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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352211/hdl-nanoparticles-targeting-sonic-hedgehog-subtype-medulloblastoma
#1
Jonathan B Bell, Jonathan S Rink, Frank Eckerdt, Jessica Clymer, Stewart Goldman, C Shad Thaxton, Leonidas C Platanias
Medulloblastoma is the most common paediatric malignant brain cancer and there is a need for new targeted therapeutic approaches to more effectively treat these malignant tumours, which can be divided into four molecular subtypes. Here, we focus on targeting sonic hedgehog (SHH) subtype medulloblastoma, which accounts for approximately 25% of all cases. The SHH subtype relies upon cholesterol signalling for tumour growth and maintenance of tumour-initiating cancer stem cells (CSCs). To target cholesterol signalling, we employed biomimetic high-density lipoprotein nanoparticles (HDL NPs) which bind to the HDL receptor, scavenger receptor type B-1 (SCARB1), depriving cells of natural HDL and their cholesterol cargo...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350299/mutagenicity-cytotoxic-and-antioxidant-activities-of-ricinus-communis-different-parts
#2
Mazhar Abbas, Abid Ali, Muhammad Arshad, Asia Atta, Zahed Mehmood, Imtiaz Mahmood Tahir, Munawar Iqbal
Ricinus communis (castor plant) is a potent medicinal plant, which is commonly used in the treatment of various ailments. The present study was conducted to appraise the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of R. communis along with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by hemolytic and brine shrimp assays, whereas Ames test (TA98 and TA100) was used for mutagenicity evaluation. Plant different parts were extracted in methanol by shaking, sonication and Soxhlet extraction methods. The R...
January 19, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346753/sonic-hedgehog-is-a-remotely-produced-cue-that-controls-axon-guidance-trans-axonally-at-a-midline-choice-point
#3
Jimmy Peng, Pierre J Fabre, Tiphaine Dolique, Shannon M Swikert, Laëtitia Kermasson, Tomomi Shimogori, Frédéric Charron
At the optic chiasm choice point, ipsilateral retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are repelled away from the midline by guidance cues, including Ephrin-B2 and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Although guidance cues are normally produced by cells residing at the choice point, the mRNA for Shh is not found at the optic chiasm. Here we show that Shh protein is instead produced by contralateral RGCs at the retina, transported anterogradely along the axon, and accumulates at the optic chiasm to repel ipsilateral RGCs. In vitro, contralateral RGC axons, which secrete Shh, repel ipsilateral RGCs in a Boc- and Smo-dependent manner...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341457/different-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-and-midazolam-on-the-expression-of-nr2b-and-gabaa-%C3%AE-1-following-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-rats
#4
Jiayu Chen, Hanjun Li, Grewo Lim, Michael F McCabe, Wei Zhao, Yunli Yang, Weiqing Ma, Na Li
Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain condition and the treatment is a major clinical challenge. Recent studies have shown that two FDA approved drugs dexmedetomidine (DEX) and midazolam (MZL), may be useful in treating neuropathic pain, but the mechanism is not fully dementated. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of DEX and MZL treatment in the peripheral nerve injury model. Intramuscular injection with DEX and MZL attenuated the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
January 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340352/bone-healing-at-functionally-loaded-and-unloaded-screw-shaped-implants-supporting-single-crowns-a-histomorphometric-study-in-humans
#5
Daichi Yonezawa, Adriano Piattelli, Riccardo Favero, Mauro Ferri, Giovanna Iezzi, Daniele Botticelli
PURPOSE: To evaluate histologically and histomorphometrically the effect of a delayed load on healing at implants with a moderately rough surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two solid titanium screw-shaped devices, 5 mm long and 3.5 mm in diameter, were inserted in the distal segments of the alveolar ridge of 16 volunteer patients in a nonsubmerged fashion. After 2 months, one implant was loaded, while the other was left unloaded. After 2 months, the two implants were collected from 10 patients using a sonic instrument, and ground sections were prepared from the biopsy specimens...
