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Seong-Hwan Park, Juil Kim, Dongwook Kim, Yuseok Moon
Deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent mycotoxin worldwide, leads to economic losses for animal food production. Swine is a most sensitive domestic animal to DON due to rapid absorption and low detoxification by gut microbiota. Specifically, DON can severely damage pig intestinal tissue by disrupting the intestinal barrier and inducing inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effects of several mycotoxin detoxifiers including bentonites, yeast cell wall components, and mixture-typed detoxifier composed of mineral, microorganisms, and phytogenic substances on DON-insulted intestinal barrier and pro-inflammatory responses using in vitro porcine enterocyte culture model...
October 10, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
J S Lee, M J Kim, S H Park, S B Lee, T Wang, U S Jung, J Im, E J Kim, K W Lee, H G Lee
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a combined mixture of phytogenic extracts (garlic and coriander) and probiotics on growth performance and immune responses in laying hens based on the results of in vitro studies to screen for immunomodulatory potency of each ingredient. Several parameters of immunomodulatory potency were estimated using lamina propria leucocytes (LPLs) isolated from rat intestinal mucosa tissue. Results show that the combined mixture enhanced LPLs proliferation, increased LPL-mediated cytotoxicity against YAC-1 tumour cells, and decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production including tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in LPLs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Sreevani Pothireddy, Adilaxmamma Kaliki, Alpha Raj Mekapogu, Muralidhar Yegireddy, Eswara Prasad Pagadala, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara Prasad
Wound healing requires a series of cellular events and a cascade of co-ordinated and systemic biochemical events. Silver nanoparticles possess many beneficial properties for wound management including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and pro-healing properties. In this study, the authors investigated the wound healing properties of Cinnamomum verum extract mediated nanosilver (CENS) particles in comparison with 1% povidone iodine, citrate mediate NS and CE treatments. The topical application of CENS showed good antibacterial activity and accelerated wound healing with complete epithelialisation and normal re-growth of hair in all three models of study: namely, excision, incision and dead space models in rats compared with all other treatments...
October 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
P Balashanmugam, M D Balakumaran, R Murugan, K Dhanapal, P T Kalaichelvan
An attempt was made to synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles from ten different Cassia spp. Among them, Cassia roxburghii aqueous leaf extract supported the synthesis of highly efficient and stable AgNPs. The synthesis of AgNPs was optimized at different physico-chemical condition and highly stable AgNPs were synthesized with 1.0mL of C. roxburghii leaf extract, pH 7.0, 1.0mM AgNO3 and at 37°C. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by XPS, DLS and ZETA potential. DLS and ZETA potential analysis, the average AgNPs size was 35nm and the zeta potential was -18...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Alaeldein M Abudabos, Abdullah H Alyemni, Yousif M Dafalla, Rifat Ullah Khan
There is a growing concern over the use of antibiotics due to the increased resistance of pathogens in broiler. The present study was designed to find the comparative effect of an antibiotic, and some phytogenic on performance traits, blood biochemical parameters, and antioxidant status during starter phase exposed to Salmonella typhimurium challenge. A total of 560-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to seven treatments (eight replicates). Control (basal diet); T1, infected with Salmonella enterica subsp...
September 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Benjamin O Emikpe, Victor O Oyebanji, Michael A Odeniyi, Adebayo M Salaam, Omolade A Oladele, Theophilus A Jarikre, Oluwole A Akinboade
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the interaction of bioadhesives with biologic tissues for veterinary application. Hence, this study evaluates the mucoadhesive property and vaccine delivery properties of polymers from phytogenic origin. Gums from Cedrela odorata and Khaya senegalensis were harvested, purified, dried and compressed into 500 mg tablets individually and in combined ratios. The time taken for these tablets, placed on freshly excised (5 × 5 cm) trachea and duodenal tissues of cattle, chicken, pig, sheep and goat and fastened to the basket end of a tablet dissolution machine probe set at 50 rev/min in a phosphate buffer 6...
2016: SpringerPlus
Maite Solas, Fermin I Milagro, Diego Martínez-Urbistondo, Maria J Ramirez, J Alfredo Martínez
Five pharmaceutical strategies are currently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of obesity: orlistat, lorcaserin, liraglutide, phentermine/topiramate, and bupropion/naltrexone. The most effective treatment seems to be the combined administration of phentermine/topiramate followed by lorcaserin and bupropion/naltrexone. In relation to the management of excessive weight, other aspects also need to be considered, including comorbidities accompanying obesity, drug interactions, and the risk of negative collateral effects, as well as individualized treatments based on the genetic make-up...
July 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Richa Singh, Laxman Nawale, Manisha Arkile, Sweety Wadhwani, Utkarsha Shedbalkar, Snehal Chopade, Dhiman Sarkar, Balu Ananda Chopade
PURPOSE: Multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global threat to human health. It requires immediate action to seek new antitubercular compounds and devise alternate strategies. Nanomaterials, in the present scenario, have opened new avenues in medicine, diagnosis, and therapeutics. In view of this, the current study aims to determine the efficacy of phytogenic metal nanoparticles to inhibit mycobacteria. METHODS: Silver (AgNPs), gold (AuNPs), and gold-silver bimetallic (Au-AgNPs) nanoparticles synthesized from medicinal plants, such as Barleria prionitis, Plumbago zeylanica, and Syzygium cumini, were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
M Manafi, M Hedayati, S Khalaji
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age...
