Margarita Padilla, Andres Quintanar-Setephano, Fabian López-Vallejo, Laura Cristina Berumen, Ricardo Miledi, Guadalupe García-Alcocer
Background: Major depressive disorders are characterized by their severity and long-lasting symptoms, which make such disorders highly disabling illnesses. Unfortunately, 50% of major depressive patients experience relapses, perhaps partly because drug research has been performed only in animal models that screen for antidepressant drugs that appear to only ameliorate acute depression symptoms. The bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) animal model presents the advantage of mimicking the symptoms of chronic depression by means of brain surgery...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
Natnaree Siriwon, Yu Jeong Kim, Elizabeth Louise Siegler, Xianhui Chen, Jennifer A Rohrs, Yarong Liu, Pin Wang
One limiting factor of CAR T-cell therapy for treatment of solid cancers is the suppressive tumor microenvironment, which inactivates the function of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) through the production of immunosuppressive molecules such as adenosine. Adenosine inhibits the function of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by binding to and activating the A2a adenosine receptor (A2aR) expressed on their surface. This suppression pathway can be blocked using the A2aR-specific small molecule antagonist SCH-58261 (SCH), but its applications have been limited owing to difficulties delivering this drug to immune cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
May 2, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Ting Zhang, Nana Song, Yi Fang, Jie Teng, XiaLian Xu, Jiachang Hu, Pan Zhang, Rongyi Chen, Zhihui Lu, Xiaofang Yu, Xiaoqiang Ding
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Even though delayed ischemic preconditioning (DIPC) has been reported to produce renal protection, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. We reported that a 15-minute renal ischemic preconditioning (IPC) 4 days before subsequent ischemia-reperfusion attenuated renal injury Kidney dendritic cells (DCs) are abundant in the renal tubulointerstitium and, depending on their status, can induce immune activation or tolerance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of DCs in IPC of the kidney...
April 25, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Wei Bai, Ping Li, Ya-Lei Ning, Yu-Lin Jiang, Nan Yang, Xing Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Traumatic brain injury-induced acute lung injury (TBI-ALI) is a serious complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our previous clinical study found that high levels of blood glutamate after TBI were closely related to the occurrence and severity of TBI-ALI, while it remains unknown whether a high concentration of blood glutamate directly causes or aggravates TBI-ALI. We found that inhibition of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) after brain injury alleviated the TBI-ALI; however, it is unknown whether lowering blood glutamate levels in combination with inhibiting the A2AR would lead to better effects...
April 23, 2018: Shock
Sergi Ferré, Jordi Bonaventura, Wendy Zhu, Candice Hatcher-Solis, Jaume Taura, César Quiroz, Ning-Sheng Cai, Estefanía Moreno, Verónica Casadó-Anguera, Alexxai V Kravitz, Kimberly R Thompson, Dardo G Tomasi, Gemma Navarro, Arnau Cordomí, Leonardo Pardo, Carme Lluís, Carmen W Dessauer, Nora D Volkow, Vicent Casadó, Francisco Ciruela, Diomedes E Logothetis, Daniel Zwilling
The central adenosine system and adenosine receptors play a fundamental role in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. This is mostly achieved by the strategic co-localization of different adenosine and dopamine receptor subtypes in the two populations of striatal efferent neurons, striatonigral and striatopallidal, that give rise to the direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, respectively. With optogenetic techniques it has been possible to dissect a differential role of the direct and indirect pathways in mediating "Go" responses upon exposure to reward-related stimuli and "NoGo" responses upon exposure to non-rewarded or aversive-related stimuli, respectively, which depends on their different connecting output structures and their differential expression of dopamine and adenosine receptor subtypes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Allan K Alencar, Fábio I Carvalho, Ananssa M Silva, Sabrina T Martinez, Jorge A Calasans-Maia, Carlos M Fraga, Eliezer J Barreiro, Gisele Zapata-Sudo, Roberto T Sudo
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance, which causes right ventricle (RV) pressure overload and results in right sided heart failure and death. This work investigated the effectiveness of a combined therapy with PDE5 inhibitor (PDE5i) and a new adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonist in mitigating monocrotaline (MCT) induced PH in rats. METHODS: An in vitro isobolographic analysis was performed to identify possible synergistic relaxation effect between sildenafil and LASSBio 1359 in rat pulmonary arteries (PAs)...