January 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338016/ultrasound-mediated-delivery-and-distribution-of-polymeric-nanoparticles-in-the-normal-brain-parenchyma-of-a-metastatic-brain-tumour-model
#6
Habib Baghirov, Sofie Snipstad, Einar Sulheim, Sigrid Berg, Rune Hansen, Frits Thorsen, Yrr Mørch, Catharina de Lange Davies, Andreas K O Åslund
The treatment of brain diseases is hindered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) preventing most drugs from entering the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can open the BBB safely and reversibly. Systemic drug injection might induce toxicity, but encapsulation into nanoparticles reduces accumulation in normal tissue. Here we used a novel platform based on poly(2-ethyl-butyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticle-stabilized microbubbles to permeabilize the BBB in a melanoma brain metastasis model. With a dual-frequency ultrasound transducer generating FUS at 1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335424/functionalisation-of-detonation-nanodiamond-for-monodispersed-soluble-dna-nanodiamond-conjugates-using-mixed-silane-bead-assisted-sonication-disintegration
#7
Robert Edgington, Katelyn M Spillane, George Papageorgiou, William Wray, Hitoshi Ishiwata, Mariana Labarca, Sergio Leal-Ortiz, Gordon Reid, Martin Webb, John Foord, Nicholas Melosh, Andreas T Schaefer
Nanodiamonds have many attractive properties that make them suitable for a range of biological applications, but their practical use has been limited because nanodiamond conjugates tend to aggregate in solution during or after functionalisation. Here we demonstrate the production of DNA-detonation nanodiamond (DNA-DND) conjugates with high dispersion and solubility using an ultrasonic, mixed-silanization chemistry protocol based on the in situ Bead-Assisted Sonication Disintegration (BASD) silanization method...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334463/torquoselective-mechanochemical-activation-of-the-staudinger-reaction-to-form-%C3%AE-lactams
#8
Dominik Marx, M Isabel Menendez
The Staudinger reaction yielding β-lactam rings via [2+2] cycloaddition is a torquoselective reaction where the stereochemistry of the product can be steered by suitable substituents. Although the mechanochemical ring-opening of β-lactams has been investigated recently, the force-assisted synthesis of this important functional four-ring motif remains unexplored. As it will be computationally demonstrated, mechanochemical activation greatly reduces the barrier of the rate limiting ring-closure step while, at the same time, preserves its torquoselectivity...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334458/direct-electrochemical-vibrio-dna-sensing-adopting-highly-stable-graphene-flavin-mononucleotide-aqueous-dispersion-modified-interface
#9
Tao Yang, Huaiyin Chen, Zhiwei Qiu, Renzhong Yu, Shizhong Luo, Weihua Li, Kui Jiao
A bio-functionalized graphene nanohybrid was prepared by simultaneously sonicating graphene and riboflavin 5'-monophosphate sodium salt (FMNS). FMNS, as a bio-dispersant, shows an efficient stabilization for obtaining highly dispersed graphene nanosheets in an aqueous solution. Due to the superior dispersion of graphene and the excellent electrochemical redox activity of FMNS, a direct electrochemical DNA sensor was fabricated adopting the inherent electrochemical redox activity of Gr-FMNS. The comparison between using traditional electrochemical indicator ([Fe(CN)6]3-/4-) and using the self-signal of Gr-FMNS was fully conducted to study the DNA sensing performance...
January 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334152/dynamic-coordination-of-eu-iminodiacetate-to-control-fluorochromic-response-of-polymer-hydrogels-to-multistimuli
#10
Gengsheng Weng, Srinivas Thanneeru, Jie He
New fluorochromic materials that reversibly change their emission properties in response to their environment are of interest for the development of sensors and light-emitting materials. A new design of Eu-containing polymer hydrogels showing fast self-healing and tunable fluorochromic properties in response to five different stimuli, including pH, temperature, metal ions, sonication, and force, is reported. The polymer hydrogels are fabricated using Eu-iminodiacetate (IDA) coordination in a hydrophilic poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) matrix...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331808/simultaneous-inhibition-of-hedgehog-signaling-and-tumor-proliferation-remodels-stroma-and-enhances-pancreatic-cancer-therapy
#11
Jun Zhao, Huamin Wang, Cheng-Hui Hsiao, Diana S-L Chow, Eugene J Koay, Yaan Kang, Xiaoxia Wen, Qian Huang, Ying Ma, James A Bankson, Stephen E Ullrich, Willem Overwijk, Anirban Maitra, David Piwnica-Worms, Jason B Fleming, Chun Li
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers. It has an excessive desmoplastic stroma that can limit the intratumoral delivery of chemotherapy drugs, and protect tumor cells against radiotherapy. Therefore, both stromal and tumor compartments need to be addressed in order to effectively treat PDAC. We hereby co-deliver a sonic hedgehog inhibitor, cyclopamine (CPA), and a cytotoxic chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (PTX) with a polymeric micelle formulation (M-CPA/PTX). CPA can deplete the stroma-producing cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), while PTX can inhibit tumor proliferation...
