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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532055/gold-nanoparticles-prevent-cognitive-deficits-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-sporadic-dementia-of-alzheimer-s-type
#1
Alexandre Pastoris Muller, Gabriela K Ferreira, Allison José Pires, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Débora Laureano de Souza, Joice de Abreu Brandolfi, Claudio Teodoro de Souza, Marcos M S Paula, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia in the aged brain. Even though its etiology is unknown, factors such as neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and impaired insulin signaling may play a role. We used a sporadic AD model in rats generated by intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (i.c.v.-STZ) injection to test the therapeutic effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs). We tested the null hypothesis that there would be no difference between the STZ+GNPs group and the STZ group in the analyzed markers...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531818/pharmacophore-searching-a-potential-solution-for-correcting-unknown-ligands-unk-labelling-errors-in-protein-data-bank-pdb-s
#2
Musadiq Ibrahim, Adrian Jonathan Lapthorn, Mohammad Ibrahim
The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the single most important repository of structural data for proteins and other biologically relevant molecules. Therefore, it is critically important to keep the PDB data, error-free as much as possible. In this study, we have critically examined PDB structures of 292 protein molecules which have been deposited in the repository along with potentially incorrect ligands labelled as Unknown ligands (UNK). Pharmacophores were generated for all the protein structures by using Discovery Studio Visualizer (DSV) and Accelrys, Catalyst(®)...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531806/standard-body-space-relationships-fingers-hold-spatial-information
#3
Daniele Romano, Francesco Marini, Angelo Maravita
The representation of the body in the brain is constantly updated to allow optimal sensorimotor interactions with the external world. In addition to dynamic features, body representation holds stable features that are still largely unknown. In the present work we explored the hypothesis that body parts have preferential associations with relative spatial locations. Specifically, in three experiments, we found consistent preferential associations between the index finger and the top position, and between the thumb and the bottom position...
May 19, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531789/do-picu-patients-meet-technical-criteria-for-performing-indirect-calorimetry
#4
Megan R Beggs, Gonzalo Garcia Guerra, Bodil M K Larsen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Indirect calorimetry (IC) is considered gold standard for assessing energy needs of critically ill children as predictive equations and clinical status indicators are often unreliable. Accurate assessment of energy requirements in this vulnerable population is essential given the high risk of over or underfeeding and the consequences thereof. The proportion of patients and patient days in pediatric intensive care (PICU) for which energy expenditure (EE) can be measured using IC is currently unknown...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531645/judgment-of-moral-and-social-transgression-in-schizophrenia
#5
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Despite evidence of pervasive social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known of moral cognition in this population. While recent research indicates that impairment of explicit moral reasoning is explained by these individuals' other cognitive deficits, their capacities for basic moral judgment are unknown. METHODS: 45 people with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls completed the Moral-Conventional Distinction Task: a classic task that assesses judgment of violations of moral or social convention on permissibility, severity, and authority-contingence...
May 4, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531555/microbial-detoxification-of-carvedilol-a-%C3%AE-adrenergic-antagonist-by-the-filamentous-fungus-cunninghamella-echinulata
#6
Katarzyna Zawadzka, Przemysław Bernat, Aleksandra Felczak, Katarzyna Lisowska
Beta adrenergic antagonists like carvedilol are typical environmental pollutants detected in wastewater and surface water. Human metabolism of carvedilol is well investigated, while its environmental fates are still unknown. In recent years, there have been appearing reports on high toxicity of β-blockers toward aquatic organisms. In this paper the ability of the filamentous fungus C. echinulata to eliminate the β-blocker has been described for the first time. An 83% loss of carvedilol was observed after 120 h incubation of the tested fungus with the compound, where hydroxylated carvedilol metabolites were identified as the major biotransformation products...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531349/low-temperature-pm-irras-of-a-monolayer-on-au-peculiarities-in-the-spectra-of-c18d37sh
#7
Milan Mašát, Jin Wen, Zdenek Sofer, Josef Michl
We describe an experimental setup suitable for the measurement of photomodulated IR reflection/absorption spectra of monolayers on a flat gold substrate at temperatures from room to 14 K. Results obtained for a monolayer of C18D37SH on gold are shown and compared with IR spectra of C18D37SH in a KBr pellet at these temperatures. Band widths are reduced by only about 10%, but upon cooling below 100 - 150 K, the frequencies and intensities of νas(CD3) and νas(CD2) bands in the C-D stretching region in both types of spectra undergo dramatic reversible changes of unknown origin...
May 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531345/plastic-and-human-health-a-micro-issue
#8
Stephanie L Wright, Frank J Kelly
Microplastics are a pollutant of environmental concern. Their presence in food destined for human consumption and in air samples has been reported. Thus, microplastic exposure via diet or inhalation could occur, the human health effects of which are unknown. The current review article draws upon cross-disciplinary scientific literature to discuss and evaluate the potential human health impacts of microplastics and outlines urgent areas for future research. Key literature up to September 2016 relating to bioaccumulation, particle toxicity, and chemical and microbial contaminants were critically examined...