2018: PloS One
Yuta Kajiwara, Satoshi Yasuda, Simon Hikiri, Tomohiko Hayashi, Mitsunori Ikeguchi, Takeshi Murata, Masahiro Kinoshita
The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form a large, physiologically important family of membrane proteins and are currently most attractive targets for drug discovery. We investigate the physical origin of thermostabilization of the adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) in the active state, which was experimentally achieved by another research group using the four point mutations: L48A, A54L, T65A, and Q89A. The investigation is performed on the basis of our recently developed physics-based free-energy function (FEF) which has been quite successful for thermodynamics of GPCRs in the inactive state...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Skanda Rajasundaram
Our increasing appreciation of adenosine as an endogenous signaling molecule that terminates inflammation has generated excitement regarding the potential to target adenosine receptors (ARs) in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease of chronic neuroinflammation. Of the four G protein-coupled ARs, A2ARs are the principal mediator of adenosine's anti-inflammatory effects and accordingly, there is a growing body of evidence surrounding the role of A2ARs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the dominant animal model of MS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiang Song, Yan Zhang, Li Zhang, Wengang Song, Lixin Shi
Hypoxia-associated metabolic reprogramming modulates the biological functions of many immune and non-immune cells, and affects immune response types and intensities. Adenosine and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) are known immunosuppressors, and adenosine is a hypoxia-associated product. We investigated the impact of hypoxia on IDO production in dendritic cells (DCs). We found that hypoxia (1% O2 ) enhances IDO production in DCs, and this increase was dependent on the adenosine A3 receptor (A3R), but not A2aR or A2bR...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Wen Huang, Shunjie Bai, Xuzheng Zuo, Weiju Tang, Pengfei Chen, Xiuying Chen, Gong Wang, Haoxiang Wang, Peng Xie
Microglial activation-mediated inflammatory damage to oligodendrocytes is a key step in the etiology of ischemic white matter lesions. The adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) and adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) have been reported to regulate the activation of microglia, however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Thus, the present study used a microglia/oligodendrocyte co‑culture model exposed to low glucose/hypoxia, and treated with agonists/antagonists of A1R and A2aR to investigate the role of A1R and A2aR...
June 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Safa Bouabid, Fu-Ming Zhou
The indirect pathway striatal medium spiny projection neurons (iMSNs) are critical to motor and cognitive brain functions. These neurons express a high level of cAMP-increasing adenosine A2a receptors. However, the potential effects of cAMP production on iMSN spiking activity have not been established, and recording identified iMSNs in freely moving animals is challenging. Here, we show that in the transgenic mice expressing cAMP-producing G protein Gs -coupled designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug (Gs-DREADD) in iMSNs, the baseline spike firing in MSNs is normal, indicating DREADD expression does not affect the normal physiology of these neurons...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Sonja Hinz, Gemma Navarro, Rafael Franco, Christa E Müller, Kjell Fuxe
Adenosine is a nucleoside mainly formed by degradation of ATP, located intracellularly or extracellularly, and acts as a neuromodulator. It operates as a volume transmission signal through diffusion and flow in the extracellular space to modulate the activity of both glial cells and neurons. The effects of adenosine are mediated via four adenosine receptor subtypes: A1R, A2AR, A2BR, A3R. The A2AR has a wide-spread distribution but it is especially enriched in the ventral and dorsal striatum where it is mainly located in the striato-pallidal GABA neurons at a synaptic and extrasynaptic location...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
M H Madeira, K Rashid, A F Ambrósio, A R Santiago, T Langmann
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by pathological changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and loss of photoreceptors. Growing evidence has demonstrated that reactive microglial cells trigger RPE dysfunction and loss of photoreceptors, and inflammasome pathways and complement activation contribute to AMD pathogenesis. We and others have previously shown that adenosine A2A receptor (A2A R) blockade prevents microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory processes and mediates protection to the retina...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aránzazu Mediero, Tuere Wilder, Lopa Shah, Bruce N Cronstein
The axonal guidance proteins semaphorin (Sema)4D and Sema3A play important roles in communication between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. As stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) regulates both osteoclast and osteoblast function, we asked whether A2AR regulates both osteoclast and osteoblast expression of Semas. In vivo bone formation and Sema3A/PlexinA1/Neuropilin-1, Sema4D/PlexinB1 protein expression were studied in a murine model of wear particle-induced osteolysis. Osteoclast/osteoblast differentiation were studied in vitro as the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase+ /Alizarin Red+ cells after challenge with CGS21680 (A2AR agonist, 1 µM) or ZM241385 (A2AR antagonist, 1 µM), with or without Sema4D or Sema3A (10 ng/ml)...