January 9, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329377/endometrial-stem-cell-derived-g-csf-attenuates-endometrial-fibrosis-via-sonic-hedgehog-transcriptional-activator-gli2
#12
Xiaona Lin, Yanling Zhang, Yibin Pan, Shilin He, Yongdong Dai, Bingqing Zhu, Cheng Wei, Liaobing Xin, Wenzhi Xu, Chunsheng Xiang, Songying Zhang
Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is characterized by endometrial fibrosis, which ultimately leads to menstrual abnormalities, infertility and recurrent miscarriages. The Shh/Gli2 pathway plays a critical role in tissue fibrogenesis and regeneration; Gli2 activation induces profibrogenic effects in various tissues, such as the liver and kidney. However, the role of Gli2 in endometrial fibrosis remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that activated Gli2 promotes endometrial fibrosis. Endometrial samples from moderate and severe IUA patients exhibited significantly enhanced expression of Gli2 compared with normal endometrial samples and mild IUA samples...
January 10, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323419/evaluation-of-viral-contamination-in-a-baculovirus-expression-system
#13
Chikako Ono, Junki Hirano, Toru Okamoto, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Insect expression systems based on baculovirus are widely used for the generation of recombinant proteins. Here, we evaluated the infectivity of baculoviruses under the physiological stresses of 'freeze- thaw' and sonication, and the baculoviral contamination of recombinant proteins after protein purification. Our findings suggest that Nonidet™ P-40 (NP-40) treatment of baculoviruses completely abolishes their infectivity and that recombinant proteins purified with affinity beads do not include infectious baculoviruses...
January 11, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321670/clinical-and-experimental-evidence-suggest-a-link-between-kif7-and-c5orf42-related-ciliopathies-through-sonic-hedgehog-signaling
#14
Reza Asadollahi, Justin E Strauss, Martin Zenker, Oliver Beuing, Simon Edvardson, Orly Elpeleg, Tim M Strom, Pascal Joset, Dunja Niedrist, Christine Otte, Beatrice Oneda, Paranchai Boonsawat, Silvia Azzarello-Burri, Deborah Bartholdi, Michael Papik, Markus Zweier, Cordula Haas, Arif B Ekici, Alessandra Baumer, Eugen Boltshauser, Katharina Steindl, Michael Nothnagel, Albert Schinzel, Esther T Stoeckli, Anita Rauch
Acrocallosal syndrome (ACLS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder caused by KIF7 defects and belongs to the heterogeneous group of ciliopathies related to Joubert syndrome (JBTS). While ACLS is characterized by macrocephaly, prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, and hypertelorism, facial dysmorphism has not been emphasized in JBTS cohorts with molecular diagnosis. To evaluate the specificity and etiology of ACLS craniofacial features, we performed whole exome or targeted Sanger sequencing in patients with the aforementioned overlapping craniofacial appearance but variable additional ciliopathy features followed by functional studies...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321139/bmp-smad-pathway-promotes-neurogenesis-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vivo-and-in-human-induced-pluripotent-and-neural-stem-cells
#15
V M Jovanovic, A Salti, H Tilleman, K Zega, M M Jukic, H Zou, R H Friedel, N Prakash, S Blaess, F Edenhofer, C Brodski
The embryonic formation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in vivo provides critical guidelines for the in vitro differentiation of mDA neurons from stem cells, currently being developed for Parkinson's disease cell replacement therapy. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD inhibition is routinely used during early steps of stem cell differentiation protocols, including for the generation of mDA neurons. However, the function of the BMP/SMAD pathway for in vivo specification of mammalian mDA neurons is virtually unknown...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320197/synthesis-of-thelepamide-via-catalyst-controlled-1-4-addition-of-cysteine-derivatives-and-structure-revision-of-thelepamide
#16
Tobias Seitz, Ramón E Millán, Dieter Lentz, Carlos Jiménez, Jaime Rodríguez, Mathias Christmann
The first enantioselective total synthesis and structural reassignment of (-)-thelepamide, a cytotoxic tetraketide-amino acid from the marine worm Thelepus crispus, is reported. A convergent approach provides access to all thelepamide diastereomers in six steps from four simple building blocks. Key features of the synthesis include the application of Melchiorre's organocatalytic thia-Michael reaction and a sonication-assisted assembly of an unprecedented N,O-acetal-hemiacetal moiety. The corrected structure was confirmed by NMR-DFT analysis...