May 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531296/a-new-computational-method-to-predict-transcriptional-activity-of-a-dna-sequence-from-diverse-datasets-of-massively-parallel-reporter-assays
#9
Ying Liu, Takuma Irie, Tetsushi Yada, Yutaka Suzuki
In recent years, the dramatic increase in the number of applications for massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) technology has produced a large body of data for various purposes. However, a computational model that can be applied to decipher regulatory codes for diverse MPRAs does not exist yet. Here, we propose a new computational method to predict the transcriptional activity of MPRAs, as well as luciferase reporter assays, based on the TRANScription FACtor database. We employed regression trees and multivariate adaptive regression splines to obtain these predictions and considered a feature redundancy-dependent formula for conventional regression trees to enable adaptation to diverse data...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531259/guideline-adherence-for-diagnostic-faeces-testing-in-primary-care-patients-with-gastroenteritis
#10
Alwin Schierenberg, Berna D L Broekhuizen, Martine D Nipshagen, Maarten B J Kommer, Patricia C J Bruijning-Verhagen, Sanne van Delft, Alma C van de Pol, Marc J M Bonten, Niek J de Wit
Background.: Gastroenteritis (GE) is a common reason for primary care consultation. Dutch clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommend diagnostic faeces testing (DFT) only in primary care patients with severe illness, comprised immunity or increased transmission risk. For its superior accuracy, shorter turnaround time and ease of use, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DFT has largely replaced conventional techniques. It is unknown whether this changed CPG adherence. Objective...
May 20, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531218/autophagy-inhibitor-facilitates-gefitinib-sensitivity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-activating-mitochondrial-apoptosis-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#11
Zhaoyun Liu, Kewen He, Qinghua Ma, Qian Yu, Chenyu Liu, Isabella Ndege, Xinzhao Wang, Zhiyong Yu
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is over-expressed in about 50% of Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs), but EGFR inhibitors have not been effective in treating TNBC patients. Increasing evidence supports that autophagy was related to drug resistance at present. However, the role and the mechanism of autophagy to the treatment of TNBC remain unknown. In the current study, we investigated the effect of autophagy inhibitor to gefitinib (Ge) in TNBC cells in vitro and in nude mice vivo. Our study demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy by 3-Methyladenine or bafilomycin A1 improved Ge's sensitivity to MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, as evidence from stronger inhibition of cell vitality and colony formation, higher level of G0/G1 arrest and DNA damage, and these effects were verified in nude mice vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531196/co-inheritance-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-mutations-and-hemoglobin-e-in-a-kachin-population-in-a-malaria-endemic-region-of-southeast-asia
#12
Zeshuai Deng, Fang Yang, Yao Bai, Lijun He, Qing Li, Yanrui Wu, Lan Luo, Hong Li, Limei Ma, Zhaoqing Yang, Yongshu He, Liwang Cui
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and hemoglobin E (HbE, β26 Glu-Lys) are two common red cell disorders in Southeast Asia. G6PD deficiency produces hemolytic anemia, which can be triggered by certain drugs or infections. HbE is asymptomatic or is manifested as microcytic, minimally hemolytic anemia. The association between G6PD deficiency and HbE is little understood. This study aimed to investigate G6PD deficiency and HbE in a Kachin ethnic group in the China-Myanmar border area. G6PD enzyme activity was measured using a quantitative G6PD assay, G6PD variants genotyped by the SNaPshot assay, and an HbE gene mutation identified by an amplification refractory mutation system and subsequently confirmed by using a reverse dot blot hybridization assay from 100 unrelated individuals in the study area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531187/multi-scale-computational-study-of-the-mechanical-regulation-of-cell-mitotic-rounding-in-epithelia
#13
Ali Nematbakhsh, Wenzhao Sun, Pavel A Brodskiy, Aboutaleb Amiri, Cody Narciso, Zhiliang Xu, Jeremiah J Zartman, Mark Alber
Mitotic rounding during cell division is critical for preventing daughter cells from inheriting an abnormal number of chromosomes, a condition that occurs frequently in cancer cells. Cells must significantly expand their apical area and transition from a polygonal to circular apical shape to achieve robust mitotic rounding in epithelial tissues, which is where most cancers initiate. However, how cells mechanically regulate robust mitotic rounding within packed tissues is unknown. Here, we analyze mitotic rounding using a newly developed multi-scale subcellular element computational model that is calibrated using experimental data...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531170/potential-hominin-affinities-of-graecopithecus-from-the-late-miocene-of-europe
#14
Jochen Fuss, Nikolai Spassov, David R Begun, Madelaine Böhme