September 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Ganapathi Raj Murugesan, Basharat Syed, Sudipto Haldar, Chasity Pender
[This corrects the article on p. 21 in vol. 2, PMID: 26664950.].
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Han Lin Li, Pin Yao Zhao, Yan Lei, Md Manik Hossain, Jungsun Kang, In Ho Kim
We conducted this 10-wk experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary phytoncide, Korean pine extract as phytogenic feed additive (PFA), on growth performance, blood characteristics, and meat quality in finishing pigs. A total of 160 pigs ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc, body weight (BW) = 58.2±1.0 kg) were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatments according to their BW and sex, 10 replicate pens per treatment with 4 pigs per pen were used (2 barrows and 2 gilts). Dietary treatments were: CON, control diet; PT2, CON+0...
September 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Mária Angelovičová, Simona Kunová, Jozef Čapla, Peter Zajac, Ondřej Bučko, Marek Angelovič
The purpose of this study was an experimental investigation and a statistical evaluation of the influence of various additives in feed mixtures of broiler chickens on fatty acids content and their ratio in breast and thigh muscles. First feed additive consisted of narasin, nicarbasin and salinomycin sodium, and other five additives were of phytogenic origin. In vivo experiment was realized on the poultry experimental station with deep litter breeding system. A total of 300 one-day-old hybrid chickens Cobb 500 divided into six groups were used for the experiment...
2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Ganapathi Raj Murugesan, Basharat Syed, Sudipto Haldar, Chasity Pender
[This corrects the article on p. 21 in vol. 2, PMID: 26664950.].
2015: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Ganapathi Raj Murugesan, Basharat Syed, Sudipto Haldar, Chasity Pender
The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA) are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens...
2015: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
S Mohana Devi, S I Lee, I H Kim
Phytogenic feed additives have become attractive alternatives for use in animal diets. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a phytogenic-based feed additive on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal noxious gas emission, and intestinal morphology of weaning pigs after dietary challenge with E. coli K88. A total of 120 crossbred pigs [(Yorkshire×Landrace)×Duroc)] with an initial body weight (BW) of 6.09±0.96 kg (21 d of age) were assigned randomly to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments...
2015: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Mohsen Mohammadi Gheisar, Yong Woon Im, Hae Hyoung Lee, Yang Il Choi, In Ho Kim
A total of 160 1-day-old ducklings (average initial body weight of 53 g), were used in a 42-d feeding trial to evaluate the effects of reducing nutrient density of diets, and supplementing the diets with a phytogenic blend (quillaja, anise, and thyme) on their growth, carcass quality, and nutrient digestibility. After checking body weight on d 1, the birds were sorted into pens with 5 birds/pen and 8 pens/treatment. The treatments were: T1, Basal diet; T2, T1+150 ppm phytogenic blend; T3, T1-(1% CP, 0.04% Lys, 0...
December 2015: Poultry Science
Bettina Faehnrich, Brigitte Lukas, Elke Humer, Qendrim Zebeli
Phytogenic pigments are secondary plant compounds responsible for coloring effects in plant tissues. In particular, phenolic flavonoids and terpenoid carotenoids, but also rare compounds like curcumin and betalain, form this group of biochemical agents used in animal nutrition. From the perspective of ecological mutuality between plants and animals, these compounds are of crucial importance because they serve as visual attraction for herbivores but also signal nutritional and/or health-promoting values. This review focuses on the properties of phytogenic pigments which are likely to impact feed intake and preferences of livestock...
March 30, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
S Menanteau-Ledouble, I Krauss, G Santos, S Fibi, B Weber, M El-Matbouli
In recent years, feed additives have increasingly been adopted by the aquaculture industry. These supplements not only offer an alternative to antibiotics but have also been linked to enhanced growth performance. However, the literature is still limited and provides contradictory information on their effectiveness. This is mainly due to the wide variety of available products and their complex mechanisms of action. Phytogenic feed additives have been shown to have antimicrobial effects and can improve growth performance...
June 29, 2015: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
John R Tuttle, Gyoungju Nah, Mary V Duke, Danny C Alexander, Xueying Guan, Qingxin Song, Z Jeffrey Chen, Brian E Scheffler, Candace H Haigler
BACKGROUND: The morphogenesis of single-celled cotton fiber includes extreme elongation and staged cell wall differentiation. Designing strategies for improving cotton fiber for textiles and other uses relies on uncovering the related regulatory mechanisms. In this research we compared the transcriptomes and metabolomes of two Gossypium genotypes, Gossypium barbadense cv Phytogen 800 and G. hirsutum cv Deltapine 90. When grown in parallel, the two types of fiber developed similarly except for prolonged fiber elongation in the G...
2015: BMC Genomics
V Pirgozliev, A Beccaccia, S P Rose, D Bravo
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a standardized mixture of a commercial blend of phytogenic feed additives containing 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum on utilization of dietary energy and performance in broiler chickens. Four experimental diets were offered to the birds from 7 to 21 d of age. These included 2 basal control diets based on either wheat or maize that contained 215 g CP/kg and 12.13 MJ/kg ME and another 2 diets using the basal control diets supplemented with the plant extracts combination at 100 mg/kg diet...
April 2015: Journal of Animal Science
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