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Ahmed A Saleh, Tarek A Ebeid, Alaeldein M Abudabos
This experiment was conducted to study that effect of a phytogenics (herbal mixture) supplementation as alternative to antibiotics on the growth performance and immune response in broilers. Three thousand broiler male chicks at 1 day of age were housed in floor pens and divided into five experimental groups with five replicates of 120 birds each. The first group was fed the basal diet without any additive in feed or water; the second group was fed the basal diet, and the drinking water was supplemented with mixture of antibiotics (Doxycycline 1 g/5 L + Colistine sulfate 1 g/5 L) for the first 10 days of life...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vladimir Draskovic, Jasna Bosnjak-Neumuller, Marko Vasiljevic, Branko Petrujkic, Nevenka Aleksic, Vladimir Kukolj, Zoran Stanimirovic
Lawsonia intracellularis is known to cause proliferative enteropathy (PE), one of the economically most important swine diseases with global distribution. Not unlike other enteric diseases, PE is a frequent indication for antibiotic therapy. However, their unjustified use leads to an emerging problem - antimicrobial resistance. Thus, the aim of this research was to assess if a phytogenic additive may replace antibiotics in the control of PE in 144 weaned piglets (72 treated and 72 controls) naturally infected with L...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
M Akbarian-Tefaghi, E Ghasemi, M Khorvash
This study evaluated the supplementation effects of three herbal plants (thyme [THY], eucalyptus [EUC] and celery [CEL]), a commercial phytogenic additive ‎containing essential oils (PFA-EO, Digestarom® P.E.P.) and monensin (MON) in calf starter on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites during pre- (days 3-55) and post-weaning (days 56-70). Sixty-six Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age, 41.2 ± 3 kg of BW) were allocated to one of six starters supplemented with: (i) no additives (CON), (ii) MON (30 mg/kg), (iii) THY (23 g/kg), (iv) CEL (23 g/kg), (v) EUC (23 g/kg) and (vi) PFA-EO (3 g/kg)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
V Neubauer, R Petri, E Humer, I Kröger, E Mann, N Reisinger, M Wagner, Q Zebeli
The feeding of concentrate-rich diets may lead to microbial imbalances and dysfermentation in the rumen. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing phytogenic compounds (PHY) or autolyzed yeast (AY) on rumen fermentation and microbial abundance in cows intermittently fed concentrate-rich diets. The experiment was carried out as an incomplete 3 × 4 Latin square design, with 8 nonlactating rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian cows. The cows were randomly assigned to a concentrate diet that was either not supplemented (CON), or supplemented with PHY or AY...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Chenghao Zhang, Wenqi Dong, Zong-An Huang, MyeongCheoul Cho, Qingcang Yu, Chuanyu Wu, Chenliang Yu
Auxin plays key roles in regulating plant growth and development as well as in responses to environmental stresses. The intercellular transport of auxin is mediated by four gene families, with the ATP-binding cassette family B (ABCB), the Auxin resistant1/ like (AUX1AUX/LAX) family, the pin-formed(PIN)families, and the PIN-LIKES (PILS) family. Here, the latest assembled pepper genome was used to characterise and analyse the CaLAX and CaPIN families. Genome-wide investigations into these families, including chromosomal distributions, phytogenic relationships and intron/exon structures, were performed...
January 5, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
D Dziewulska, T Stenzel, M Smialek, B Tykalowski, A Koncicki
The progressive decrease in the efficiency of synthetic drugs has prompted research into phytogenic feed additives with potentially immunomodulatory and anti-infective properties. Complex diseases with a mixed etiology, including viral, pose a growing problem in domestic pigeons. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various doses of aloe vera and licorice extracts on the course of experimental PPMV-1 infection in pigeons. The experiment was performed on pigeons divided into 5 groups, including one control group and 4 experimental groups, which were orally administered aloe vera or licorice extracts at 300 or 500 mg/kg BW for 7 d after experimental inoculation with PPMV-1...