February 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Karolina Wydra, Xiang Li, David Rodriguez, Jens Carlsson, Joanna Jastrzębska, Malgorzata Filip, Kjell Fuxe
Antagonistic allosteric A2AR-D2R receptor-receptor interactions in heteroreceptor complexes counteract cocaine self-administration and cocaine seeking in rats as seen in biochemical and behavioral experiments. It was shown that the human A2AR transmembrane five (TM5) was part of the interface of the human A2AR-D2R receptor heteromer. In the current paper, the rat A2AR synthetic TM5 (synthTM5) peptide disrupts the A2AR-D2R heteroreceptor complex in HEK293 cells as shown by the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer method...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
David Allard, Roxanne Charlebois, Loise Gilbert, John Stagg, Pavel Chrobak
Many individuals at risk of streptococcal infection respond poorly to the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine Pneumovax 23. Identification of actionable pathways able to enhance Pneumovax responsiveness is highly relevant. We investigated the contribution of the extracellular adenosine pathway regulated by the ecto-nucleotidase CD73 in Pneumovax-induced antibody responses. Using gene-targeted mice, we demonstrated that CD73-or A2a adenosine receptor deficiency significantly delayed isotype switching. Nevertheless, CD73- or A2aR- deficient adult mice ultimately produced antigen-specific IgG3 and controlled Streptococcus pneumoniae infection as efficiently as wild type (WT) mice...
2018: PloS One
Kim-Anh Nguyen, Marine Peuchmaur, Sandrine Magnard, Romain Haudecoeur, Cédric Boyère, Saravanan Mounien, Ikram Benammar, Veronica Zampieri, Sébastien Igonet, Vincent Chaptal, Anass Jawhari, Ahcène Boumendjel, Pierre Falson
To tackle the problems associated with membrane protein (MP) instability in detergent solutions, we designed a series of glycosyl-substituted dicarboxylate detergents (DCODs) in which we optimized the polar head to clamp the membrane domain by including, on one side, two carboxyl groups that form salt bridges with basic residues abundant at the membrane-cytoplasm interface of MPs and, on the other side, a sugar to form hydrogen bonds. Upon extraction, the DCODs 8 b, 8 c, and 9 b preserved the ATPase function of BmrA, an ATP-binding cassette pump, much more efficiently than reference or recently designed detergents...
March 5, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Tetsuro Ishii, Eiji Warabi, Giovanni E Mann
Circadian clock genes regulate energy metabolism partly through neurotrophins in the body. The low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR is a clock component directly regulated by the transcriptional factor Clock:Bmal1 complex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed in the brain and plays a key role in coordinating metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. BDNF transduces signals through TrkB and p75NTR receptors. This review highlights a novel molecular mechanism by which BDNF via circadian control of p75NTR leads to daily resetting of glucose and glycogen metabolism in brain astrocytes to accommodate their functional interaction with neurons...
May 1, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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