The split of our own clade from the Panini is undocumented in the fossil record. To fill this gap we investigated the dentognathic morphology of Graecopithecus freybergi from Pyrgos Vassilissis (Greece) and cf. Graecopithecus sp. from Azmaka (Bulgaria), using new μCT and 3D reconstructions of the two known specimens. Pyrgos Vassilissis and Azmaka are currently dated to the early Messinian at 7.175 Ma and 7.24 Ma. Mainly based on its external preservation and the previously vague dating, Graecopithecus is often referred to as nomen dubium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530850/fresh-osteochondral-allograft-transplantation-is-graft-storage-time-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-and-graft-survivorship
#15
Kenneth J Schmidt, Luís E Tírico, Julie C McCauley, William D Bugbee
BACKGROUND: Regulatory concerns and the popularity of fresh osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation have led to a need for prolonged viable storage of osteochondral grafts. Tissue culture media allow a longer storage time but lead to chondrocyte death within the tissue. The long-term clinical consequence of prolonged storage is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: Patients transplanted with OCAs with a shorter storage time would have lower failure rates and better clinical outcomes than those transplanted with OCAs with prolonged storage...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530783/a-rare-case-of-obscure-gastrointestinal-bleeding-small-bowel-varices-flowing-into-the-inferior-epigastric-vein
#16
Akira Hoshiai, Junya Tsurukiri, Yasuhiro Sumi
Ectopic varices include all varices except esophageal or gastric varices and comprise large portosystemic venous collaterals that occur anywhere in the abdomen. Ectopic varices are relatively rare; however, approximately 5% are related to gastrointestinal bleeding. Ectopic varices usually occur in the rectum, duodenum, or colon, and portal hypertension is the most common cause. Hemodynamic profiles of ectopic varices remain unknown, and extensive bleeding from these structures occurs because diagnosis and treatment are difficult...
May 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530704/upregulation-of-cyp17a1-by-sp1-mediated-dna-demethylation-confers-temozolomide-resistance-through-dhea-mediated-protection-in-glioma
#17
J-Y Chuang, W-L Lo, C-Y Ko, S-Y Chou, R-M Chen, K-Y Chang, J-J Hung, W-C Su, W-C Chang, T-I Hsu
Steroidogenesis-mediated production of neurosteroids is important for brain homeostasis. Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1), which converts pregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in endocrine organs and the brain, is required for prostate cancer progression and acquired chemotherapeutic resistance. However, whether CYP17A1-mediated DHEA synthesis is involved in brain tumor malignancy, especially in glioma, the most prevalent brain tumor, is unknown. To investigate the role of CYP17A1 in glioma, we determined that CYP17A1 expression is significantly increased in gliomas, which secrete more DHEA than normal astrocytes...
May 22, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530703/trpv4-plays-a-role-in-breast-cancer-cell-migration-via-ca-2-dependent-activation-of-akt-and-downregulation-of-e-cadherin-cell-cortex-protein
#18
W H Lee, L Y Choong, T H Jin, N N Mon, S Chong, C S Liew, T Putti, S Y Lu, C Harteneck, Y P Lim
TRPV4 belongs to the 'Transient Receptor Potential' (TRP) superfamily. It has been identified to profoundly affect a variety of physiological processes, including nociception, heat sensation and inflammation. Unlike other TRP superfamily channels, its role in cancers are unknown until recently when we reported TRPV4 to be required for cancer cell softness that may promote breast cancer cell extravasation and metastasis. Here, we elucidated the molecular mechanisms mediated by TRPV4 in the metastatic breast cancer cells...
May 22, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530664/flexible-information-routing-by-transient-synchrony
#19
Agostina Palmigiano, Theo Geisel, Fred Wolf, Demian Battaglia
Perception, cognition and behavior rely on flexible communication between microcircuits in distinct cortical regions. The mechanisms underlying rapid information rerouting between such microcircuits are still unknown. It has been proposed that changing patterns of coherence between local gamma rhythms support flexible information rerouting. The stochastic and transient nature of gamma oscillations in vivo, however, is hard to reconcile with such a function. Here we show that models of cortical circuits near the onset of oscillatory synchrony selectively route input signals despite the short duration of gamma bursts and the irregularity of neuronal firing...
May 22, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530656/metabolic-anticipation-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Hyungjin Eoh, Zhe Wang, Emilie Layre, Poonam Rath, Roxanne Morris, D Branch Moody, Kyu Y Rhee
Humans serve as both host and reservoir for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, making tuberculosis a theoretically eradicable disease. How M. tuberculosis alternates between host-imposed quiescence and sporadic bouts of replication to complete its life cycle, however, remains unknown. Here, we identify a metabolic adaptation that is triggered upon entry into hypoxia-induced quiescence but facilitates subsequent cell cycle re-entry. Catabolic remodelling of the cell surface trehalose mycolates of M. tuberculosis specifically generates metabolic intermediates reserved for re-initiation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis...
May 22, 2017: Nature Microbiology
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