February 1, 2018: Poultry Science
E Humer, R M Petri, J R Aschenbach, B J Bradford, G B Penner, M Tafaj, K-H Südekum, Q Zebeli
Rumen health is of vital importance in ensuring healthy and efficient dairy cattle production. Current feeding programs for cattle recommend concentrate-rich diets to meet the high nutritional needs of cows during lactation and enhance cost-efficiency. These diets, however, can impair rumen health. The term "subacute ruminal acidosis" (SARA) is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. In this review, we first describe the physiological demands of cattle for dietary physically effective fiber. We also provide background information on the importance of enhancing salivary secretions and short-chain fatty acid absorption across the stratified squamous epithelium of the rumen; thus, preventing the disruption of the ruminal acid-base balance, a process that paves the way for acidification of the rumen...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Z H Song, K Cheng, X C Zheng, H Ahmad, L L Zhang, T Wang
The gastrointestinal tract is considered as one of the main target organs affected by heat stress. Phytogenic feed additives containing phenolics and flavonoids can improve the resistance of broilers to heat stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with enzymatically treated Artemisia annua (EA) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immunity and antioxidant capacity of broilers challenged with heat stress. One hundred and forty-four 21-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into 3 treatments: 1) non-challenged control (CON); 2) heat-stress-challenged control (HS); and 3) heat-stress-challenged group + 1 g EA/kg diet (HS-EA)...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
Jun-Tae Kim, Jung-Ho Kang, Yoon-Seok Chang, Duk-Hee Lee, Sung-Deuk Choi
The serum levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in a middle-aged Korean population and investigated associations with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome (MS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and dietary habits. The median concentrations of 22 OCPs and 34 PCBs in the serum samples were 483 and 216 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The most abundant compound was p,p'-DDE, followed by PCB 153, β-HCH, PCB 118, and PCB 180. The results of multiple linear regression and other statistical analyses revealed that serum OCP and PCB levels were higher in women and were positively correlated with age...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
I Kröger, E Humer, V Neubauer, N Reisinger, S Aditya, Q Zebeli
Feeding of concentrate-rich diets impairs chewing behavior and leads to rumen acidosis in cattle. Because of their modulatory effects on ruminal fermentation, phytogenic compounds (PHY) and autolyzed yeast derivatives (AY) may alleviate the negative consequences of high-concentrate diets. Therefore, this research investigated if chewing behavior and the reticular pH dynamics are modulated by AY and PHY supplementation during repeated concentrate-rich challenges used to simulate intermittent rumen acidotic insults...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Sahil Kalia, Vijay K Bharti, Arup Giri, Bhuvnesh Kumar
Extreme climatic conditions and hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude hinders the growth and productivity of chickens. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of aqueous extract of Prunus armeniaca seeds on health, survivability, antioxidants, plasma biochemical parameters, and immune status of broiler chickens at high altitude. Phytochemical analysis of extract revealed the presence of high phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids contents. Before the in vivo study, in vitro efficacy evaluation indicated a significant protective effect of the extract in chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes...
November 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
Ali Jamshidparvar, Faramin Javandel, Alireza Seidavi, Francisco Peña Blanco, Andrés L Martínez Marín, Carmen Avilés Ramírez, Estrella Agüera Buendía, Nieves Núñez-Sánchez
Increasing levels of Heracleum persicum (golpar) in drinking water were studied in broilers. Two hundred and forty-one-day-old male chickens were allocated to one of six treatments: control, without added phytogenics nor probiotics in drinking water, and probiotics at recommended manufacturer's level (P) or 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 ml/l of golpar extract solution (G1, G1.5, G2, and G2.5 treatments, respectively) in drinking water. As a result of this study, no linear or quadratic trends in the feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR) due to golpar supplementation were found...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
M Li, Y Zhang, W Ding, J Luo, S Li, Q Zhang
This study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal activity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) extracts against carmine spider mites (Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd.) and isolate the acaricidal components. Acaricidal activities of lettuce extracts isolated from different parts (the leaf, root and seed) using various solvents (petroleum ether, acetone and methanol) were evaluated with slide-dip bioassay and relatively high median lethal concentration (LC50) values were detected. Acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July and September were fractionated and isolated with silica gel and thin-layer chromatography...