January 10, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319006/condition-optimization-for-exfoliation-of-two-dimensional-titanium-carbide-ti3c2tx
#17
Krishnamoorthy Rajavel, Tao Ke, Kun Yang, Daohui Lin
The new class of 2D MXene material exfoliated from transition metal carbides receives increasing research interests due to its extraordinary property and high potential in energy and environmental applications. However, the exfoliation of Ti3C2Tx, a widely studied MXene, from its precursor Ti3AlC2 by chemical etching in HF solution remains to be optimized. This study investigated the optimum exfoliation condition through systematic evaluating potential effects of reaction parameters, including the weight ratio of Ti3AlC2 in HF solution, etching time, reaction temperature, repeating etching, and sonication, on the yield, purity, and structure of produced Ti3C2Tx...
January 10, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318530/a-novel-heterozygous-gli2-mutation-in-a-patient-with-congenital-urethral-stricture-and-renal-hypoplasia-dysplasia-leading-to-end-stage-renal-failure
#18
Toshihiko Shirakawa, Yumiko Nakashima, Satoshi Watanabe, Sadatomo Harada, Mariko Kinoshita, Toshiharu Kihara, Yuko Hamasaki, Seiichiro Shishido, Koh-Ichiro Yoshiura, Hiroyuki Moriuchi, Sumito Dateki
Glioblastoma 2 (GLI2) is a mediator of Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway that plays an important role in development of the central nervous system and limbs. Heterozygous GLI2 mutations have been associated with postaxial polydactyly, various pituitary dysfunction, and holoprosencephaly-like phenotype. Herein, we report a Japanese boy who presented with isolated growth hormone deficiency with ectopic posterior pituitary, postaxial polydactyly, atrioventricular septal defect, intellectual disability and dysmorphic facial features including mid-facial hypoplasia...
January 9, 2018: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318226/controllable-supramolecular-polymerization-via-a-chain-growth-mechanism
#19
Deep Sankar Pal, Haridas Kar, Suhrit Ghosh
A naphthalene-diimide appended carboxylic acid either spontaneously self-assembles (P) by an open-chain H-bonding or can be arrested in an intra-molecularly H-bonded monomeric state (M) depending on the sample preparation method. Sonication of P produces a seed (S) that triggers controllable supramolecular polymerization (SP) of M via a chain growth route with first order kinetics, a tunable mesoscopic structure and a living nature as demonstrated by the chain-extension up to three cycles. SP of an achiral M, initiated by a chiral S, illustrates chiral amplification by the "sergeant and soldiers" effect...
January 10, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316289/flotation-ultrasound-assisted-microextraction-followed-by-hplc-for-the-determination-of-fat-soluble-vitamins-in-multivitamin-pharmaceutical-preparations
#20
Parvin Shahdousti, Mohammad Aghamohammadi
Dissolved carbon dioxide flotation-emulsification microextraction technique coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the separation and determination of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D3 , E and K3 ) in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations. Dissolved carbon dioxide flotation was used to break up the emulsion of extraction solvent in water and to collect the extraction solvent on the surface of the aqueous sample in the narrowed capillary part of extraction cell. Carbon dioxide bubbles were generated in situ through the addition of 300 μL of concentrated hydrochloric acid into the alkaline sample solution at pH = 11...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
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