August 14, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Henry Reyer, Jürgen Zentek, Klaus Männer, Ibrahim M I Youssef, Tobias Aumiller, Julian Weghuber, Klaus Wimmers, Andreas S Mueller
Phytogenic feed additives represent a potential alternative to antibiotics with attributed health and growth-promoting effects. Chickens supplemented with an essential oil blend, a Quillaja saponin blend, or a combination of both phytogenic preparations showed a comprehensively and significantly improved apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids compared to control birds. Accordingly, holistic transcriptomic analyses of jejunum and liver samples indicated alterations of macromolecule transporters and processing pathways likely culminating in an increased uptake and metabolizing of carbohydrates and fatty acids...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
A Sedaghat, M A Karimi Torshizi
This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplemental camphor on the performance and immune functions of Japanese quail by feeding graded levels (0 (control), 250, 500, 750, 1000, 5000 or 10 000 ppm) of camphor during a 42-day feeding trial. In all, 280 1-day-old quail chicks were randomly assigned into 28 cages of 10 chicks each with separate feeders. The results clearly demonstrated that camphor did not have a significant effect on BW, BW gain, total experimental average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, internal organ relative weights and biochemical parameters such as uric acid, albumin, total protein and triglyceride; however, plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly different in a linear manner, in which 500 ppm of camphor resulted in a lower level of cholesterol...
May 23, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
U Gadde, W H Kim, S T Oh, Hyun S Lillehoj
With the increase in regulations regarding the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the rise in consumer demand for poultry products from 'Raised Without Antibiotics' or 'No Antibiotics Ever' flocks, the quest for alternative products or approaches has intensified in recent years. A great deal of research has focused on the development of antibiotic alternatives to maintain or improve poultry health and performance. This review describes the potential for the various alternatives available to increase animal productivity and help poultry perform to their genetic potential under existing commercial conditions...
June 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
Tollamadugu N V K V Prasad, Shaik Adam, Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao, Balam Ravindra Reddy, Thimmavajjula Giridhara Krishna
Advancement in materials synthesis largely depends up on their diverse applications and commercialisation. Antifungal effects of phytogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were evident, but the reports on the effects of the same on agricultural crops are scant. Herein, we report for the first time, size dependent effects of phytogenic AgNPs (synthesised using Stevia rebaudiana leaf extract) on the germination, growth and biochemical parameters of three important agricultural crops viz., rice (Oryza sativa L), maize (Zea mays L) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L)...
April 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
Rahman Gul, Syed Umer Jan, Syed Faridullah, Samiullah Sherani, Nusrat Jahan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, screening the phytogenic chemical compounds, and to assess the alkaloids present in the E. intermedia to prove its uses in Pakistani folk medicines for the treatment of asthma and bronchitis. Antioxidant activity was analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate assay. Standard methods were used for the identification of cardiac glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and alkaloids. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative purpose of ephedrine alkaloids in E...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
María E Fernandez, Marcela A Palacio, María C Labaque
To measure bioavailability of the active ingredients of phytogenic feed additives in poultry products and subproducts is a key element for developing a rational understanding of its mode of action and biological effects. Hence, we validated a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an analytical extraction procedure and as method for detection and quantitation of 2-Isopropyl-5-methylphenol (thymol) in faeces and egg yolk of quail. The suitability of this method for thymol analysis in both matrices was first proved via linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and recovery using m-cresol as internal standard...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
V O Oyebanji, B O Emikpe, A Oladele Omolade, M O Odeniyi, A Salami, O I Osowole, O B Kasali, O A Akinboade
Immune response of challenged chickens following previous vaccinations with Newcastle disease vaccine using gums from Cedrela odorata and Khaya senegalensis as delivery agent were evaluated. Two hundred and fifty-two one-day old chickens were divided into vaccine-gum oral (GVOR), vaccine-gum ocular (GVOC), vaccine oral (VOR), vaccine ocular (VOC), gum oral (GOR), gum ocular (GOC), No-gum-no-vaccine/challenged (NGNV/C), and No-gum-no-vaccine/unchallenged (NGNV/U) groups. They were vaccinated at days 21 & 42 and challenged at day 84...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
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